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Thus does Bogdanov range bimself on the side of the short heads in the curious controversy which is arising in Europe as to the relative merits of the two leading forms of cranium, and to which Obedenare, Laponge, and Von Ammon have contributed both facts and opinions. I recollect asking Professor Rokitansky, five and thirty years ago, wbether the Czechs were not brachycephalic. Rokitansky was himself a Bohemian, and he was evidently nettled by a question which he thought touched upon a weak point in his fellow-countrymen. “ Ah! well!” he said, “they are a very clever people for all that.” On the otber hand, Messrs. Jacobs and Spielmann, in their recent paper on the physical characters of British Jews, almost apologized for the long-headedness (in a physical sense) of the Sephardim, as a mark of inferiority! Since Topinard claimed the Aryan language as the original property of the short-headed Kelto-Slavo-Galcha family, their congeners have taken heart, and threaten to push us loog-heads from our stools of conceit. Whence came these aboriginal dolichocephals of Russia ?

.. Not from Asia or the Caucasus," says Bogdanov. “It is more likely that they came from the Danube, where we find at present dolichocephaly predominant (in Bulgaria). They probably followed the Dnieper into White Russia, thence to Novgorod and into Sweden. This was the northward stream. About the same time there was probably an eastward current through Minsk to Yaroslav and Moscow, and a western one by Galicia, the Vistula, and the Danube."

BOGDANOV ON THE PRIMITIVE RUSSIAN3.

BY JOHN BEDDOE, LL.D, F.R.S.

ON • TYPE-SPECIMENS" AND " TYPE-FIGURES” IN The Anthropological Congress lately held at Moscow, however

ENTOMOLOGY. much its attractions and its attendance may have been diminished by the cholera scare, bas at least produced one very notable and

BY W. F. KIRBY, LONDON, ENG. interesting paper — that by the veteran Professor Anatole Bog- A “TYPE SPECIMEN” is the specimen of an insect from which danov, entitled “Quelle est la race la plus ancienne de la Russie the original describer drew up the first description of a species; centrale?” In it Bogdanov recalls the fact that twenty-five years and it is often of great importance to settle disputed points of nohave elapsed since he published his first researches into the sub- menclature, where any doubt exists respecting the actual identifiject on which he now delivers a fairly matured opinion. During cation of a species; for if we are certain that we have the original a great part of the interval he has been laboring in this field and specimen before us, no further dispute is possible. A "typecollecting material, not from the centre ouly, but from all parts figure” is the figure quoted by the origioal describer as illustrating of Russia, though at times he seems to have abandoned the effort his species, or is a figure supposed to represent the species pubfor a while in a kind of despair.

lished by a later author. His earlier researches led him to form the opinion that the kur. This appears plain enough; but in practice it is not always satgans (tumuli) of central Russia, believed to date from the ninth up isfactory. The specimens described by the older authors, such as to even the fifteenth century, contained the remains of two races, Linné and Fabricius, are not always in existence, and in other cases one dolichocephalic, tall and strongly made, with light-brown it is not always certain that the specimens in various old collechair, the other smaller, with short, broad head and dark brown tions supposed to represent the types of these authors are actually bair. The former he found preponderated in the earlier kurgans, the real specimens which they described. Again, Linné frequently and in the south-western part of the central provinces, the latter quoted several figures of different species as illustrating one of his at later dates and more to the north-east. In spite of the mode of species; and, in several otber cases, he seems to have described location, but in accordance with the apparent dates, those who quite different species in his successive works. Under these cir. considered these facts mostly agreed that the dolichocephals were cumstances it does not follow that a specimen, even if ticketed by of Finnish kindred, Merians probably, and that the shorter heads Linné himself, is necessarily the species which he originally debelonged to the Slavs who invaded and incorporated them.

scribed. Some of the later authors, too, such as Müller and Later discoveries and the products of a wider field do not, in Hontheim, have figured insects as species of Linné, and applied Bogdanov's opinion, confirm this view. These long skulls, which, wrong Linnean names to their figures in the most reckless manner. though the occiput projects considerably, have usually well-devel- In the case of Fabricius, we already meet with far more careful oped frontal regions, and are by no means of low type, are found and conscientious work; and when Fabricius describes an insect to prevail in the older interments throughout the west and south from a known locality, there is often very little doubt about what as well as the centre of Russia, while short heads abound in the he really intended. But his names, too, were frequently misapnorth and east, in the ancient kurgans of the Uralian region and plied by his contemporaries; and it is only lately that several inin those of the Bashkir territory. Bogdanov inclides to the sects which he described from India, but which his contemporaries opinion of Poesche, that the Slavs “descended in reality from a mistook to refer to European species more or less resembling them, dolichocephalic source." And, seeing that the modern Slavs are have been correctly identified. Gross errors, too, have been comon the whole moderately brachycepbalic, he thinks that the pre- mitted by certain recent authors who have found specimens of vailing form has somewhat changed through contact and crossing insects supposed to have been named by Fabricius in old collecwith races having broader heads (meaning probably the Mongoloid tions, and bare jumped to the conclusion that they were bis races which lie and have lain to the east of them), but also owing original types, though neither the locality nor the description to the operation of other (external) causes.

" With the progress

may have applied to them at all. This does not apply to collecof civilization,” he says, “ begins another series of influences, tions indubitably referred to by Fabricius, such as the Banksian which has played a great part in the history of peoples, and may and Hunterian, which may usually be regarded as authoritative. play a still greater one in the future, because the conditions of Again, some authors have cared more for the condition of their civilization bring about necessarily in the course of time an in- specimens than for scientific accuracy, and may in some cases crease of brachycephalism. . . . Dolichocephalism declines more bare actually got rid of their own types and replaced them with and more in Europe, and the heads become larger and finer." better specimens, possibly of a different species more or less re

- are

sembling the real one; this, apart from errors or transposition of frost melts. The movement of the parts is then not inward at a labels, to which accidents all collections are more or less liable, in normal to the surface, but vertically downwards, or even downproportion to their age.

wards along the slope. As the two motions do not counterbalance While, therefore, fully admitting the great value of a type, or each other, a slow down-hill resultant remains. This is greatest type-figure, it is necessary to ascertain that it is really the specimen near the surface, where the dilatations and contractions are greator represents the specimen originally described. If it contradicts est; but it does not cease even at a depth of several feet, perhaps the original description in any important respect, and especially of many feet. Hence the down-hill dragging of old-weathered if it is an insect known to be from a different locality to that rock, often well sbown in fresh railroad cuttings in non-glaciated assigned to it by the original describer, it is more than probable regions. I presume all this is familiar to most readers; although that it is not the original type at all, and is worse than mislead- from the frequent inquiry concerning the means by which valleys ing. Errors of locality are always possible; but much will depend are widened it is evident that the creeping process is not so genon the author. Donovan, for instance, was extremely careless erally borne in mind as that by which running water wasbes loose about localities, but, as he figured all his species, this matters material down-hill. less; on the other hand, Fabricius was far more careful than later The form assumed by the surface of the land depends largely authorities have given bim credit for; and an error of this kind in on the ratio between the processes of washing and creeping. his work was quite exceptional.

Wherever the concentration of drainage makes transportation by

streams effective, the loose material is so generally carried away THE CONVEX PROFILE OF BAD-LAND DIVIDES.

(except on flood-plains) that the action of creeping is relatively

insignificant. But on divides, where drainage is not concentrated BY W. M. DAVIS, HARVARD COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, MASS.

but dispersed, the ratio of creeping to washing is large, even In Mr. Gilbert's analysis of land sculpture, constituting chapter though the value of creeping is still small. This is especially the V. of his “Geology of the Henry Mountains," he explaios why the case in regions of loose texture and of moderate rainfall; that is, surface of an eroded region possesses slopes that are concave up- in typical bad-lands, where the supply of loose surface-material wards and steepest near the divides, and shows that it is for the ready to creep is large, and where the loose material is slowly reasons there stated that mountains — that is, mature and well- taken away by washing. On the divides of such regions, the sculptured mountains, such as are of ordinary occurrence

surface form is controlled by the creeping process. The sharpsteepest at their crests (p. 116). The arêtes of the Alps illustrate edged divides, that should certainly appear if washing alone were this perfectly. Gilbert calls this generalization the law of di- in action, are nicely rounded off by the dilatations and contracsides."

tions of the soil along the ridge-line. The result thus determined But in discussing the forms assumed by eroded bad-lands, or by the slow outward and downward movements of the particles arid regions of weak structure with insignificant variety of text

might be imitated in a short time by a succession of light earthure, he finds an exception to the law of divides. The two lateral quake shocks. concave slopes of a bad-land ridge do not unite upwards at an Mr. Gilbert has himself given several beautiful illustrations of angle, forming a sharp divide, but are joined in a curve that is the close dependence of sharp or rounded divides on rainfall; convex instead of concave upwards. “Thus in the sculpture of structure remaining constant. If the rainfall should increase in the bad lands there is revealed an exception to the law of divides, – bad-land regions, would not all their divides become sharper; an exception which cannot be referred to accidents of structure,

and if the rainfall were continuous, so as to carry away every loose and which is as persistent in its recurrence as are the features particle as soon as it is loosened, would not the divides assume which conform to the law,- an exception which in some udex. the sharp ridge-line expected from Mr. Gilbert's analysis but not plained way is part of the law. Our analysis of the agencies and found in the actual arid bad-land climate? In the eastern and conditions of erosion, on the one hand, has led to the conclusion well-watered part of our country, I have often seen clay.banks that (where structure does not prevent) the declivities of a con- much more sharply cut than the equally barren surface of the tinuous drainage-slope increase as the quantities of water flowing western bad lands; but even on clay-banks, the minute divides over them decrease; and that they are great in proportion as they between the innumerable little valleys are not knife-edge sharp; are near divides. Our observation, on the other hand, sbows that they are rounded when closely looked Perhaps they are the declivities increase as the quantities of water diminish, up to sharper in wet weather and duller in dry spells. a certain point where the quantity is very small, and then de- If rainfall remain constant and structure vary, then the harder crcase; and that declivities are great in proportion as they are near the structure, the less tbe supply of soil for creeping and the divides, unless they are very near divides. Evidently some factor sharper the divides; the weaker the structure, the more plentiful has been overlooked in tbe analysis, -- a factor which in the main the supply of soil for creeping and the duller the divides. Numeris less important than the flow of water, but which asserts its ex- ous examples of this variation might be given. istence at those points where the flow of water is exceedingly small, and is there supreme" (pp. 122, 123).

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. It has for some time seemed to me that the overlooked factor is the creeping of the surface soil; and, as I have not seen men- Correspondents are requested to be as brief as possible. The writer's name

is in all cases required as proof of good faith. tion of this process as bearing on the form of the crest-lines of

On request in advance, one hundred copies of the number containing his divides, a brief nole on the subject is here offered.

communication will be furnished free to any correspondent. The superficial parts of rock-masses are slowly reduced to rock- The editor will be glad to publish any queries consonant with the character

of the journal. waste or soil by the various processes included under the term,

Some Remarks on the Botanic Trinomial. weathering. Unconsolidated materials are in the same way reduced to finer texture near their surface. The loose and often An article in Science for September 16, signed C. H. Tyler fine material thus provided at the surface is carried away by Townsend, contains certain statements which cannot be passed, various processes, of which the chief are moving water, moving it seems to me, without some few words of discussion. It is quite air, and occasionally moving ice; but there is an additional process evident that this article loses sight entirely of the main purpose of importance, involving dilatation and contraction of the soil, and of a biological name, and seems to imply that tbe name of a thing in consequence of which not only the loose particles on the surface has to do with justice, right, etc. For example, I find therein are transported, but a considerable thickness of loose material is the following expressions : “In no case can the name of the caused to creep slowly down-bill.

original erector and describer of a genus be separated therefrom Dilatation is caused by increase of temperature, by increase of without gross injustice." *. There is no necessity whatever for moisture, and by freezing. Vegetable growth may probably be shedding glory upon the one who has made the transfer. ... He added to this list. The movements are minute and slow. They bas no right whaterer to the species.” These words, “injusare directed outwards, about normally to the surface. Contrac- tice," "right," belong to the field of Ethics, not that of Taxtion follows dilatation, when the soil cools or dries, or when its onomy.

2

I shall try to consider the botanic trinomial, not from the etbical point of view as Mr. Townsend seems to bave done, but from the taxonomic strictly.

We find it conventent to give a name to a plant simply because the use of the name serves to call up an aggregate of character. istics when we wish, without the necessity of detailing those characteristics. The whole matter is one of convenience simply, and a name means nothing more than this.

It has been pretty universally agreed that it is more convenient to have a binomial name than a monomial one, for by this means we are enabled easily to group our plants, the first name serving to call to mind the aggregate of characteristics of the group (genus), possessed often by many sub-groups (species), and the second those characteristics possessed to a greater or less extent by the individuals that go to make up the sub-group.

So far this seems to be reasonable enough, and, following the same lines, should we choose to add a third name to our binomial, making it a trinomial, we should naturally do so for the purpose of segregating these sub-groups into still smaller ones (varieties). On this line the addition of terms might rationally be continued to the extent that the facts of observation would warrant.

But we find in the de facto botanic trinomial a mixture of two taxonomic principles, instead of the rational following out of the single line indicated by adding to the nonomial the second term. Usually the third term is added as a compromise with existing fact, simply to avoid the possibility of having two homonomic binomials, and consists of the name of the person who' first published the binomial. It is evident that this addition of such a third term serves a purpose only in comparatively rare cases; in the vast majority, were it not for the fear that some future comer would see fit to use the same binomial to designate another plant, it would be, as a name, useless. But at present the addition of the author's name is essentially a part of the naming of the plant.

It is this third name, and comparatively useless one, that is the cause of much of the trouble of the botanic taxonomists. Many seem to feel that this serving as a compromising tailpiece, the necessity for which it is confessedly the aim of the botanic world to do away with altogether, is an honor. And for this reason there is strife in a large class of cases as to the third name to be added to the binomial. For consider the following specific case. Hooker and Arnott po'ice a plant, which, in their judgment, is a member of the large group of plants that has been called Malva. They therefore give it the binomial name Malva malachroides, and first publish the characteristics which that name is to call up. Afterward Gray considers that the plant cannot belong to the group called Malva, and so gives the same plant the name Sidalcea malachroides. More recently Greene finds that the plant can be neither a Malva nor a Sidalcea, and calls it Hesperalcea malachro des.

Now suppose we have an individual of this group and wish to give it the most convenient name. For the name of the main group undeniably it matters not which of the three names we choose; if we have had the opportunity of studying the plant carefully our choice will be determined by the observed facts and our own judgment. Personally, in the present case, I chose to call the plant Hesperalcea. For the second name there is no choice, the three authors having given it the sarne. (Had there been a diversity of names here, the name first given the plant would have been chosen, not because this is “just,” or “right,” but because by this artificial rule we obtain a permanent factor in the name, without fossilizing individual opinion at all regarding the affinities of the plant.)

We now come to the third name, only added, remember, from the fear that some one bas called or will call some different plant Hesperalcea malachroides. Here custom is divided, and many would write H. malachroides, H. and A., and others H. malachroides, Greene. It is for us now to determine which of these dames is the most convenient. The person to whom we wish to

communicate the idea, H. malachroides, upon seeing the trinomial H. malachroides, H. and A., naturally turns to the works of H. and A. to find the summing up of the characters of the plant. But here he is met with an insurmountable difficulty. He can find no trace of it. Let him look for malachroides, perchance Mr. Townsend would say. But it is easily possible that H. anıl A. have described five species by the name of malachroides. On the other hand, suppose we write H. malachroides, Greene, the person wisbing to know of this plant would turn to the works of Greene and there would find the reference to Malva malachroides, H. and A., which would enable him to find the original description of the plant and thus obtain the idea wbich we wished to convey.

It seems plain enough then that the third name of this trinomia) from the standpoint of convenience should be Greene and not H. and A..

Mr. Townsend disposes of this difficulty in the following words:

“I would write Metsgeria pubescens schrank, ... and make no more ado or trouble about it. . . . This signifies always that the authority named described the species originally and originally proposed that name. The founder and date of the genus can be ascertained by referring to any monograph."

It is obvious on a little thought that this paragraph assumes & good deal more than the facts warrant. In the first place there certainly will be po monograph of the species named pubescens; and it is very possible that a monograph of the generic name chosen may not exist.

But it is perhaps allowable to look at these two trinomials from a slightly different point of view. Which tells the most truth? H. malachroides, H. and A., implies that H. and A. would now choose, as we have done, the group Hesperalcea for this plant. This we have no right to imply; as a matter of fact they did choose Malva, and this is all we know or should state.

in all the preceding I have assumed that the purpose of a name is to convey from one person to another the idea of a thing, and on this hypothesis it seems to me that the conclusions arrived at are sound; but I would not wish to be understood as desiring that a name should do no more than this. If it can convey the history of the thing, well and good, as long as by trying to do this it does not entirely defeat its own purpose, as I think I have sho:vn Hesperalcea malachroides, H. and A., would do.

C. MICHENER. San Francisco, Oct. 7.

Of course,

Notes on the Saturniidæ, or Emperor and Atlas Moths. ALTHOUGH the family Saturniidæ comprises the largest and some of the handsoinest of all the Lepidoptera, it is still very im. perfectly known. The larvæ are mostly gregarious, and feed on trees. Many of the form cocoons, wbich are attached to the branches of the trees upon which they live, while others (at least in South Africa) are said to pupate in the ground. I am not certain whether it has yet been ascertained whether this latter habit has been proved to be peculiar to certain species or genera, or whetber the same species may form its pupa in different ways, according to circumstances.

There is doubtless a much greater variety of these insects in tropical countries than we are at present aware of. Many of the most remarkable species are only received singly, and often remain unique in our collections for years. Collectors rarely hare an opportunity of rearing them from the larvæ, even if they should meet with a brood, and many species probably feed op lofty trees, quite out of reach, while the perfect insects are nocturnal in their habits. Many of the larger, and especially the domesticated species of Saturniidæ from which silk is obtained in India, China, and Japan, vary very much, and this is anotber obstacle to their successful study. Many of these domesticated breeds, and the various wild or semi-domesticated forms allied to them have been simply named, and not described; or perhaps only the food-plants and localities bave been indicated. These useless names find their way into our collections and from thence into our lists and papers, and form a wholly unnecessary element

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"I have not considered the writing of H. malachroides (H. and A.) Greene, as the parenthetical term is no more an essential part of the name than the date of publication or twenty other particulars which might occur in a mono graph on the plant.

of confusion, which should be eliminated as soon as possible, either by the actual description of the species, or by the rejection of these manuscript names. The mischievous practice of attaching names to insects without describing them bas long been abandoned by lepidopterists in crery branch of the studs except sericiculture.

W. F. KIRBY. London, England, Sept. 25.

stares the old system in the face - and let us hope that time is: far distant - then we can almost picture our laboring scientists, with the new system (?) dictionary before them, ever fearful of beginning one word with an F after tbe new, and the next with a Ph after the system they have so successfully used for generations.

E.

Destroying Mosquitoes by Kerosene. THE reason for the existence of mosquitoes has often been asked. Some means for their destruction has, perhaps, been even more earnestly sought after. The idea that their numbers can be kept down by propagating dragon-flies does not seem to be any longer entertained; and any experiment bearing on some means for their destruction is of interest. In a late number of Insect Life, Mr. L. 0. Howard publisbes a note upon the use of kerosene against them, the substance of which is as follows: On the surface of a pool of water, containing about 60 square feet, he poured four ounces of kerosene. This formed a very thin oily film on the surface of the water. On the 5th of July the pool was teeming with animal life, but for the next ten days that the pool was under observation no living insects were observed. At the end of this time, a count of the insects on a small portion of the surface, from which was estimated the total number, showed 7,400,- 370 of which were mosquitoes. The observation is of interest as showing tbe remedy to be an effective one, and, further, that a single application of oil will remain operative for ten days or longer, although two rain storms occurred during the interval. The matter is worthy of further observation and experiment.

JOSEPH F. JAMES. Washington, D.C., Oct. 10.

Phonetics in Science

Grand-Gulf Formation. DR. WM. H. DALL'S contribution to Miocene literature under this head calls for some notice, were it only to thank that eminent palæontologist for correcting my mistake with regard to the Gnathodon of Pascagoula and Mobile. With his unrivalled opportunities of comparison and long experience in these studies, his. determination is naturally satisfactory and final. I knew that in mollusks the young and the adult forms often differ considerably; but I knew not the life history of this one.

It is complimentary to me also that he bas accepted my outline of the evolution of the Florida Peninsula,' although he probably arrived at his conclusions from different and independent sourct's. And I wish to correct the impression he seems to bave of my potions of the genesis of the Grand Gulf. I do not say that the Pascagoula is a deep-sea formation, but speak of it as a “marine aspect” of the more intensely fresh water Grand Gull on the Mississippi; and I do not suppose that in an estuary marine influences prevail orer the fluviatile, in order to foster the life of any of the creatures that have left their remains in these calcareous class and sands; so that it may be said to be “partially of marine genesis.” The same views here expressed by Dr. Dall were iodicated by myself in another paper publisbed by the Geological Survey of Alabama on the “Nita Crevasse” in 1889, in which I speak of the progress of later formations on and in the Mississippi Sound and its older extension as presenting a “ marine-aspect ” of the “Port-Hudson group" of Dr. Hilgard, and sufficiently different to be called the Biloxi Formation a nomenclature I understood to have been approved by him among others. The method of genesis sketched in that paper for the Port Hudson was considered applicable to the older Post-Eocene formations of the same embayment.

I do not perceive, therefore, that Dr. Dall's correction of my definition of these clays” was “required;" nor bave I any to make of bis, for similar views have been elaborated for the forthcoming Alabama Geological Report, which will be in effect a new edition of Bulletin 37 of the United States Geological Survey.

The only criticism here to whicb Dr. Dall might seem amenable is a tacit endorsement of his own brochure of January last upon these same Miocene formations, in which it may be said he has. permitted conjecture upon general principles somewhat to outrun and forestall positive discovery. Hasty generalization is the bane of science. The Pascagoula Clays may be equivalent to his Chesapeake, but the testimony as yet can scarcely be said to be satisfactory. Whilst he has shown the younger Miocene of northern Florida, originally pamed by me the Waldo Formation, phases of which are seen at White Springs, in Hamilton County, and in the overlying clays at Aspalåga on the A palachicola River, to be Chesa peake; this surely cannot be identical with the upper layers at Alum Bluff, much less with the lower.” As he himself has shown, the latter is an older Miocene, identical with that occurring on Chipola at Bailey's Bridge, and called by myself Chipola at a time when, from high water, I had not seen the Ortholax beds at Alum Bluff, and when I bad not seen the perfect instance of contact and overlap presented at that place. At that time, I had previously discovered a Miocene in the vicinity of Defuniak Springs, on Shoal River, and on Alaqua River (and named it from the last), tracing it across Choctawhatchie, near Knox Hill, and across. Washington County a little south of Vernon, and across Chipola at Abe Springs, eight miles south of Ten-Mile Bayou, the principal site of the older Miocene. With the help of Mr. Jüssen (both of us then working with Mr. Geo. H. Eldridge on the geological

· Soe Dr. J. W. Spencer's First Report of the Geological Survey of Georgia, p. 60; and short papers of my own, read severally at the meetings of the Gea logical Society of America, August, 1891, and August, 1892.

9 There is no fossiliferous formation at Hawthorne, nor any at Ochoosne, as Dr. Dall seems to suppose.

a

FOLLOWING almost in the “wake” of the geological word. makers, who bare apparently a dictionary of their own construction, comes another scientific writer who has decided to use the phonetic system of orthography. My attention was called to an article in a chemical journal published in this country, and almost at a glance I should bave decided, had I not known the system, that the author had just finished writing a translation from the Spanish, and had his alphabet somewhat confused; for here before me was sulfate ; but reading further, I should have said, perhaps, that be had just finisbed a German translation.

All this would have occurred to me if I bad been ignorant of the existence of the phonetic system. Now, why did not this author change phenol-phtalein, which appears in the article referred to? Perhaps this word does not occur in the phonetic dictionary.

Is it not higb time for American scientists to stop coining” words? To be sure, these words differ from the geological ones in that they come well recommended by some philologists, and then the author in this case has not been guilty of owning an “ orthographic mint.” Why not continue to use the good old spelling, when it answers erery requirement? The only disadvantage (?) in so doing, to my mind, may be in the fact that the words are longer than those in the phonetic system, and, as the advocates of this system claim, are more difficult to spell; so they are to some people, but unless they are foreigners, one is not in the babit of meeting such scientists in every-day life. Scarcely has our American language secured a strong foot-hold than it must be changed for the benefit of a few who would receive the honors as the originators and champions of a new system of orthography. I know of one advocate (not the author, it is needless to say, the paper in the chemical journal above referred to) who “prides himself not only upon his ability to use the pbonetic system, but also upon bis beautiful English." Yet this very same man habitually uses, for example, such phrases as “Ain't be funny ?” Still this bardly belongs to my criticism of phonetics in science. Why not leave the phonetic system to the philologists; why incorporate it in our scientific work?

When the advocates of this system have succeeded in establishing a strong foot hold for their system, and permanency (for it)

66

a

of

survey of Florida) the differences between these two formations

Is There a Seose of Direction? was established, and for the younger the name of Aliqua revives. The recent articles in Science by Dr. Hall and Dr. Work on this Whether this is identical with the Chesapeake and Carolinian or subject tempt me to say that in early life I was a believer in this not is for another discussion. At the same time the same parties sense, my belief being derived from Cooper's Leather Stocking identified the Chattahoochee beds of Langdon, which underlie the Tales and similar sources. The winter of 1855–56 was spent in Miocenes of Georgia and northern Florida, with the Chipola heds, what was then called “the bad axe country" of western Wisconand traced their continuity westward across the Choctaw hatchie, sin, in company with an old French-Capadian trapper, who seemed until, meeting with the syncline of the great roll froin Alabama, to possess this gift in a (to me) marrellous degree; and, as be they sink out of sight under the great sand-beds which fill the boasted of it and never to my knowledge made a mistake, my bedepression now drained by Shool River.

lief in this sense was confirmed. The connection of tbese two Florida Miocenes with the eastward The next winter, with a very limited knowledge of the Ojibwa extension of the Grand Gulf into south Alabama is inatter for tongue, picked up on the Bad Axe, I went with a government field research, and cannot be decided in the closet upon general survey into northern Minnesota in the capacity of interpreter. principles. Enough is certain, however, to render it clear that if Here the subject was discussed in camp, and the sceptics proposed it is proper to draw the line between an older and a younger Mio- a test. Five Indians were blind-folded, turned around several cene in Florida, such a distinction continues westward into Ala- times, and led half a mile from camp in different directions. Not bama and Mississippi; and where can we draw it better than upon one could point to the camp until the bandage was removed from lithological grounds between the water-holding stratified sands his eyes, nor could they point to the north. As soon as they and sandstones of the lower Grand Gulf and those orercapping could see they easily found the camp, although it was in the flat, clays which, pierced at Brewton and Pallard 70 feet, at Mobile low-rolling country north-east of Crow Wing, where there are no 735, at Biloxi 770, at Pearl River 800, and at New Orleans 1,200 prominent land marks to be seen from the beavy-timbered lands. feet, yield similar flows of water with similar clays and fossils ? On several other occasions it was found that the Ojibwa was Of tbe latter I have other collections, which shall be submitted to guided by the lie of the land, as indicated by water-courses, the Dr. Dall, now that I know his attention has been turned to the twist of trees as seen on stubs denuded of bark, the sun, and the matter.

many minor indications of the cardinal points that are known to Upon the use of the term formation, I finally have to say that expert woodsmon, both white and red. Therefore I agree with it is at least provisional, for every discoverer to name every struc- Dr. Hall that man does not possess an instinct which teacbes him ture be finds having peculiarities from some locality where it is to find his way to a given point regardless of darkness or of preprominently developed, although in the course of palæontological vious knowledge of locality. research many of these provisional names may disappear; and I I cannot agree that any animal possesses this sense. If so, it submit that the prevailing American practice is not an abuse. For would be the wild animals, whose necessities would keep the sense these reasons I shall still insist upon the propriety of calling the in training, and not those whose needs have been supplied by man. Pascagoula Class the Pascagoula Formation.

Dr. Hall cites the cat, which bas been taken in a box for fifty

LAWRENCE C. JOHNSON. miles and yet reached home. This may be so; but such instances, Meridian, Miss., Oct. 2.

if true, are recorded as wonderful, as they truly are; while the thousands of other cats which were taken less than five miles

from home and never returned are never recorded. Dr. Work Jealousy in Infants.

mentions the many carrier pigeons which never return, and it is OF my two children one is a boy of four years, the other a girl generally conceded that these birds depend on sight alone, their of ten months. The boy has just returned home after an absence trainers taking them short distances at first, and then increasing of some months. His sister displays great affection for him. She them until they know the way to the loft. is also much attached to ber nurse, more so at times apparently Let us take the case of the greatest of all migrating animals, tban to any other member of the housebold.

the wild goose.

All of us who have seen anything of these birds Now if, while the girl is sitting on a mat alone or on the lap bave seen them lost in a fog. Dr. Work thinks their flying at of either of her parents, the nurse should take the boy upon her

different altitudes may be determined by “the character of tbe knee and fondle him, the girl will immediately cry out in a dis- upper currents,” and if these currents determine the density of tressful way, in a tone not precisely indicative of anger or vexa- fogs, be is right; for on a clear day, when the geese can see many tion, but more nearly similar to the tone of grief or disappointed miles ahead and get a bird's-eye view of landmarks fifty miles desire. In the case described the infant will not be appeased distant, they fly very high, but let rain or mist prevail, and they unless the nurse puts down the boy and takes her up It will not drop within reach of gun-powder, because they must come near avail for the nurse to take her up on one knee, leaving the boy on the earth to get their bearings and preserve the direction of their the other.

flight, by vision alone. If, however, while the nurse has the infant in her arms, either I have, among my flock of wild fowl, a pair of brant, B. berniclı of the parents takes up the boy and caresses him, the girl displays (the only goose that Atlantic coast gunners call “ brant," although only a strong interest, but no annoyance whatever.

in the West every goose is a “brant," except the Canada goose). It is evident then that the outburst of feeling in the former case One of these birds strayed from a flock going north in the spring was a display of jealousy. And, as the child is not precocious, it of 1890, during one of the darkest of nights, when the rain came is allowable to look upon this case as an instance of ordinary as hard as rain can come, and was captured while flying around mental development in children.

a street-lamp in the village, thoroughly bewildered. The other was It is wonderful enough that infants of a few weeks or months taken the same night two miles south of the village by a boy who should make unmistakable manifestations of the simpler emotions

found it on the ground. Such instances are common in every of fear, affection, and anger. But tbat an emotion so complex as rural locality, not only with the black brant.” but with its larger jealousy should appear so early as at the age of ten montbs is relative the Canada goose as well; and if there are better paviespecially remarkable, and indicates a degree of development at

gators in the animal world who should have the "sense of directhis age wbich, in the absence of observation, might justly be tion," if there is such a sense, I do not know what animals they deemed incredible.

I have not by me the works of Taine, Preser, or Perrez, and so Dr. Work covers the case in his last paragraph, when he says: am not able to say what observations, if any, they made in respect “Whatever instincts animals may have in this direction, man has to this particular matter. Darwin observed jealousy in an infant

the same, with the additional faculty of reason.” That is, he of fifteen and a half months, but adds, “it would probably be covers the question of a “sense of direction" in animals, and exbibited by infants at an earlier age if they were tried in a fitting allows man as much; but I cannot subscribe to his implied assumpmanner."

A. STEVENSON. tion of reason by man alone. That, however, is another question. Arthur, Ontario, Canada.

Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.

FRED MATHER.

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