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And prays, that you will hie you home to dinner.
Ant. S. What, wilt thou flout me thus unto my face, Being forbid? There, take you that, sir knave. Dro. E. What mean you, sir? for God's sake, hold
your hands; Nay, an you will not, sir, I'll take my heels.
[Exit Dro. E. Ant. S. Upon my life, by some device or other, The villain is o'er-raughtof all my money. They say, this town is full of cozenage ;3 As, nimble jugglers, that deceive the eye, Dark-working sorcerers, that change the mind, Soul-killing witches, that de form the body ;*
o'er-raught — ] That is, over-reached. Johnson. So, in Hamlet :
certain players “We o'er-raught on the way.” Again, in Spenser's Fairy Queen, B. VI, c. üi:
“ Having by chance a close advantage view'd,
“He over-raught him,” &c. Steevens. They say,
this town is full of cozenage;] This was the character the ancients give of it. Hence 'Epsoid ansz. Pappard was proverbial amongst them. Thus Menander uses it, and 'E QECIA yparperecel ce, in the same sense. Warburton. 4 As nimble jugglers, that deceive the eje,
Dark-working sorcerers, that change the mind,
Soul-killing witches, that deform the body;] Those, who at. tentively consider these three lines, must confess, that the poet intended the epithet given to each of these miscreants, should declare the power by which they perform their feats, and which would therefore be a just characteristick of each of them. Thus, by nimble jugglers, we are taught, that they perform their tricks by slight of hand: and by soul-killing witches, we are informed, the mischief they do is by the assistance of the devil, to whom they have given their souls: but then, by dark-working sorcerers, we are not instructed in the means by which they perform their ends. Besides, this epithet agrees as well to witches as to them; and therefore certainly our author could not design this in their characteristick. We should read:
Drug-working sorcerers, that change the mind, and we know, by the history of ancient and modern superstition, that these kind of jugglers always pretended to work changes of the mind by these applications. Warburton.
The learned commentator has endeavoured with much earnestness to recommend his alteration; but, if I may judge of other apprehensions by my own, without great success. This inter,
Disguised cheaters, prating mountebanks,
pretation of soul-killing is forced and harsh. Sir T. Hanmer reads soul-selling, agreeable enough to the common opinion, but without such improvement as may justify the change. Perhaps the epithets have only been misplaced, and the lines should be read thus :
Soul-killing sorcerers, that change the mind,
Dark-working witches, that deform the body; This change seems to remove all dithiculties.
By sout-killing I understand destroying the rational faculties by such means as make men fancy themselves beasts. Fohnson.
Dark-working sorcerers, may only mean sorcerers who carry on their operations in the dark. Thus, says Bolingbroke, in The Second Part of King Henry VI:
wizards know their times: “ Deep night, dark night, the silent of the night," &c. Witches themselves, as well as those who employed them, were supposed to forfeit their souls by making use of a forbid. den agency. In that sense they may be said to destroy the souls of others as well as their own. Hence, Sidney, in his Astrophel and Stella:
“No witchcraft is so evill, 2s which man's minde destroyeth.". The saine compound epithet occurs in Christopher Middleton's Legend of Humphrey Duke of Glocester, 1600:
They charge ber, that she did maintaine and feede
Soul-killing witches, and convers’d with devils." The hint for this enumeration of cheats, &c. Shakspeare might have received from the old translation of the Menechmi, 1595: “ For this assure yourselfe, this towne Epidamnum is a place of outrageous expences, exceeding in all ryot and lasciviousnesse; and (I heare) as full of ribaulds, parasites, drunkards, catchpoles, cony-catchers, and sycophants, as it can hold: then for curtizans,” &c. Steevens.
liberties of sin:] Sir T. Hanmer reads-libertines, which, as the author has been enumerating not acts but persons, seems right. Fohnson.
By liberties of sin, I believe, Shakspeare means licensed offenders, such as mountebanks, fortune-tellers, &c. who cheat with impunity.
Thus, says Ascham, “I was once in Italie myself; but I thank God my abode there was but nine daies; and yet I sawe in that little tyme in one citie (Venice) more libertie to sinne, than ever I yet heard tell of in London in nine yeare.” Steevens.
ACT II.....SCENE I.
A publick Place.
Enter ADRIANA and LUCIANA:
Adr. Neither my husband, nor the slave return'd,
Luc. Perhaps, some merchant hath invited him,
Adr. Why should their liberty than ours be more?
ill.] This word, which the rhyme seems to countenance, was furnished by the editor of the second folio. The first has thus. Malone. 7 Adr. There's none, but asses, will be bridled so.
Lúc. Why, headstrong liberty is lash'd with woe.] Should it not rather be leash'd, i. e. coupled like a headstrong hound?
The high opinion I must necessarily entertain of the learned lady's judgment, who furnished this observation, has taught me to be diffident of my own, which I am now to offer.
The meaning of this passage may be, that those who refuse the bridle must bear the lash, and that woe is the punishment of headstrong liberty. It may be observed, however, that the sea. men still use lash in the same sense as leash; as does Greene, in his Mamillia, 1593: “ Thou didst counsel me to beware of love, and I was before in the lash.” Again, in George Whetstone's Castle of Delight, 1576: “ Yet both in lashe at length this Cressid leaves." Lace was the old English word for a cord, from which verhs have been derived very differently modelled by the chances of pronunciation. So, in Promos and Cassandra, 1578:
- To thee Cassandra which dost hold my freedom in a lace." When the mariner, however, lashes his guns, the sportsman leashes his dogs, the female laces her clothes, they all perform one act of fastening with a lace or cord. Of the same original is the word windlass, or more properly windlace, an engine, by which a lace or cord is wound upon a barrel.
There's nothing, situate under heaven's eye,
Adr. This servitude makes you to keep unwed.
To lace likewise signified to bestow correction with a cord, or rope's end. So, in the Second Part of Decker's Honest Whore, 1630:
the lazy lowne “Gets here hard hands, or lac'd correction." Again, in The Two Angry Wonen of Abingdon, 1599:
“So, now my back has room to reach; I do not love to be laced in, when I go to lace a rascal.” Steevens. I agree with the learned Lady who read-leash'd with woe.
M. Mason. 8 Men,-the masters &c.] The old copy has Man,—the master &c. and in the next line-Lord. Corrected by Sir T. Hanmer.
Malone. 9-start some other where?) I cannot but think, that our author wrote:
start some other hare? So, in Much Ado about Nothing, Cupid is said to be a good harefinder. Fohnson
I suspect that where has here the power of a noun. So, in King Lear:
“ Thou losest here, a better where to find.” Again, in Tho. Drant's translation of Horace's Satires, 1567:
they ranged in eatche where, “ No spousailes knowne." &c. The sense is, How, if your husband fl, off in pursuit of some other woman? The expression is used again, scene iii:
his eye doth homage otherwhere.” Again, in Romeo and Juliet, Act I: * This is not Romeo, he's some otherwhere."
Adr. Patience, unmov'd, no marvel though she pause; They can be meek, that have no other cause. A wretched soul, bruis’d with adversity, We bid be quiet, 3 when we hear it cry; But were we burden'd with like weight of pain, As much, or more, we should ourselves complain: So thou, that hast no unkind mate to grieve thee, With urging helpless patience“ would'st relieve me: But, if thou live to see like right bereft, This fool-begg'd patience in thee will be left.5
Luc. Well, I will marry one day, but to try ;-
Enter DROMIO of Ephesus.
Dro. E. Nay, he is at two hands with me, and that my two ears can witness. Adr. Say, didst thou speak with him? know'st thou
Otherwhere signifies—in other places. So, in King Henry VIII, Act II, sc. ii :
“ The king hath sent me otherwhere." Again, in Chapman's version of the second Book of Homer's Odyssey:
“For we will never go, where lies our good,
Fohnson. 2 They can be meek, that have no other cause.] That is, who have no cause to be otherwise. M. Mason. 3 A wretched soul, bruis'd with adversity,
We bid be quiet, &c.] Shakspeare has the same sentiment in Much Ado about Nothing, where Leonato says
“Can counsel, and speak comfort to that grief
“Which they themselves not feel.” And again:
'tis all men's office to speak patience “ To those that wring under the load of sorrow." Douce. 4 With urging helpless patience - ] By exhorting me to patience, which affords no help. So, in our author's Venus and Adonis : “ As those poor birds that helpless berries saw.” Malone.
fool-begg'd- She seems to mean, by fool-begg'd patience, that patience which is so near to idiotical simplicity, that your next relation would take advantage from it to represent you as a fool, and beg the guardianship of your fortune. Johnson.