« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
A half-dozen, or dozen, males chase down a female, roll her in the dust or mud, as the case may be, and, despite the frantic fighting back, pull her tail, peck her wings, pinch her with their claws, and when the tormenters are tired out, and she panting with exhaustion, the whole party adjourn to a convenient heap of dung, and, in less time than it is spoken, the joke seemis forgotten.
They drive away birds larger and more courageous than themselves, if they are perching birds, by following at their heels, and doubtless also making uncomplimentary remarks. Watch the arrival of the first robin, and see the three or four hoodlums follow him from tree to tree for the first week after his coming. Not one dares touch bim, but they make his life miserable.
The song sparrow, though he will vanquish the Englishman every time, soon tires of being tagged from bush to tree, and leaves in disgust. The same is true of the catbird, and to some extent of the oriole, which is also less common by half. I have seen them pull a “chippy's” nest to pieces during the owner's absence out of pure mischief, and I presume they do the same to the nests of other birds.
It is difficult to see what there is to recommend the little villain, and the man who introduced bim should be classed with the man who introduced rabbits into Australia.
Fort Edward, Aug. 22.
significant, and may profitably be given wider prominence. As they are not generally known, they are given for the purpose of their receiving the attention that they seem to deserve.
In the volume of the Naturalist's Library, entitled “The Horse,” by Major Hamilton-Smith, published in London in 1841, appears the following: “Several recent travellers in the northern portion of that continent (America) question the race of horses now so abundant being imported subsequent to the discovery by Colum bus” (p. 147).
In “ The History and Delineation of the Horse,” by the noted authority, John Lawrence, published in London, 1809, the following sentence occurs: “ The non-existence of the horse in America, previous to its discovery by Europeans, has, however, been disputed; but I recollect not by whom, or upon what ground” (p. 7).
ROBT. C. AULD.
Some Notes on The Rochester Meeting.
Celestial Photomicrography. STELLAR photography has advanced enough to justify the hope that, by the next opposition of Mars, some means of scrutinizing his landscape more closely may be found. If microphotography and its associated science, photomicrography, are pushed on parallel lines with stellar photography by co-operating specialists who can appreciate the requirements in both fields, something valuable may result.
The possibility of an Atlantic cable was laughed at by good electricians, and astronomers despair of overcoming the difficulties presented by diffraction, irradiation, chromatic and atmospheric blurrings, and light absorption; but these matters have been conquered in many respects in telescopy and general photography.
Materials that will afford the densest homogeneity of surface should be sought for, upon which the photographs can be taken, to be later scrutinized with microscopic lenses. It may be possi. ble to arrange a battery of microscopes to take enlarged cameralucida photographs, which in turn may be enlarged by “solar prints;" and if surfaces can be invented or discovered smooth and continuous enough to admit of these successive enlargements without breaking up the details, we may possibly capture the Martial men in the act of filling Schiaparelli's canals, and otherwise observe what their estimated five million years of seniority over us affords them.
S. V. CLEVENGER. Chicago, Aug. 21.
WHERE did the scientists come from? The first four hundred names on the register show their geographical distribution as follows, by States : New York, 119; Washington, D.C., 44; Ohio, 35; Pennsylvania, 24; Massachusetts, 22; Indiana, 19; Illinois, 18; Canada, 17; Connecticut, 13; Michigan, 11; Wisconsin, 10; Iowa, 10; New Jersey, 9; Missouri, 7; Maryland, 4; Kentucky, 4; Tennessee, 4; Alabama, 4; Maine, 3; Vermont, 3; California, 3; New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Minnesota, Georgia, and Florida, each 2; Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, each 1.
More than one-fourth of the whole number came from New York State. Of the 119 from the State, 32 were from New York City and Brooklyn, 24 from Rochester, and 18 from Ithaca. Washington, D.C., furnished 44, the largest number from any one city. The whole of New England sent only 45, although it has until recently been considered the scientific headquarters of the country, and is more thickly dotted with colleges than any other section. Cornell University was more largely represented than any other University, while Princeton was not represented at all; the New Jersey delegation coming ehiefly from Rutgers and Stevens. The central western States showed up bandsomely, and twelve southern States sent from one to four men each; while from the States and Territories west of the Missouri River there was no representation at all, except three from California.
Geographically, therefore, the scientists who attended the meeting are not evenly distributed. New York State sent far more than its quota, even after deducting the attendance from Rochester, the place of meeting. In proportion to its population, Ohio sent twice as many as Pennsylvania, although its average distance from Rochester is greater.
The programme for the third day of the meeting (Friday) contained a list of 146 members that had been elected since the Washington meeting, with symbols expressing their affiliations with the different sections. The majority of these new members specified their intention of joining one section only, but many named two sections, and some tbree. Twelve members did not specify any section. The following shows the apportionment of these new members among the sections : Section A, Mathematics and Astronomy,
14 B, Physics,
21 I, Economic Science and Statistics, 23
As to the “Extinction" of the American Horse.
IN 1881, in the Kansas City Review, E. L. Berthoud pointed out the fact that, in maps drawn up by Sebastian Cabot (who went in 1527 to the east coast of South America) to show his discoveries, at the head of La Plata, with figures of other animals he gives that of tbe horse.
This fact, as thus put on such indubitable record, is accepted by scientists, including Heilprin, Wilckins, and Flower. The latter, in his manualon - The Horse "(1891), says: “ The usual statement as to the complete extinction of the horse in America is thus qualified, as there is a possibility of the animals having still ex. isted, in a wild state, in some parts of the continent remote from that which was first visited by the Spaniards, where they were certainly unknown. It has been suggested that the horses which were found by Cabot in La Plata in 1530 cannot have been introduced.”
The above is surely of great interest, and is worthy of repetition. The writer has come across two statements, which, taken in connection with the above, appear to be even more important and
Totals, including duplications,
162 The several branches of science are therefore far from being equally represented in the new membership. The branch of mechanical and engineering science, which in the country at large is developing by leaps and bounds, sends to the association only onefourth as many members as chemistry and one-eighth as many as biology. The latter sends more new members than the three ap
plied sciences, chemistry, physics, and mechanical science, put together. Geology, geography, biology, and anthropology furnish more than half of all the new members.
In the reading of papers before the sections, the same want of proportion was shown. Section F, biology, held sessions on both Thursday and Friday, morning and afternoon; and 32 papers were listed for those two days. Section 1, economic science and statistics, held a session on Thursday afternoon only, and none on Friday, and only 4 papers were listed, and of these the only paper that was statistical was a five minute paper on Statistics of the Salvation Army! The Section of Biology, in fact, is so overcrowded with papers and discussions that it was decided to split it into two sections, F, Zoology, and G, Botany; while a proposition was made, although not entertained, to consolidate sections D and I into one section.
At the recent meeting of the British Association, it is reported that there were 2,500 members in attendance. At the Rocbester meeting there were less than 500.
From the above facts, it appears that the American Association is not a fairly representative body of American scientific men. In it the physical sciences are dwarfed by the natural sciences. The reason for this is undoubtedly because the applied scientists, and especially those in the department of mechanical science, have so many societies of their own that they are diverted from and lose their interest in the American Association. In engineering there are four large national societies, the civil, the mechanical, the mining, and the electrical, besides numerous local societies, aggregating a membership of probably 5,000 persons, not counting duplications of those who belong to two or more societies. The small attendance at the section of economic science is probably due to the superior attractions offered by the American Social Science Association. The recent reorganization of the American Chemical Society with its branches will be very apt to diminish the interest of chemists in section C.
These facts are worthy of consideration by those interested in the future of the Association.
WILLIAM KENT. New York, Aug. 29.
the language of the several countries, and for home use the Anglicised forms. About 2.000 names have already been passed upon, of which a list is printed as an appendix to the report. Another appendix presents a list of all the counties in the United States.
It is easy to see that this Board is doing great service for the improvement of geographic nomenclature. Unfortunately, it cannot have power to compel the adoption of the sensible names proposed for the new States recently added to our galaxy and rejected by Congress, nor can it persuade people to use good sense after controversies have been inaugurated. The world is, however, improving, and the very objectionable names are every. wbere ridiculed. The Naturalist in La Plata. By W. H. HUDSON. London,
Chapman & Hall. Ill. The universal interest now taken by all classes in scientific matters has of late years given rise to a new class of books of travel. The celebrated “Voyage of a Naturalist," by Darwin, or perhaps more properly the “Wanderings in South America,” by Waterton, formed the starting point for a series which includes such books as « Travels in Peru," by von Tschudi; “ Travels on the Amazon" and "6 Malay Archipelago,” by Wallace; “Naturalist on the Amazons,” by Bates; “ Naturalist in Nicaragua," by Belt; “ Two Years in the Jungle," by Hornaday; “Life in the East Indies,” by Forbes, and many others of similar title and character. The existence and popularity of these books is evidence of the interest they have excited in the public mind; anů in view of the good influence they exert there cannot be too many of them. The - Natural History of Selborne," although limited in its scope to a single parish in England, is an example of the multitude of objects which can be made interesting to all classes of readers, and it is perhaps not too much to say that there is scarcely a section of our own country about which an equally interesting book could not be written. The fact is that the objects to be studied in nature are inexhaustible. They exist in earth, in sky; in air, in water; in lane, in tree, in barren plain. Everywhere in fact that one can turn, facts of the profoundest interest are to be observed.
The ordinary globe-trotter has left few places unexplored as far as his foot alone is concerned. He has penetrated to the wilds of tropical Africa, and has left his traces amid the snow and ice of the Arctic regions; he has suffered from hunger and thirst in the deserts of Australia, and has been shipwrecked in the vast Pacific; he has explored the spowy heights of the Himalayas and the Andes, and penetrated the humid jungles of India; he has braved the sands of the desert of Gobi and the terrible glare of the Sahara. The globe-trotter used to write books describing his travels; but, alas, too frequently his eyes saw no further than bis feet. He chronicled his daily aches and ills, his breakfast and supper, and mentioned the rivers he crossed or the mountains be
The day for such books bas passed; and a man who would be listened to now must have more to tell of than how be cooked bis dinner, of how many miles he sailed or walked or rode. The modern traveller must, therefore, be versed in some branch of science. He must know men, or birds, or beasts, or plants. His volume, too, must be something more than a mere itinerary; and the more closely he studies the workings of nature in her secluded haunts the wider the circle of his readers and the greater the value of bis book.
Of such books as those we have mentioned above there cannot be too many. It is, therefore, with a feeling of pleasure that we welcome a late comer to the ranks, “ The Naturalist in La Plata." The author is a native of the country whose phases of life he chronicles. He is an enthusiast, a lover of beasts and birds, and he makes his reader love with him. The book is filled with interesting matter, and in this notice we will mention some of the many tidbits which are offered.
One of the most interesting subjects touched upon, all too briefly be it said, is that wonderful instinct of bird migration. It seems incredible that out of twenty-five species of aquatic birds, thirteen are visitors from North America, several of them breeding in the Arctic regions and crossing the whole tropical zone to winter, or rather to summer, on the pampa. In September and even in August they begin to appear on the pampa - plover, tatler, god
Report of the United States Board on Geographic Names. Ex.
Doc. No. 16, House of Representatives, 52d Congress. Wash
ington, Government. THE necessity of bringing about a uniform usage and spelling of geographic names throughout the executive departments of the government has led to the creation of a board representing the Departments of State, War, Treasury, Navy, and Post Office, the Coast and Geodetic Survey, the Geological Survey, and the Smithsonian Institution, who serve without pay and can officially say in many cases what names shall be used. Names in our country have not been bestowed by any formal authority, except the more important ones of States, counties, and municipalities. The early explorers would employ aboriginal designations or others of little import; their successors often proposed others; a mountain range would receive different names from different sides of approach. Post-offices and railroad stations may not conform to the local names of the enclosing townships, or else very familiar terms have been excessively multiplied. The modes of spelling vary from time to time. To meet the various necessities, the Board adopted the following rules in case the local usage is divided: 1, Avoidance of the possessive form of names; 2, the dropping of the final “b” in the termination “ burgh;" 3, the abbreviation of “borough ” is “ boro;" 4, the Websterian spelling of “center;" 5, the discontinuance of hyphens in connecting parts of names; 6, the omission, whenever practicable, of the letters “C. H.” (court house) after the names of county seats; 7, the simplification of names consisting of more than one word by their combination into one word; 8, the avoidance of the use of diacritic characters; 9, the dropping of the words “ city” and “town " as parts of names.
As to the employment of foreign words, the Board recommend that our charts for the use of the navy adopt the local names in
wit, curlew, “piping the wild notes, to which the Greenlander and withered leaf. Some of the spiders are very large and will listened in June, now to the gaucho herdsman on the green chase a man from thirty to forty yards, keeping pace with a slowplains of La Plata, then to the wild Indian in his remote village, trotting horse. An instance is related where one ran up the lash and soon, further south, to the houseless huanaco-hunter in the of the author's riding-whip to within three or four inches of his gray wilderness of Patagonia.” Of the godwit - Limosa hudsonica hand, and would have bitten him had he not thrown the whip
- some go north in March to breed; while later in tbe season away. Some rather fanciful speculations are indulged in when (May) others come from the south to winter on the pampas. The considering how a man-like monkey would act were he to have a north-flying birds travel thousands of miles to the hundreds cord permanently attached to his waist, as the spider may be contraversed by those from the south. It is considered probable that sidered to have bis web-making material. these last have their breeding-places on the as yet undiscovered In an interesting chapter on music and dancing in nature, acAntarctic continent, which they have left, after breeding, in time counts are given of the habit as indulged in by many kinds of to winter on the pampas.
birds. Not the least strange of these is that of the spur-winged Another interesting chapter is that upon the Puma. Numerous lapwing. These birds live in pairs, each pair jealously guarding facts are given to show that this animal, contrary to the habits its own chosen ground. But frequently one of a pair will fly of all the otber wild Felidæ, is a friend of man, not only refrain- off to visit a neighboring couple, leaving its mate to guard the ing from attacking him, but actually protecting bim from the ground. The visitor is graciously received, and the performance attacks of other animals, like the jaguar for example. One in- gone through with is described as follows: “Advancing to the stance of this must suffice. During the course of an extended visitor they place themselves behind it; then all three, keeping hunt one of the men fell from his horse, and in falling broke his step, begin a rapid march, uttering resonant drumming notes in leg. His companions did not notice his loss until evening, and time with their movements; the notes of the pair behind being the next morning he was found where he had fallen. He related emitted in a stream like a drum-roll, while the leader utters long that while lying there a puma had prowled about the vicinity but single notes at regular intervals. The march ceases; the leader did not attempt to harm him. About midnight he heard the roar elevates his wings and stands erect and motionless, still uttering of a jaguar, and between that time and morning he several times loud notes; while the other two, with puffed-out plumage and saw the two animals engaged in fierce fights, the puma preventing standing exactly abreast, stoop forward and downward until the the jaguar from attacking the prostrate and helpless man.
tips of their beaks touch the ground, and, sinking their rhythmical In discussing the question of fear in birds, Mr. Hudson discards voices to a murmur, remain for some time in this posture. The the idea that it is only found in those which have been persecuted performance is then over, and the visitor goes back to his own by man, and advances the theory that the older birds teach the ground and mate to receive a visitor himself later on." young ones to fear their enemies. So strong is the habit of at- We have given here but a bare outline of some of the interesttending to the warning or danger note uttered by many birds, ing chapters of the book. The one dealing with the dying-place that when a nestling is hammering at its shell and seeking to of the huanaco attempts to explain the babit the animals bave of reach the outer air, uttering meanwhile its feeble "peep," “if the returning to a remote place in which to die. It is traced back to warning note is uttered, even at a considerable distance, the strokes a probable origin in ancient tiines when the animals herded toand complaining instantly cease, and the chick will then remain gether in winter for protection and warmth, and the idea is adquiescent in the shell for a long time, or until the parent by a vanced that at present the habit is an aberrant and perverted changed note, conveys to it an intimation that the danger is instinct which has descended by inheritance. When the animal over.”
feels the pangs of approaching death, its feelings impel it to Mr. Hudson is not content to record the observations he has the spot where long ages ago its ancestors, with their fellows, made. He seeks also to explain, sometimes plausibly, sometimes found refuge and relief. Mr. Hudson thus regards the habit, not perhaps not so well, many of the facts. For example, we are all as going to a place to die, so much as going to a place to recover familiar with the, to us, absurd cackling of a hen when she has health. Other chapters deal with the odoriferous skunk, of wbich laid her egg. She wants the whole world to know it. Obviously numerous anecdotes are told; with mimicry and warning colors it would in a wild state be a serious objection, and be decidedly in grasshoppers; the value and importance of the mosquito in the injurious to the species as a whole, to have all the egg-feeding economy of nature and the uestion why it possesses a bloodsnakes and mammals apprised of the fact that a new egg had been sucking apparatus in such perfection, while scarcely one out of laid for them to seek. The author therefore contends that this many hundreds of thousands ever tastes blood. The humminghabit is a perversion of the original instinct, and that while it birds are treated of in another chapter, while in still another is now serves no purpose or a bad one, originally it was useful. He given a full account of a large family of birds known popularly finds in a certain half-wild fowl of the pampa, a babit of making as “wood-hewers." The biography of the vizcacha, the prairie. her nest sometimes 400 or 500 yards away from the feeding- dog of the pampa, is given in full; while an account of certain grounds. After the egg is laid the hen flies directly from the nest birds and animals seen once or twice and then lost, never to be 40 or 50 yards and then, still silently, runs along to the feeding again brought to view, reminds one that disappointment some. ground. Then only does she give vent to a low cackle. The cock, times waits upon the investigator into nature's secrets. The book if within hearing, answers her, runs to her, and the cackling is an interesting one, and we believe worthy of an extended circeases. • If,” says Mr. Hudson, "we may assume that these culation among lovers of natural objects. fowls, in their long, semi-independent existence in La Plata, hare
JOSEPH F. JAMES. reverted to the original instincts of the wild Gallus bankiva, we Washington, D.C., Aug. 22. can see here bow advantageous the cackling instinct must be in en
Mineralogy. By FREDERICK H. HATCH. London, Whittaker & abling the hen in dense tropical jungles to rejoin the flock after
Co. 12o. $1. laying an egg. If there are egg.eating animals in the jungle, intelligent enough to discover the meaning of such a short, subdued, DR. Hatch has brought together the most essential principles cackling call, they would still be unable to find the nest by going of mineralogy, and embodied them into what is really an abridge back on the bird's scent, since she flies from the nest in the first ment of a larger treatise. He experiences the difficulty felt by place.”
earlier authors of making popular conceptions of geometrical figIn a chapter on spiders mention is made of the many strange ures and relations, and relieves it so far as is possible by stating and wonderful features known in connection with them. Some the principles of their construction and by giving graphic represpin a wonderfully complex and beautiful web; some live on or in sentations of the perfect solids and diagrams illustrative of the the ground; many simulate inanimate objects or death itself. Of crystallographic axes. There is a very wise selection of the more two species belonging to the same genus, one is green, while an- important figures described. Throughout the descriptions of other is like a withered or dried-up leaf. The first, when dis- crystalline form, chemical composition, and the various physical turbed, falls rapidly to the ground like a fresh green leaf broken properties, including the choice of the minerals described, the aufrom a twig; but the second falls slowly like a very light, dried, thor has shown that he knows what selection should be made in
order that the most essential features shall be presented. He is and compound cranes, wedge, roof truss, pendulum, weighted evidently a master of the whole science, and not an amateur con- piston with steam, I-beam, box-beam, fly-wheel, locomotive, jacktent to explain the familiar portions and to overlook the difficult screw, ore-crusher, etc. topics needful to make the sketch symmetrical. Wisdom is also The work is abundantly illustrated with cuts. shown in the classification and description of the minerals. The thoroughly scientific arrangement by chemical character, of use
Light By Sir H. TRUEMAN WOOD. London, Whittaker & Co.,
1891. to the learned, is laid aside for the following practical scheme: First, the rock-forming minerals, such as are world-wide, and ex- This elementary Treatise belongs to Whittaker's Library of tend through the whole crust; second, the ores; third, the salts Popular Science.” The undulatory theory is presented in clear and useful minerals supplementary to the ores; and fourth, the and non-mathematical language, and the various phenomena of gems and precious stones. Under the first head there is presented common observation are explained on this theory. the important distinction of those that have been formed second- In a very lucid and attractive style, the author discusses such arily in contrast with those that were original. We think the topics as reflection, refraction, color, optical instruments, the author might wisely bave devoted three or four pages, instead of a
chemical action of light (as in photography), polarization, and brief paragraph scarcely exceeding fifty words, to the hydro-car- fluorescence. The cuts are abundant and well drawn. bons. No effort is made to describe the phenomena connected The appendix contains an annotated list of elementary works with refraction and polarization, nor to the microscopic structure, on light, color, spectroscope, etc. nor to petrography.
Chemical Calculations, with Explanatory Notes, Problems, and Notes and Examples in Mechanics. By IRVING P. CHURCH. New Answers. By R LLOYD WHITELEY. London and New York, York, John Wiley & Sons, 1892.
Longmans, Green & Co. 1892. This work, as stated in the preface, is “a companion volume A WIDE range of topics is included in these hundred pages; as to the writer's • Mechanics of Engineering,' and contains various metric system, thermometric scales, density and specific gravity, notes and many practical examples, both algebraic and numerical, percentage composition of compounds, calculation of empirical serving to illustrate more fully the application of fundamental formulæ, volume of gases, calculations depending on chemical principles in mechanics of solids; together with a few paragraphs equations, combination of gases by volume, calculation of the rerelating to the mechanics of materials, and an appendix on the sults of quantitative analysis, atomic weight determinations, gas “Graphical Statics of Mechanism.” A knowledge of the elements analysis, absorption of gases by liquids, molecular weights, calof trigonometry and calculus is assumed.
orific power and calorific intensity. The work is clear and practical. Many problems are first The problems on molecular weights are not confined to vapor treated analytically, then by assuming numerical values for the densities; but the more recent methods of freezing points (Raoult) geveral algebraic quantities. English units are used. Engineer- and boiling points (Beckmann and Wiley) are duly explained. ing data are drawn from well-known and reliable authorities. The table of atomic weights is based upon 0 = 16, and agrees,
Among the structures and machines discussed (after the neces- for the most part, with Ostwald's “Outlines of General Chem. sars exposition of general principles) are the bell crank, simple istry;" thus H = 1.003, in accordance with the older determina
Publications Received at Editor's Office. Societas Entomologica.
Wants. DAY, DAVID T. Mineral Resources of the United | International Entomological Society, Zu- A
GRADUATE of the University of Pennsylvania States. Washington, Government. 8o. 678 p.
and a practical mineralogist of tweuty years' rich-Hottingen, Switzerland.
experience desires to give his services and a cabiGARNER, R. L. The Speech of Monkoys. New York,
net of 25,00 specimens, all named, with about the Charles L. Webster & Co. 8o. 233 p.
Annual fee, ten francs.
same number of duplicates, in minerals, crystals, JACKMAN, WILBUR S. Nature Study for the Common The Journal of the Society appears twice a logical specimens and woods to any institution de
rocks, gems, fossils, shells, archeological and ethnoSchools. New York, Henry Holt & Co.
month, and consists entirely of original ar- siring a fine outfit for study. The owner will in
ticles on entomology, with a department for crease the cabinet to 50,000 specimens in two years MERRILL, GEORGE P. The Materials of the Earth's
advertisements. All members may use this and will act as curator. Correspondence solicited Crust. Washington, Goverument. 8°. Papor. department free of cost for advertisements M.D., Ph.D., San Francisco, Cal., General P. O.
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Delivery. SALTER, WILLIAM M. First Steps in Philosophy.
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Volumes XVII. and XVIII CHEMISCHAND ENGINEER, graduate German
trigonometry and differential calculus are scarcely introduced,
Forty-six numerical problems are added in this edition, illus-
tions of the ratio 0 : H. For many of the problems, however, the atomic weights are rounded to whole numbers, except Cl = 35.5.
The work is recommended as a well-planned text-book of the subjects indicated. Mechanics for Beginners. Part I. Dynamics and Statics. By
J. B. LOCK. London and New York, Macmillan & Co.,
1891. This is a carefully-prepared elementary text-book, presenting the subject in the following order: rectilinear motion, motion in one plane, forces acting at a point, parallel forces, machines (including friction), uniform motion in a circle, energy, the pen. dulum. The definitions are clear and examples abundant. The demonstrations presuppose a knowledge of trigonometry.
English units are employed throughout. The following terms are convenient (in the absence of metric units), but not very familiar in this country : velo, the velocity of one foot per second; celo, the acceleration of one velo per second; poundal, a force producing one celo on one pound; and foot-poundal, the work done by one poundal acting one foot.
While this work shows marks of thoroughness, it seems a great pity to ignore the international system of weights and
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