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faring people bad extended their journeys, if not their colonies, to have chosen him as the representative of this class of wretches, that comparatively remote quarter. This interesting relic has been was condemned to solitude, absolute isolation; if be came by ably worked up by Professor Pauli, who may be said to be at the chance within bail of any fortunate healthy brother or sister, be head of living Etruscologists.
had to ring a bell wbich he was obliged by law to always carry About the time that the Etruscans settled in Italy, a people of about him, in order to let them know that somebody was apclosely similar name, the Tursha, appear in Egyptian bistory as proaching who had no right to approach his fellow-being, and bold invaders and daring warriors. They are mentioned in the whose presence was an involuntary menace of death! These men inscriptions of Meneptah II. and Ramses III., and by most writers were utter outcasts, enemies to be kept off as wild beasts are, are considered of the same stock as the Turseni, Tyrrheni, Tursci, completely neglected; when they were found dead, their carcasses or Etruscans. They were allies with the Libyans, and entered the were buried – that was the only duty which society performed in Fayoom with these in the Ramesside period from the Libyan terri- their bebalf. tory to the west. Professor Krall accepts this identification, but 2. The second may be called the Mediæval-Christian period. adds the cautious and just remark, that we have no positive knowl- Then something was done for them, in fact everything which edge of the language spoken by these Libyan neighbors of Egypt at those dark centuries knew how to do. Misericordius were formed, the time mentioned. Of course, if they were the Tursha, and these societies of St. Lazarus, etc. Asylums, hospitals were established. were the Etruscans, we should see our way much more clearly.
the greatest service the men of that time thought that they could render their unfortunate brethren was
- prayers, the
ceremonies of religion. For the ætiology was — visitation of God, CREMATION OF CHOLERA CORPSES.
punished sin, etc. In a time of epidemic the sanitary measures
consisted in holy processions with banners flying, crosses, candles, BY ALBERT S. ASHMEAD, M.D., NEW YORK.
holy-water; also relics, such as the seamless coat of Treves, a
thousand ugly images of the Virgin meeting the traveller at every LET me add a few words to the article of mine, entitled “Crema
step. Have not we seen here in New York thousands kissing a tion of Cholera Corpses," which you published Sept. 2.
bone? I said in the New York Tribune, Sept. 22,' that religious preju
3. The third period is the age of reason, the sanitary period, dices should not interfere with the enforced cremation of cholera
when superstition, ignorance, and fanaticisin must be kept in corpses.
check, brought to bay, utterly ignored, in every question of public This is what Professor Stillé writes to me about the subject:
health. We know now what we have to do; there is no excuse “In regard to cremation, I have no doubt of its being the proper
for not doing it. If, with the knowledge we have, we pander to way to dispose of the dead, and that it originated, as all sanitary laws did, not in divine command, but in human wisdom derived
the ridiculous pretentions of those who stupidly try to keep up
the regime of the Middle Ages, we are simply criminal. from experience.
“If the Egyptians had possessed fuel, I have no doubt they would have burned their dead, and that the Jews would have followed them in this as in most of their sanitary laws, e.g., cir
SOME POINTS IN CHRONOLOGY cumcision, unclean meats, etc. Of course, with Greeks, Romans, and Christians the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead (most
BY R. W. MCFARLAND. distinct, of course, in the last) led to the preservation of inhumation.
The difficulties met with in chronology are best understood by “There are many persons even now who believe in the literal
those who have given most attention to the subject. In ancient
times each nation was a law upto itself, touching the method of resurrection of the actual body, albeit they are at a loss to give a
counting time or registering great events. reason for this popular belief. After all, I doubt if cremation of
The Egyptians, several thousand years B.C., knew that the the dead will become usual. Superstition will hinder it among the ignorant, and tenderness among the refined.”
year was very nearly 3651 days. They, however, dropped the
fraction and retained only the whole number. It is said on good There are in the bistory of the treatment of infectious and con
authority that this error of one-quarter was allowed to remain, tagious diseases three periods. 1. There was a barbarous period when every, let us say, leper,
so that by losing one-quarter of a day each year the seasons would
slide forward around the whole heavens in 1461 years. By this was considered as outside of the pale of humanity, without any
slow motion of the seasons through the year, the festivals of the right to the sympathy of his fellow-men, only not killed because
gods in like manner would be celebrated in all the seasons, to there is a law of the Decalogue against killing. The leper, as we
the end that all the gods should be honored equally and in exactly 1 TO THE EDITOR OF THE Tribune : No more salutary measures have ever the same way. been taken against the spreading of cholera than the burning of the cholera corpses at Swinburne Island. It is evident that as long as the bacillus bas
The Roman calendar was amended by Julius Cæsar, 46 years not been entirely destroyed It will live to fight again. However deep It may B.C., with and by the aid of an Alexandrian astronomer. We use be buried, at some time it will reach the surface again, get mixed with the what is substantially the Roman calendar. It would not be water we drink, and cultivate Itself in the human body. Why then should & measure so necessary for our safety be limited to such uncared for bodies as
proper in this place to enter into an explanation of the minutiæ those who are found on vessels stationed at quarantine in the bay? The of many points in doubt or in controversy. The immediate cause game danger threatens us from the bodies of those who die in the city. There
of Cæsar's reform was the vicious habit of the pontiffs in calling: is no use in saying that they will be buried in metallic coffins.
Metal may keep the enemy in harmless seclusion for a longer time, but not forever,
out or proclaiming the beginning of the months in such a way as Moreover, metal renders the process of putrefaction slower, and keeps the to serve political ends or emergencies. Of course most people bacillus which feeds on the corpse longer alive. There is probably no who are conversant with the derivation of words know that the difference in regard to the danger arising from buried germs, whether the corpse be buried in wood or in iron. Therefore, it is evidently a duty of a
word " calendar" is from the Latin calare, to ca!l, or to proclaim. board of health which cares truly for the public welfare to enforce cremation As a consequence of the reformation by Cæsar, the year 46 B.C. of all cholera corpses in the clty as well as on the ships. Religious prejudices
was made to consist of 445 days, and is sometimes known as the can really not interfere with that; the body reduced to ashes can resuscitate as well as the body buried, for it is clear that any corpse long before the gen
year of confusion. The year 45 B.C., the first of the reformed caleral resurrection of the dead will be reduced to a condition entirely similar to endar, coincided in the main with the year 708 of the city of that which cremation brings about. Or, if it is only the routine of the ignorant
Rome. This is the Julian calendar which was followed in general that stands in the way, it is the right and the duty of the aducated and learned to impose by law and by force what is necessary to the welfare of the whole
by the Latin Empire, and was naturally adopted by the various community. If we must bury our corpses, let us at least bury them in the nations after their incorporation into the Roman dominions. The most rational way possible. Wood decays, Iron rusts or bursts, but earthenware jars are absolutely impermeable, and even indestructible. These have
old Egyptian year of 365+ days was merely transferred to a more been used for more than a thousand years by the royalty and higher classes
northern region, and into a far wider territory. It was not till of Japan, and as we are, just now, teaching the J&panese so much, it is only long after the conversion of the Emperor Constantine to Cbrisfalr that, when they are entirely in the right, and have given a great doal of
tianity in the year 320, viz., in the early part of the sixth centhought to the matter, they should toach us something, too. They put vermillion with the caduver; we might use bichloride of mercury.
tury, that the proposition was made to count the assumed date of
the birth of Christ, as the begioning of the era the one now in
ber or on the following Sunday (the 16th) appropriate services common use by all Christian nations.
will be had in commemoration of the great discovery. It is to For ecclesiastical purposes the early Christians adopted in part, hoped that some friend will call his attention to the unadulterated at least, the Jewish calendar, especially for the feast of Easter, wisdom displayed on this side of the Atlantic, regardless of the the counterpart of the Jewish passover the 14th of Abib, the “ effete monarchies” of Europe. first month of the year. “In the fourteenth day of the first England adhered to the Julian calendar till about the first of month at even is the Lord's passover.” — Leviticus xxiii., 5. But September, 1752. To be specific, the order of Parliament was the fourteenth day did not generally fall on the Sabbath. Some that the day following the second of September of that year churches celebrated Easter on the fourteenth, and some on the should be called the fourteenth, and that the year which prefollowing Sunday, Tbis caused some contention, and easily grew viously began on March 25 should begin on January 1, 1752, to into a matter of supreme importance for the church. In the year conform to the Gregorian calendar. Macaulay, Hume, Robert325 of our era, the council which convened at the city of Nicæa, son, and all other historians who have written in the English beyond Constantinople, decided that the feast of Easter should be language of events in English history, give the dates in old style celebrated on Sunday, and that it should be the Sunday following up to the year 1752. the day of the full moon, which should occur on, or next after, In the colonies on this continent, planted by the French, Dutch, the 21st of March. The intention was to fix the time of Easter Spanish, and English, each followed the custom of the mother as nearly as a movable feast could be fixed. The Jewish year country, some using old and some new style. After the Revoluwas luni-solar – twelve months for one year, thirteen for the tionary War Ramsay's Life of Washington was written. In it dext.
Washington's birth is given in old style onls, viz., February 11, Early in the fifieenth century the ecclesiastics noticed that the 1731,- conforming to the English custom of leaving unchanged equinox w is slipping away from the 21st of March. The ques- all dates before the change of style. But “necessity knows no tion was discussed more or less for nearly two hundred years law;" so the conflicting dates of the various colonies were assimi. before final action was taken. In 1582 the equinox occurred on lated by all being made new style, for events occurring on this the 11th of March instead of the 21st, as at the time of the Coun- continent. cil of Nicæa, in 325. Pope Gregory XIII., with the aid of able Such is a brief account of some nts in chronology, wbich coadjutors, reformed the Julian calendar. His object was to account may be of interest to many and may stir up some to a prevent in the future such diversity of days in celebrating the more careful study of a much neglected subject. same feast. The change made by Gregory consisted chiefly of Oxford, Ohio, September, 1892. two points: 1, The skipping of ten days in order to bring the equinox back to the 21st of March; and 2, To arrange an order of
SOME THOUGHTS ON THE PHYLOGENY OF THE MOLE leap years which should prevent a like divergence thereafter. The omitted days were the ten following the 4th of October,
CRICKET. 1582. The day which in the ordinary course of events would
BY E. W. DORAN, PH.D., COLLEGE PARK, MD. have been the 5th was reckoned as the 15th of October, new style. The Julian calendar, with every fourth year a leap year, is old I HAVE recently been able to work out to some extent the lifestyle. Gregory excepted the centesimal years, decreeing that history of the Northern Mole Cricket, Gryllotalpa borealis. The only those which are divisible by 400 should be called leap years. various stages of the insect seem not to have been studied extenThe year 1600 being divisible by 4 and by 400 was a leap year in sively, or described, before. I have made some observations of both styles. Wherefore the difference between the two styles interest which I have not seen recorded elsewhere, and which continued ten days for a century after 1600, viz., till midnight seem to indicate the course of development in this species. I am of the 28th of February, 1700. In new style, 1700, not being di- led to believe that formerly the insect lived upon the surface of visible by 400, was a common year, and the day following the the ground, or in natural hiding places, very much like our com28th of February was March 1. But in countries which still mon field cricket, instead of burrowing into the earth, and passadhered to the old style, 1700, being divisible by 4, was a leap ing all its existence under ground. year; so the day following the 28th of February was the 29th. My first reason for supposing a change of habit has taken place Here there began a difference of eleven days between the styles. is based upon the fact that the larva, before the first moult, is A like case occurred on the 28th of February in 1800, and the able to jump like the field and house-cricket. (Larvæ but little difference became twelve days, and will so continue till February over a fourth of an inch long were seen to jump five or six inches 28, 1900; after wbich for 200 years the difference will be thir- in the breeding-jars.) They are otherwise very active and brisk teen days. Russia still adheres to the Julian calendar, and the in their movements. After this stage the insect cannot jump at 12th of October, 1892, in that country will be the 24th in this. all, and is very clumsy. It can run rather rapidly backward or
The change of style by Gregory looked solely to the future, in forward in its burrow, or upon a level surface, but has very awkorder to prevent unseemly changes in the time or date of church ward movements upon an uneven surface. The abdomen is long festivals. It did not disturb the past at all, and was not intended and heavy, especially in the pupa and imago. to do so.
As a proof of this, it may be stated that no date Now this would indicate that originally the mole cricket had previous to October 4, 1582, old style, was ever changed by the power of jumping like most other orthoptera, and all other Gregory or any of his successors, or by any body of learned men, Gryllidae, I think, and lived upon the surface of the ground, peror of unlearned men; that no writer of history or of chronology haps hiding in crevices, or under rubbish, like the common in any European nation has changed or attempted to change such cricket. But having taken to the burrowing habit, and no longer dates from old to new style. The discovery of America was on finding the necessity for exercising its power of leaping, it Friday, October 12, 1492, old style. It is so written “always gradually lost that power, until it appears only in the early part and everywhere and by all."
of the larval stage. It was reserved for the American Congress of 1892, instigated My second reason for this conclusion is based upon the babit by a committee of some ill-informed society, to depart from es- the mole cricket has of defending itself in the burrow by ejecting tablished and uniform custom, and to declare that the 21st of posteriorly a creamy, viscid substance in large quantities, which October, 1892, should be celebrated as the 400th anniversary of the rapidly thickens after exposure to the atmosphere. This fluid discovery. It is a “consummation devoutly to be wished” that seems also to have peculiar chemical properties. In this way it this hasty and ill-advised action of Congress may die a speedy is able to protect itself from almost any foe which may attack it death, and that after this year it may never again be thought of from behind, and it tights viciously if attacked in front. Now, or regarded in any way.
the larra before the first moult does not bave the power of ejectThe present Pope, in his announcement concerning “ Columbus ing this substance, and this would possibly indicate that in a Day,” utterly ignores this act of Congress. He says, according previous stage of its development the mature insect was not so to current reports in the daily press, that on the twelfth of Octo- armed, for the young larva certainly needs protection as much as
in later life. This method of defence would not be so effectual the track of his master long after the tracks have been made, upon the surface of the ground where its enemy could attack it which shows that some slight characteristic matter is left at each from any source instead of directly bebind or before, because footfall." with its unwieldy body it would not be able to eject the substance Those who thus speak impart the idea that odor is material. I In any desired direction suddenly. This, then, appears to be a prefer to think of it as a property of matter, which produces its own habit acquired by the insect since it has taken to its underground peculiar undulations; and tbat the sensation of odor is produced life; for it is hardly probable that it would be provided both with by these undulations in the olfactories. Musk retains this propthe habit of making long leaps to escape from its enemies, and erty for a very long time, while some bodies lose it rapidly. The at the same time to eject in large quantities this protective fluid. man may leave some characteristic matter on the ground at each
There are some rather serious objections to this theory of footstep, but it is not necessary that particles of that matter sball changed conditions and habits. First may be mentioned the pass from the ground into the nose of the dog in order that he unusual development of the tarsus, fitting it for its underground may track his master. It is only necessary that that matter shall life and burrowing propensities; but it is not unreasonable to possess the property of sending forth certain undulations. Insuppose that the front legs were developed gradually in confor- deed, it is not difficult to conceive that the ground itself has immity with its changing habits. And it is perhaps true that if the parted to it the property of sending forth the desired undulainsect lived upon the ground, it occasionally burrowed for roots, tions. or for shelter, and originally had an unusual development of the These facts being assumed, investigations might be made to tarsus. Its carnivorous babits may have been acquired in conse- determine the velocity with which odors are propagated, and sequence of its frequent contact with earth-worms, when other whether they are subject to reflection, refraction, and interferfood was scarce, as there are many other insects which normally ence, and other properties common to sound and light; also feed upon vegetable food, that will resort to animal food, devour- whether the different odors are due to different wave-lengths, and ing even their own kind, as in the mole cricket, when pressed by if the strength and intensity of the odor is due to the amplitude hunger.
of the wave, as in light and sound. The physiological qualities Second, an observation made by Westwood and others in of the olfactories by which they enable one to detect odors of difEurope upon G. vulgaris would seem to weaken my argument ferent qualities and intensities furnish a field for the inost deliregarding the development of the insect. It is stated that the cate and refined investigation. larvæ of the European species, before the first moult, live togetber in one burrow, with the mother cricket, but scatter after this moult. I have seen the very young larvæ of our species only
NOTES AND NEWS. in confinement, and cannot say whether in the natural state they would scatter before this time or not. They run about in the
PERSONS who are very susceptible to the effects of goat-bites breeding-cage more before the first inoult than afterward. How
state that the irritation seems to return on the third day, and in ever, I think it probable that the mother cricket feeds the young,
those who have exceptionally sensitive skins again on the sixth at this early stage, as she exercises great solicitude for them ap
day. Thus the effects of goat-bites, or rather of the poison wbich parently, in other matters, or in time of danger. I have several
they instil into our blood, bave a certain analogy with the symptoms times seen the mother take the young in her mouth when dis
of intermittent fever. This need, perhaps, scarcely surprise us if turbed, as a cat does her kitten, and carry them to places of
we recollect from what materials the juices of the gnat have been
elaborated. safety. She will also carry her eggs to a new burrow when they have been discovered, as I have several times observed. Hence - Herbert M. Thompson's “ The Theory of Wages and its Apit seems probable the young larvæ live together under the protec- plication to the Eight-Hours Question,” published by Macmillan tion of the mother cricket, and would have but little need of a & Co., is a timely contribution to the discussion of this vital quesprotective ejection. But the jumping habit which is chiefly use- tion of the present industrial crisis. ful in escaping from their enemies, being confined only to the - Lovers of birds and flowers will delight in Miss Yonge's new early larval stage, presents a stronger argument for changed con- book announced by Macmillan & Co. Under the title of “An Old ditions. I may say, however, that neither of these are presented Woman's Outlook” she describes out-door life in England as she as con asive arguments but rather mere suppositions or sugges- has watched it for so many years. The chapters are so arranged tions, to be followed up by other observations.
that each shall cover its special month.
“Round London, Down-East, and Up-West” is the self-ex. THE SCIENCE OF SMELLING.
plaining title of a new book by Montagu Williams, barrister, author BY PROF. DE VOLSON WOOD, STEVENS INSTITUTE, HOBOKEN, N. J. of Leaves From a Life," etc. It will be issued by the MacmilTHE greater part of the science of seeing is contained in the
lans. science of optics, and this is founded upon the theory of undula- - D. Appleton & Co. will shortly add to their list of Good tions of the ether and the way in which they are modified by the Books for Young Readers “ Along the Florida Reef," by C. F. media through which they pass. The form of the surface, Holder, which is a story of camping and fishing adventures in whether place or curved, as well as the density of the medium company with a naturalist in Florida. The author combines enproduces marked effects.
tertainment and instruction, and his book is filled with illustraSimilarly, the greater part of the science of hearing is con- tions which will be prized by every young reader who has ever tained in the science of acoustics, and this also treats of undula- visited the seashore, or cares for information regarding fishes, tions, or waves propagated in air or other gases. It is not believed shells, and the various forms of marine life. The same firm will in either case that solid particles pass from a source to the sensi- publish immediately “The Story of Columbus," by Elizabeth tive nerves to produce the particular sensation.
Eggleston Seelye, edited by Dr. Edward Eggleston, with nearly a Why should there not be a science of smelling? The principal bundred illustrations by Allegra Eggleston. This book is the repart of such a science would consist of an investigation of the sult of extensive investigations which have been carefully verified mechanical properties of odors, and might briefly be called by Dr. Eggleston. While the book contains all the results of “Odorology.” Is it not highly probable that odors are also propa- modern inquiry offered in the bulkiest biographies, the story is gated by undulations of an ether? And yet we are familiar with bere condensed and the material selected with a view to an the statements made by writers, such as “ A grain of musk will always interesting narrative. To a considerable extent the plan keep a room scented for many years. During the whole of the of both text and illustrations is like that of Eggleston's “ Housetime it must be slowly evaporating, giving out its particles to the hold History of the United States." “The Story of Columbus ” currents of air to be wafted presently out of doors; yet in all this will be the first volume in a series to be called Delights of Histime the musk seems to lose but little of its weight.”
tory, which will be prepared by the same author, artist, and acute sense of smell of the dog is well known; for he can detect editor.
VON VICTOR SCHUMANN IN LEIPZIG,
Platte nimmt von dieser Linie — ihre Wellenlänge beträgt 2266
bei Anwendung grosser Aufnahmeapparate, in der Gegend der WelPUBLISHED BY N. D. C. HODGES, 874 BROADWAY, New YORK.
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wärtig am meisten im Gebrauch befindlichen grossen GitterapSUBSCRIPTIONS.—United States and Canada...
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Versucht man diese Wirkungsgrenze mit einem kleinen Apparat To any contributor, on request in advance, one hundred copies of the issue zu photographiren, dann erweitert sich das Beobachtungsgebiet containing his article will be sent without charge. More copies will be sup- um eine ansehnliche Strecke, und die gewöhnliche Bromsilbergelplied at about cost, also if ordered in advance. Reprints are not supplied, as atine erweist sich, bei hinreichend kurzer Focalweite und gehöriger for obvious reasons we desire to circulate as many copies of Science as pos- Lichtdurchlässigkeit des optischen Körpers, sogar bis zur Wel. sible. Authors are, however, at perfect liberty to have their articles reprinted lenlänge 1820 geeignet. Dieses relative Grenzgebiet kleinster elsewhere. For illustrations, drawings in black and white suitable for photo
Wellenlänge gehört nach umfassenden Versuchen, die ich im engraving should be supplied by the contributor. Rejected manuscripts will be
Jahre 1890 anstellte, einem Apparat an, dessen Focalweite 180 returned to the authors only when the requisite amount of postage accom.
millimeters (Fraunhoferlinie D.) betraegt. panies the manuscript. Whatever is intended for insertion must be authenti
Der Umstand, dass das photographischwirksame Spectrum um cated by the name and address of the writer; not necessarily far publication,
80 weiter ins Ultraviolett hinausläuft, je kürzer die Brennweite but as a guaranty of good faith. We do not hold ourselves responsible for
ist, besagt deutlich, dass der Ort der photographischen Wirkungsany siew or opinions expressed in the communications of our correspondents. attention is called to the “Wants" column. It is invaluable to those who
grenze eine Function der Dicke der Luftschicht ist, die die use it in soliciting information or seoking new positions. The name and
Strahlen auf ihrem Wege zur photographischen Platte zu durchaddress of applicants should be given in full. so that answers will go direct to
setzen haben. Versucht man nun, von dieser Thatsache ausgethem. The “Exchange " column is likewise open.
hend, die Luftschicht noch weiter zu vermindern, dann bemerkt man zwar, dass sich die photographische Wirkungsgrenze noch
um einige Linien kleinerer Wellenlänge entfernt, allein der VON DEN LICHTSTRAHLEN KLEINSTER WELLEN
Längenzuwachs des Wirkungsbandes ist so unbedeutend, dass LÄNGE.
der Erfolg die Müben und Kosten der Herstellung eines derartigen kleinen Spectrograpbeu uicht lohnt. Es gewinnt sonach den An
schein, als habe man hiermit das wabre Grënzgebiet der wahrnehmLANGE Zeit galten die Wellenlängen zweier Linien des Alum- baren Lichtstrahlen kleinster Wellenlänge erreicht. Bestärkt iniumspectrums als die kleinsten. Nach den Messungen A. wird man in solcher Annahme noch durch die Thatsache, dass Cornus betrugen die Längen dieser Linien in Angströmeinheiten das Fluorescenzspectrum ungleich früher, bei Wellenlänge 1852 (1 Angströmeinheit 0.0000001 Millimeter) ausgedrückt, 1860 verlischt, und demzufolge zur Beobachtung aller stärkerabge und 1852 AE. Für beide Linien ist, wie schon für die ganze Spec- lenkten Strahlen ganz ungeeignet ist. Stände uns nicht die photralregion des Ultravioletten, das menschliche Auge vollständig tographische Platte, sondern nur die fluorescirende Platte zu unempfindlich. Nur sehr wenigen ist es vergönnt, das Ultra- Gebote, so würde die kleinste Lichtwelle, die wir noch wahrnehviolett durchs Ocular eines hinreichend lichtdurchlässigen Spec- men könnten, nur das Längenmass von 1852 AE baben. Man tralapparats ebenso deutlich wahrnehmen zu können, wie die sieht hieraus, dass beide Grenzwerthe nur eine ganz relative minderabgelenkte Region des sichtbaren Spectrums, das, wie Giltigkeit haben. Aehplich der fuorescirenden Substanz, die allgemein bekannt, von jedem gesunden Auge vollkräftig empfun- schon von Wellenlänge 1852 an nicht mehr leuchtet, könnte ja den wird. Das ultraviolette Licht lässt sich nur auf einen Umwege möglicherweise auch der photographischen Platte die Fäbigkeit sichtbar machen; entweder projicirt man es auf einen fluoresciren- fehlen, von Allen Strahlen, deren Wellenlänge kleiner als 1820 den Schirm oder fixirt es mit Hilfe der Photographie auf einer ist, einen entwicklungsfähigen Eindruck anzunehmen. Diese lichtempfindlichen Platte.
Ueberlegung leitete mich, als ich vor nunmehr zwei Jabren Das Fluorescenzspectrum kann man direct oder durch eine eingehende Versuche mit Strahlen des brechbarsten Ultravioletten Lupe betrachten; in beiden Fällen lässt es aber an Klarheit und anstellte, und nicht ohne Erfolg. Es ergab sich hierbei, dass Schärfe viel zu wünschen übrig. In früheren Jahren, wo die es nur der Mangel an Empfindlichkeit der damals angewandten photographische Platte dem nassen Verfahren angehörte und die lichtempfindlichen Platte, keineswegs ungenügende Energie der moderne Trockenplatte noch nicht bekannt war, hat man sich Lichtstrahlen war, die meine Versuche jenseits 1820 zu keinem vielfach des Fluorescenzspectrums bedient, wenn es sich um Ver- befriedigenden Resultate kommen liess. Ich gewahrte ferper, suche mit ultravioletten Strahlen handelte. Gegenwärtig, wo die dass die Strahlen schon in der das lichtempfindliche Silberkorn Bromsilbergelatineplatte der photographischen Beobachtung so umschliesenden Gelativehülle erstickten, ehe sie zur Einleitung ausserordentliche Vortheile gawährt, denkt wohl niemand mehr des Zerfalls dieses Kornes gelangten. Die Gelatine des Plattenan die Verwendung des unvollkommenen Fluorescenzspectrums. überzugs bildete sonach die Ursache meiner photographischen
Die photographische Beobachtung hat die oculare aus dem Ul- Misserfolge im äussersten Ultraviolett. Die Kenntniss dieser travioletten vollständig verdrängt. Wer beide Methoden geübt wichtigen Thatsache führte mich zur Präparation einer neuen hat, wird mir beipflichten, wenn ich sage: das Fluorescenzspec- Platte, die sich in der Folge zur Photographie aller Strahlen jentrum ist viel zu roh, als dass es der exacten Spectroskopie der seits Wellenlänge 2260 besser eignete, als die vorher benutzte Gegenwart noch gewachsen wäre.
Gelatineplatte. Die moderne Trockenplatte ist gegen die ultravioletten Strahlen Die neue Platte verhält sich den Lichtstrahlen gegenüber ungemein empfindlich und diese hohe Empfindlichkeit kommt durchweg ganz anders wie die Gelatineplatte. Wenig empfindlich
. der Spectralwissenschaft ausserordentlich zu statten. Zeigt doch gegen alle Strahlen des sichtbaren Spectrums und der wenigerabdie moderne Trockenplatte allen lichtquellen elektrischen Ur- gelenkten Strahlen des Ultravioletten, wächst ihre Erregbarkeit von sprungs gegenüber ihre höchste Empfindlichkeit nicht etwa im 2260 an bis in die Gegend von 1860. Bei 1860 scheint sie, wenigsichtbaren Spectrum, sondern weitab davon im Ultraviolett. stens allen elektrischen Lichtquellen gegenüber-andere Lichtquel
Photographirt man das Spectrum irgend eines Metallfunkens, len erzeugen niemals so starkabgelenkte Strahlen – die höchste so entwickelt sich jederzeit zuerst das ultraviolett, und erst, wenn Empfänglichkeit für Lichteindrücke zu besitzen. Weiter nach man länger belichtet, tritt das sichtbare Spectrum hervor. Es ist der brechbarern Seite hin sinkt ihre Empfindlichkeit etwas, doch aber keineswegs das ganze ultraviolette Licht, was dem sicht- bleibt die Wellenlänge 1820, bei der die Gelatineplatte aufhört baren voraneilt. Nur ein Theil davon zeichnet sich durch photo- empfindlich zu sein, ohne allen hemmenden Eindruck auf sie. graphische Ueberlegenbeit aus. Alles Licht, das jenseits der Kräftig und klar gezeichnet, gibt sie das spectrale Wirkungsband Kadmiumlinie No. 24 wirkt, braucht zu seiner Aufnahme be- auch jenseits 1820. Arbeitet der Spectralapparat mit einem trächtlich längere Belichtungszeit. Die Empfindlichkeit der Prisma, dann scheint es, als wollten die Lichtmassen, die diesem,
für das menschliche Auge in ewige Nacht gebüllten Strahlenbereiche entquellen, gar kein Ende nehmen. Mit jeder folgenden Region, die man zur Aufnahme einstellt, meint man das Endgebiet der kleinsten Lichtwellen zu erreichen. Aber es ist fast, als flöhe die kleinste Welle, die überhaupt noch photographisch zu fesseln ist, um so behender ins fernste Ultraviolett hinaus, je näher ihr die Fessel der lichtempfindlichen Platte rückt.
Schon jetzt weist meine neue Platte jenseits 1852 ein Spectrumband auf, dass das gesammte Wirkungsgebiet der Bromsilbergelatine um mehr als das dreifache an Länge übertrifft, und gleichwohl lässt auch die letzte meiner Aufnabmen noch der Hoffnung Raum, dass jenseits des Randes ibrer Platte noch photograpbisch wirksames Licht existirt. Vorläufig gehört aber diese letzte Aufnahme, ohngeachtet solch' günstiger Aussicht, doch demjenigen Gebiete an, das ich gegenwärtig als die Grenze der kleinsten Lichtwellen bezeichnen muss. Die Photographie des Nachbargebietes hiervon stösst zur Zeit, – aus Grunden, deren Erörterung hier zu weit führen würde, – auf Hindernisse, die sich, sofern es überhaupt möglich ist, nicht ohne grosse Anstrengung werden beseitigen lassen.
Fragt man nun nach dem Masse der kleinsten Lichtwelle meiner Ultraviolettaufnahmen, dann muss ich leider bekennen, dass mir im Augenblick eine bestimmte Antwort hierauf nicht möglich ist. Wellenlängen lassen sich im luftleeren Raume, an den meine Aufnahmen gebunden sind, nicht so leicht ermitteln wie in der Luft, und die geplanten Messungen der Wellenlången des äussersten Ultraviolett haben darum auch besonderer Vorbereitungen bedurft. War es doch überhaupt zweifelhaft, ob sich die übliche Methode der Messung der Wellenlängen auf den in Rede stehenden Lichtbereich werde anwenden lassen. Meine Vorversuche hierzu gehen zur Zeit ihrem Abschluss entgegen, und die mir vorliegenden Resultate berechtigen zu den besten Hoffnungen. Unter solchen Umständen kann ich das Mass der kleinsten Lichtwelle, die meine Aufnahmen aufweisen, vorläufig nur schätzungsweise und mit Vorbehalt nennen. Es dürfte dieses Mass 1000 AE nicht überschreiten, ja eher kann es um ein gutes Theil kürzer sein.
Der Wellenlänge 1000 entspricht eine ausserordentlich hohe Schwingungszahl des Licbtäthers. Während die brechbarsten Sonnenstrahlen wenig mehr als 1000 Billionen Schwingungen in der Secunde ausführen, schwingt ein Strabl von der Wellenlänge 1000 in derselben Zeit dreibillionenwal. Mit Schwingungszahlen so enormer Höhe hat der Spectroskopiker bisher noch nie zu rechnen gehabt, und gleichwohl liegt es nicht ausser dem Bereich der Möglichkeit, dass wir über kurz oder lang die Wirkungen des Lichtaetbers bis in die nächste Näbe der Wellenlänge Null verfolgen werden, wo der ungeheuren Anzahl seiner Schwingungen kaum noch der Massstab des Endlichen gewachsen ist.
dialect, another a mere individuality, but they are all effects of only one organic action performed at different parts of the mouth.
Another series of R's results from a trilling or rattling organic vibration instead of a mere friction of the breath or voice. Thus a trill of the epiglottis is heard as one form of R; a trill of the uvula is another and very common one; and a trill of the point of the tongue is the regular form of R in North Britain and Ireland. The Spanish R has a more prolonged rattle of the same kind. The trill has often the effect of a syllable; as in Scotch and Irish, where it converts the grammatical monosyllables world, harm, mourn, etc., into the phonetic dissyllables wor-rld, bar-rm, etc.
These trills involve a strong pressure of breath and a harshness of phonetic effect, in contrast to which is a form of R of simple vowel quality, without friction or vibration; as in (ə)isę and (a)ound, for rise and round.
A similar vocalic effect is also heard for Rwherever it is not followed by a vowel; as in here, care, fire, store, tour, are, war, term, first, etc. The syllable-like quality of this sound is distinctly felt after the close vowel ē, and less distinctly after open vowels, because their mouth-cavities differ so little from that of R.
In Early English R was always trilled, as it continues to be in Scotland, where most of the characteristics of Early English are still prevalent. But in modern English the trills have been softened away wherever R follows a vowel, until little is left of the R but its vowel quality. We are accustomed to the entire omission of R in negro speech, where do and sto are all that we hear for door and store; biit in educated utterance there is some pbonetic effect left in R even where it is least manifest. Such delicate shades of sound are the distinguishing marks of refinement in pronunciation, and they should be carefully preserved by teachers and by writers on phonetics.
In a book recently published in England the learner is taught that R is silent in such words as farm, serve, lord, prayer, weird, etc. Had the statement been that the sound of consonant-R is not heard in these words it would have been correct, but the R is certainly not “ silent;” it has a phonetic effect of its own, soft and vowel-like, but a quality wanting which the words would not have their characteristic pronunciation.
That there may be no mistake as to the teaching in the work referred to, the reader is specifically told that the words arms and lord are exactly the same to the ear as the words alms and laud. Now what is the sound of R which baffles the discrimination of this writer? Let us magnify it, as in a microscope, by prolonging the elementary sounds. First let us put “alms" and "laud" under the microscope :
.-lms; lau ----d. Here there is no R; the vowel remains unchanged until stopped sharply by the succeeding consonant.
arms" and " lord ” under the microscope :
---(ə)rms; lo---- (ə)rd. Here between the vowel and the mor d there is interposed a gliding connective sound, so that the vowel is not stopped sharply by the consonant, but its quality is gradually changed by a lift of the tongue, verging towards but not quite reaching the position for R. This is all the sound that R has, in modern English, before any consonant or when final in a word. But it is something more than nothing; and something that is essential to the correct utterance of any word containing R before a consonant.
Among the sounds of R may be reckoned the influence of R upon other sounds. The mouth cavity for R being very large, any closer vowel preceding R is, as it were, stretched at the point of junction, so as to assimilate with R. Thus a pure e is with difficulty pronounced before R; a pure ā is never, in Anglican speech, heard before R, but a is “stretched” to eh, as in air, chair. So, too, o and oo before R have a more open than their usual formation, as in old – ore; pool – poor.
These widened sounds of o and oo are distinctly different from the sound of aw; yet in the book before referred to the words shore and drawer are said to have the same vowel; and the words
THE SOUNDS OF R.1
BY ALEX. MELVILLE BELL.
THERE seems to be special need for a better understanding of the sounds of R. No element of speech is so variously pronounced – in dialects and by individuals. The fundamental organic action from which all the varieties are derived is a frictional emission of breath or of voice between two surfaces in the breath channel. Thus we may make an R in the throat, - producing the effect which, when prolonged, is called a groan; or in the guttural passage, between the back of the tongue and the soft palate mode which is dialectically common in many countries.
A less definite variety is formed between the arched top of the tongue and the roof of the mouth. This is common in the United States. Another - and the normal English form of R- is produced between the point of the tongue and the upper gum.
This is sometimes modified by inversion of the tongue within the palatal arcb, or by addition of guttural or of labial contraction. The pointtongue R is also varied by advancement of the tongue to or between the teeth. In a common English affectation the seat of R is transferred fron the tongue to the lips, so that R has the sound of W. Of these varieties one may be characteristic of a
1 Paper read before the Phonetic Section of the Modern Language Association, December, 1891.