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CONTRIBUTIONS TO OUR KNOWLEDGE OF TAE LIFE-HISTORY OF ANY PLANT OR ANI. MAL.
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homing instinct, I think that we may take it for granted that animals and birds have this sense of direction, for ex
amples similar to those given above might be given by the IS THERE A SENSE OF DIRECTION ?
score. It might be supposed that this instinct had formerly
existed in man, but had been lost during his progress toward BY J. N. HALL, M.D.
his present state of civilization. Writers speak of the “ unALTHOUGH it seems to me beyond dispute that among the erring instinct " which guides the red man through the vast lower animals there is an instinct which teaches them to stretches of pathless forest in which he resides. But we are find their way to a given point regardless of darkness or of also told of the accuracy of observation of the individuals of previous knowledge of the locality, I do not believe, as I this sarne race. The Indian is familiar with the path of the formerly did, that man possesses a similar sense, if we may sun and the position of the heavenly bodies. He observes so term it. I believe that man's ability to find his way to a every thing within his horizon, the mountain ranges, promigiven point is dependent solely upon a habit of observation, nent peaks, and passes; he notes every stream, its size, almost unconscious, to be sure, in many cases, but neces- character, and general course; be sees all the prominent obsary to the end in view. I shall not discuss the truth or jects along his trail. If the sun is obscured, and he is temfalsity of the ingenious theory advanced a few years ago, porarily lost, he accomplishes his orientation by observing that the pineal gland in the brain is the seat of such a sense the rougher bark on the north side of some varieties of forin animals, and that they find their way by means of some est trees; or he finds the wild morning-glory facing eastward perception by this portion of the brain of the direction of at day-break, for the faithful Moslem is not more certain to terrestrial electric currents. All reasonable men, I believe, look toward the rising sun. He no doubt observes, also, are satisfied that animals have this ability to find their way. that the warping action of the sun's rays detaches the bark Thus, most of us are familiar with instances in which a cat, sooner from the south side of the standing dead timber than for example, has been taken in a box or satchel for ten, from the other sides. These and a hundred similar signs twenty, or even fifty miles from home, and has returned in are to be read by the student of nature. Such a student, such an incredibly short time that we may be certain she most emphatically, is the Indian. I have had occasion to has travelled by the most direct route. Carrier pigeons note his wonderful powers of observation, and those more transported in closed cars or in ships have no difficulty in familiar with his habits than I am, inform me that only determining their direction of flight, even when liberated after years of experience, if at all, does the white man acout of sight of land. I have repeatedly, when in doubt as quire his proficiency in this direction. We are told by travto my direction upon a prairie without roads or paths, given ellers that it is much the same with other primitive races, my pony his reins, as riders commonly do in such circum- the necessary qualities being intensified by inheritance stances, and never yet knew one to come out at the wrong through long generations of nomadic ancestors. But as we place. The cowboys of this region make it a rule to pick have advanced in civilization, and sigo-posts have taken the for night-herding well-broken horses that are known to be place of the signs which the Indian reads, we have retroanxious to reach camp when given the reins. Such ponies, graded in these matters until the civilized man, despite his even if obliged to follow the herd away from camp for sev- knowledge, is lost more easily than his barbaric ancestors, eral miles, will find their way back in safety in spite of the unless he takes especial precautions to note those things which darkness. This selection of certain horses for night-work they observed without effort. does not in the least vitiate our conclusion. They are not It seems to me that our proposition, viz., that we keep our chosen for their power of finding their way back, but for direction by observation, conscious or unconscious, of surtheir known inclination to do so. Even these horses some. rounding objects, will be established if we are able to prove times fail, as, for instance, in the face of a severe storm, for these three things: they drift with the wind at such times rather than face First, that those lacking in the power of observation are it. Thus I once started for home at midnight from a ranch most easily lost. four miles away. For the first mile my road led westward Second, that those in whom this faculty is well developed to a road that ran in a northerly direction to town. Upon are rarely lost. this first portion, with nothing to guide him, for it was dark Third, that the latter are easily lost when they lose sight and the ground was covered with new fallen snow, the of all external objects, as in fog or darkness, or when their horse found his way easily. As I struck the road and attention is concentrated upon something else to such an exturned his face fairly to the storm, he would hardly face it. tent that they do not observe their surroundings. As the thermometer fell to 27 below zero that night, and the I trust that my term power of observation ” is plain to wind was strong, it was not strange. In this case the pain all. In this connection I mean that faculty which enables in his eyes from the cold and the driving snow more than one to note surrounding objects, and to bear in mind their counterbalanced his desire to get to his stable, and so he relations to each other and to himself. I take it that the preferred to drift with the storm rather than face it.
power which enables one to look at a landscape and say
that As I cannot conceive that a horse or pigeon should guide it is familiar is the same as that which permits some of us himself by the position of the sun or of the north star, even to look at a word and determine whether or not it is spelled if we eliminate from the problem the well-known fact that correctly; for I have long believed that notoriously poor darkness seems to make no difference in the exercise of this
spellers were such, not from poor memories necessarily, but
from lack of the faculty in question. Thus I have a friend districts, both night and day. Realizing the possibility of
. with whom I have hunted on several vacation trips to the getting caught in a snowstorm, I have made it a rule to Rocky Mountains. He has an excellent education and a carry a pocket compass as well as a waterproof match-safe memory far better than the average, but is utterly unable to at all times. For eight years I never had occasion to use spell. He is the only man with whom I ever hunted who the compass to learn my position, and I almost believed I was afraid to hunt alone in a strange country for fear of get- was infallible so far as the question of getting lost, in dayting lost. I have often been struck, in other matters, with light at least, was concerned. But the undeceiving came, his same deficiency in this direction. Thus, when we hunt and it was that which led me to this study of the subject. together, he scarcely ever sees the game first, although when One fine September day I started out from camp on a deerdiscovered at a distance, he is immeasurably my superior in hunt. We were in the part of Wyoming between the headdetermining what class of game it is, if so far off as to ren- waters of Savory and Jack Creeks, about two miles from der this a matter of doubt.
that portion of the Continental Divide which lies between This example I may count as the first point in establishing I
them. our first proposition. Next to observers poor by nature, we Within half a mile of camp I struck a deer trail and folmight place those who lack experience, as those who have lowed it. I pursued it for two or three miles, mostly always dwelt in cities. Of course the great majority of through heavy timber, without seeing any signs of game, these acquire proficiency by practice. Short-sighted persons although momentarily expecting to do so. When I finally who do not correct their myopia by the use of glasses come stopped for a moment, it had begun to rain, and the dense under the same head, for, being unable to observe their sur- clouds shut in every billtop. I could see nothing to indiroundings, they are very prone to become lost. Fortunately cate the position of the sun, and there was not a breath of this disease is comparatively rare in primitive races, natural wind. The rain increasing, I decided to start for home, salection, no doubt, contributing to render it so, for it is and, turning farther to the right, followed, as I supposed, a vastly more common in civilization.
tributary of Jack Creek down into the valley. What was Among the female inhabitants of towns and cities the my consternation to find that the creek into which it led faculty in question has had no opportunity for development flowed to the right instead of to the left as Jack Creek for many generations, perhaps. They ordinarily have a very should do! Every thing was unfamiliar. I had crossed no poor “sense of direction.” I have yet to see a woman from ridge, to my knowledge, high enough for the Divide; I was civilized life who could be trusted to point out the way dumbfounded. I knew, however, that I was upon the wesacross a pathless region of any considerable extent.
terly side of Jack Creek, for I had crossed no stream of any Second, good observers do not readily lose their way. My description. In two hours I could not possibly have walked experience in this regard has been largely with two classes far enough up or down to cause me to miss it if I adopted of men, hunters and cowboys. Men of either of these classes, an easterly course. The difficulty was in the fact that I had to be even moderately successful, must be the closest of ob- supposed that I had been following such a course in arriving
The appearance of a man or an animal anywhere at my present position. · As the mist and rain now shut in within the circle of vision is ordinarily noted at once. The every thing, I had nothing to do but to complete my humiliahabit of seeing what lies before one, a thing not given to us tion by a forced resort to the compass, for I had to admit for all, is formed. With men who travel much alone, the ex- the first time that I was lost. At first sight I was tempted ercise of this faculty fills the gap left by the lack of oppor- to believe that the needle was wrong, as I am told all men tunity for conversation. It gives the mind a certain amount in similar position are. I carried the compass to some disof exercise. The Mexican sheep-herder who is alone on his tance from my rifle, fearing that the needle was deflected range will tell you, a week after, who has passed by, what by the metallic barrel. The result was the same. Fearing kind of a horse he rode, whether a colt followed a certain that I had found a body of iron ore by accident, I tried vawagon the trail of which he has seen, and other details that rious localities, but the needle still persisted in pointing, as surprise one pot accustomed to such matters. The cowboy it seemed to me, south. After a few moments' considerawho rides a hundred miles across country will tell you the tion I started over a ridge a little to the right of the way I brand of every stray steer he has seen. These men, realiz- had come, and due east by compass.
I still felt that I was ing that they are dependent upon their own exertions for going west, and could not get over the idea. A tramp of safety, unconsciously develop those faculties of service to half an hour brought me within sight of the valley I sought, them. Other men, placed in similar positions, develop in and north seemed to come around where it should have been the same manner, as trappers, explorers, and scouts. Think, all the time. I had unconsciously crossed the Divide at its for instance, what chance there would be of a trapper's get- lowest point, far lower than the one at which I now crossed, ting lost when he is able to place fifty traps in a new region evidently having made an entire turn when starting homeand find them all without effort. Here his memory is, of ward instead of a half one as I had intended.
I now course, of as much importance to bim as his close attention made a bee-line for camp, but I carried home with me less to his surroundings.
faith in my “sense of direction” than I had upon starting Our tbird proposition is, that even those who are ordi- out. narily entirely competent to find their way get lost easily in I might quote from the experience of others a dozen simidarkness, fog, or snowstorms, and especially if interested in lar examples of losing one's way. Some seven or eight men something which thoroughly occupies the mind. This I have been more or less severely frozen in this very county, believe to be utterly inconsistent with the theory of a proper by losing their correct route. I believe that further exam
sense of direction." Examples are, no doubt, familiar to ples are unnecessary. It is sufficient for me to say, in conall, but I will quote one from my own experience, which to clusion, that, whatever instincts man may have bad ip a me is conclusive. I have for years been in the habit of former state, he has at present no means of finding his way hunting alone in my vacation trips, upon the plains as well at all resembling that possessed by birds and animals. as in the mountains, and have travelled much in unsettled
CURRENT NOTES ON ANTHROPOLOGY. - XIII. epoch, and lived during the age of bronze side by side with (Edited by D. G. Brinton, M.D., LL.D.)
those who later bore the name of Gauls. . . . For Broca, The Primitive Carib Tongue.
the term Celt designated the brachycephalic group of western
Europe, and the term Kymri the blond group, with long and The expedition led by Dr. Karl von den Steinen, which
narrow face, etc. We retain the meaning he gives to Celtic, explored the head-waters of the Schingu River in Brazil,
but to meet certain objections substitute for the word Kymri made some remarkable discoveries. Tribes were found who
that of Gall or Gaulois." had never heard of a white man, and were utterly ignorant
As the opinion of Broca to this effect was quoted with apof his inventions. They were still wholly in the stone age,
proval in the discussion (see Science, April 22), it is diffiuncontaminated — the word is not misapplied — by any
cult to perceive the grounds on which the learned Parisian breath of civilization. In ethnography, the most interesting professor makes his objections. But it is desirable that his find was the identification of the Bacahiris with the Carib
own views, which are always worthy attentive consideration, stem, and apparently its recognition as perhaps the nearest should be presented. of any of the Carib tribes to the original stock.
Architecture as an Ethnic Trait. Dr. von den Steinen bas just issued bis linguistic material obtained from this tribe in a neat octavo of 403 pages, “Die
The significance of architecture as an ethnic trait has Bakairi-Sprache” (K. F. Koebler, Leipzig, 1892). It contains been fully recognized too fully at times — in reference to abundant sources for the study of the group, vocabularies,
the domestic architecture of the American Indians. The texts, narratives, grammatical observations, and, what is views of Mr. Lewis A. Morgan, wbo could see nowhere on peculiarly valuable, a close study of the phonetic variations the continent other than “long houses” and communal of the various Carib dialects as far as they have been ascer
dwellings,"contained a genuine discovery which has been tained. He shows that in all the associated idioms the same
pushed at times beyond its reasonable limits. laws of verbal modification hold good, although each has
Some excellent articles on this subject have appeared from developed under its own peculiar influences. The thorough
The thorough- time to time from the pen of Mr. Barr Ferree, in the Ameri. ness which marks throughout this excellent study places it can Naturalist and the American Anthropologist. He in the front rank of contributions to the growing science of
treats such subjects as “The Sociological Influences of American linguistics.
Primitive Architecture," and the climatic influences which
have given rise to this or that peculiarity or style. His esThe Ethnic Distribution of Roofing Tiles.
says are thoughtful and well reasoned. As a floating leaf will indicate the current and eddies of a In the first fascicule of the Bibliothéque Internationale de stream better than a floating log, so oftentimes a humble art l'Alliance Scientifique, M. César Daly pursues this train of will be a more accurate indication of the drift of civilization
thought to the point of announcing - "given a social condithan the more ostentatious products of human ingenuity. tion, it will have such a religion and such an architecture.” This has been happily illustrated by Professor Edward S. In regard to “styles,” he discriminates between that of the Morse in a paper “On the Older Forms of Terra-Cotta Roof- architect, which is transient, and that demanded by the ing Tiles,” published in the Essex Institute Bulletin for tastes and requirements of the community, which depends on March of this year.
it alone and will last as long as these remain. A style in He finds that the older roofing tiles of the world group architecture is therefore something national, social, and rethemselves into three distinct types, the normal or Asiatic ligious, and not royal, as that of Louis XIV., nor that of an tile, the pan or Belgic tile, which is an outgrowth of the artist, had he all the genius in the world.” normal tile, and the flat or Germanic tile, which is an inde
Types of Beauty among American Indians. pendent form. The geographic areas in which these various tiles are found and the history of their distribution are re
In a note published in this series (Science, June 3), attenliable indications of the conquest or peaceable advance of
tion was directed to the power of beauty in developing the certain forms of civilization. Professor Morse's paper is
race toward a certain standard of physical perfection. Some abundantly illustrated, and an interesting map is added, interesting facts bearing directly on this topic are presented showing the present distribution of the three types of tiles
by Dr. R. W. Shufeldt in a recent pamphlet on “Indian over Europe, portbern Africa, and western Asia.
Types of Beauty.” That his study may not remain one of archæology only,
He begins with the suggestive remark that men of the the author adds a number of practical hints on the use and
lower type of development cannot perceive the beauty in value of terra cotta tiles as roofing material, and suggests
the women of the higher type nearly so readily as the men tbeir wider introduction in the United States. They offer of the higher type can recognize the comeliness in the the best of all roofing material, durable, fire-proof, cheap,
women of the lower. This is as we might expect, the edudecorative, warm in winter, and cool in summer.
cation in the elements of the beautiful being principally a
result of development. Celts and Kymri.
Dr. Shufeldt inserts a number of photographs of Indian Professor Topinard is not satisfied with the result of the beauties, an inspection of which will satisfy any one that discussion of the Celts in Science, March 11, 25, etc. He the opinion which in their own tribe awards them the palm takes it up in L'Anthropologie for June, and draws a dis- for good-looks is justified by all standards. The same fact tinction between the Celts of the “men of letters,” among is borne out by Mr. Power in his work on the Indians of whom he classes the editor of these “Notes," and the anthro- California. He calls attention to the attractive appearance pologists, represented — by himself.
of the maidens of several tribes reputed among their own “For the former," he says, “the Celts are blonds, they people as beauties. constructed the megalithic monuments, and spoke a language While in all stages of civilization there are false and abnow unknown. For the latter they are the brachycephalic normal standards of the beautiful — notably so among ourpeople of western Europe, who appeared at the neolithic selves — there is also a gradual and certain tendency toward
BY LUCIEN M. UNDERWOOD,
that ideal of physical form which the keen artistic sense of tion of protoplasm, the announcement of its identity with the ancient Greeks recognized as the perfection of corporeal sarcode, the discovery of fertilization by antherozoids, the symmetry. Wherever it is present in any degree, it is sure continuity of protoplasm, and every other important addi. to be recognized. As Novalis says in one of his apothegms, tion to a knowledge of the plant world. In the same way “ Beauty alone is visible."
the recognition of a natural group of plants, an order, a
genus, or even a species is now regarded as of sufficient imSOME POINTS IN THE NOMENCLATURE-PRIORITY portance to be credited to the one who makes the discovery,
not by any means on the ground of expediency (though it QUESTION
is doubtless in the highest degree expedient), but because of
an innate feeling of justice due him who thus publishes the THERE are some of our younger botanists who see no pos
result of his work. sible merit in the nomenclature-priority discussion. That It is true that favored students or organizations may, for this is the case is naturally due to the fact that neither their a time, regard themselves as the only rightly-appointed age por training have been sufficient to enable them to ob- medium of description of species, but the multiplication of tain a general view of botany as a science in which the re- botanical centres, the specialization of workers, and the lations of plants to each other and to other living things growing urbanity and cordiality in extending to specialists form the crowning summit of achievement.
When we say
the privileges of public and private collections will all tend relations, we mean the word in its deepest and widest sense to prevent the growth of monopolies in a field which is not - morphologic, embryologic, physiologic, geographic, and likely to become narrow enough for any to jostle offenchronologic.
sively. To those whose work involves the weighing, sifting, and As a worker in one group of plants we present some quescorrelating of all the truth concerning some group of plants
tions that have suggested themselves in our work, drawing that has been found out by patient workers in times past illustrations largely from the genera and species with which and present, as well as that brought to light in their own we are most interested, seeking not so much to offer dog. comparative research, the necessity of some uniform, au- matic principles as to call to mind the feature of personal thoritative, and permanent system of nomenclature needs justice. no argument. If some have acute inflammation of the mor- 1. Shall there be an initial date in nomenclature ? phologic nerve so that their attention is largely drawn away What justice on the one hand, or advantage on the other, from the general wants of the system to the nursing of their is there in accepting those of Micheli's genera that were peculiar member, they are worthy of our sympathy, but adopted by Linnæus, and rejecting others equally valid that they must reduce their hypertropy before they can expect were not ? What virtue did the great compiler add to an the botanical world to regard their judgment as normal out- adopted name that should render it either sacred or immorside their special sphere,
tal ? We bave Anthoceros and Sphaerocarpus, Blasia, While we thoroughly believe in Goethe's assertion that Riccia, and Lunularia, all established by Micheli in 1729, and “species are the creation of text-books while Nature kpows all accepted to-day without question, forsooth, because they only individuals," we have not yet advanced sufficiently far have received the stamp of the immortal Linnæus, who could to be able to discontinue the present method of grouping in- scarcely distinguish a hepatic from other Bryophytes. And dividuals into species and recognizing them by certain fixed yet Micheli, the founder of generic distinctions among Crypto
This is a matter of convenience, and it is a present gams, who knew and studied plants, adopted other generic logical necessity. We believe, therefore, that the matter of names at the same time; these the great Linnæus did not nomenclature ought to be settled at once and permanently, accept because he could not get down to the study of plants and this we believe to be the opinion of all who look at sys- and learn to distinguish genera among hepatics and other tematic botany, not as a mere “battle of synonyms,” but in Cryptogams. Are we of this age so blinded that we must its true position, representing as it does the ultimatum fall down and worship this popularizer of botany and accept toward which every fact in the science tends, and into which his dictum as against that of a man whose shrewdness enthe whole science will be ultimately crystallized. So far is abled him thus early to discriminate genera among Cryptothis desirable that if a system can be agreed upon, it must
gams ? and ought to be by the yielding of personal opinions to the But we must have a starting-point, some say. Why not will of the best and maturest judgment of the botanical then commence genera with the men who first originated world.
them? Let us not award merit where merit is not due. One phase of the question has not yet been sufficiently Let us not assume for Linnæus a virtue that he did not dwelt upon, and that is the one which involves the element possess. Micheli, Ruppius, and Dillenius were the originaof personal justice. There are some who say that there is tors of genera among hepatics. Why not recognize their no ethical side to the question, that it is a mere matter of genera that represent natural groups ? If others are the expediency. If justice pertains to ethics then there is an progenitors of genera in other groups of plants, there is no ethical element in the problem. It has always been main- reason why their work should not also stand, provided their tained that a man has the right to the product of his brain. names were not already preoccupied. If he invents a new mechanical contrivance he is awarded a 2. Shall names long used be laid aside when claimed for patent. If he writes a book he is given a copyright. If he other plants on grounds of strict priority ? Shall we recogdiscovers a new principle or process in the natural world nize the principle of outlaw in nomenclature ? his name is inseparably connected with that principle. For example, Marsilea (Micheli, 1729) is a hepatic which Otherwise why do we speak of the Bell telephone, of Marsh's since Raddi's time (1818) has been known as Pellia. Martest for arsenic, or of Newton's law of gravitation? The silea Linn. has since its establishment been used for a genus same is true of discoveries in botanical science, for we in- of quadrifoliate Pteridophytes. Shall the latter stand in the separably connect certain names with the earliest recogni- face of evident priority? While a compromise of this kind,