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lies, not in the system, perhaps, which may be good tongues and skill in rhetorical or literary art be never so enough considered as an end, but in the personal training

“What can you do ?" not “what do you know? of those who have had these systems in charge. I think is the question of the hour, and the high school of to-day and it true that educational methods and dicta are among the of the future will be compelled to answer the question. Will very last, if we except theology, to yield to the demands im- it do it completely? Not as at present constituted, nor, if posed by changing environment. To one cultured along the like the barrister, it be bound by the law of precedents, will lines fashionable a decade ago, it becomes a difficult task to it ever intelligently answer it. change methods and opinions that are the outgrowth of such

Relation to University Requirements. discipline. The maintenance of courses of study that are either largely classical or mathematical means simply a sys

To this phase of the subject attention will be but briefly tem based upon methods in vogue long since. A compro

directed. The high school does not exist for the college or mise is noted, however, in those schools in which a so-called the university; it is an end in itself. Its original institution scientific course is provided; from this concessisn it is

did not contemplate its relations to these institutions as a easy to pass to those schools whose work is largely along the gymnasium, but appears to have resulted from the more lines imposed by physical science.

universal methods of gradation of school work. In cities This modification – whether it be forced or natural is

it was learned that the time required to master the elemenimmaterial — reflects the tendencies of the thought of the

tary studies could be much shortened by rigid system and day. On all sides, and in all manner of ways, increased at

rigid enforcement of its necessary provisions. Following tention is being given to physical science. The reason is

this it was discovered that students might complete their not past finding out-it lies close at hand. Science enters

school life at too early an age. Additional studies were ininto the bome, social and mercantile life of the world to a troduced, and finally a system involving a secondary educadegree never before known in the history of mind. It has tion, formerly confined to private academies and seminaries, builded upon a foundation broadly and well laid, because became a part of the public school scheme; the high school laid primarily with a just appreciation of the physical neces- became a fact. sities of man. Those who now toil, and no longer with un- There can be no question that popular education did not requited labor, in the laboratories of the world have felt and contemplate the establishment of the high school. To still feel the impetus due to the appreciation. Not a law of many, and to us, its legal right to exist is questionable. life, not a condition in the physical environment of men, not However that may be, the high school has come to stay. a pest that may destroy his stores or his comfort, not a prod. It has the support and sympathy of the liberally educated uct of land, sea or air, but somewhere some one is busy work- classes, and is not unappreciated by the less fortunate grades ing out details, deducing laws, formulating results, suggest


in society. So that the problem of its curriculum must be ing utilities. The world is en rapport with works of this worked out in view of the interest these two classes of society sort, and it is by no means uninformed as to their value. A evidence in general education. new law of light, a new application of electric force, a new At the end of the scheme of public instruction stands the fact in chemistry, a new method of locomotion, these all are university. Most, if not all, of the States recognize this heralded as to an expectant community. The world waits relationship, and the curriculum of the secondary or high for facts such us these, the world expects them.

school is derised to conform to it. We think wisely. ReThe question turns now on the manner in, and the extent cently, in this city, Des Moines, a convention of schoolto which this tendency is to be recognized in the high masters discussed this, or a nearly related matter, and the school curriculum. It does not need a prophet's vision, nor opinion at that time expressed evidenced a condition of bea sage's wisdom to give the answer. It will be answered on lief far from unanimity as to the requirements presented by the lines that have reference to the circumstances, duties, the university authorities. But the university is right in and work of life. It were idle to stem the tide even were it high requirements; right in insisting that secondary instrucdesirable. It is not a counter-argument that the term

tion be confined to secondary schools; right in assuming "practical tendency" is accepted at its narrowest meaning- that its educational forces are to be exerted along the highest that of bare and specific preparation for professional or busi- possible lines. Particularly is this true of the requirements ness pursuits. But if even such illogical answers should be in physical science. The proper prosecution of original remade, the fact still remains that the high school is the poor search, which is certainly a university prerogative, the best man's college. It furnishes the highest education which the presentment of modern scientific thought and method, which major portion of the young men and women of a community is the aim of university education, cannot be realized when can obtain. Who, then, shall say that it should not pre- its instructors are burdened with quasi-elementary work. pare, not alone for right living, which is solely a subordi- So, back upon the high school must fall the work of elenate and moral aspect of the question, but for successful mentary instruction in physical science. This the univerbusiness living? Why should not the studies pursued bave sity demands, and this the high school must do. Now, in discipline as a means and utility as an end? We do not the appointment of the various courses leading to degrees believe a thoughtful, intelligent answer can be negative. in the universities, it is noticeable, if decade he compared We ask, then, a modification of the traditional curriculum with decade, that more and more are scientific subjects ocand the institution — better perhaps to say substitution - of cupying the fore-ground. More time to science, fewer sub

one which has as a prominent feature the culture of to- jects; more stringent requirements, greater opportunity for day. The time has passed when one ignorant of the laws of elections, these are the rule in the modern university and health and the gross anatomy of the person, ignorant of the these must be understood and appreciated on the part of the chemistry of cookery and the laws of ventillation, ignorant high school. There are few good colleges and no universiof the dynamics of physical nature and unlearned as well as ties of standing which do not now demand at least a year in unskilled in the manipulations of the laboratory, may pose physics and a year of botany. In most others biological as a cultured man, though his knowledge of wonderful subjects are held as essential, and not a few require a fairly



complete course in physical geography - of all high school figures of lengthy trial. Suffice it to say that it was found subjects the most difficult and the one most commonly poorly that horses, as in the case of cattle and pigs, showed no distaught. Certain universities, as Harvard and Michigan, advantage by the division of the grain and hay into separequire elementary chemistry; others entirely ornit it, be- rate feeds over feeding bay mixed with grain. Indeed, in cause in it students are too often poorly prepared. Said a this trial he found a disadvantage for the horses on the hay university professor o! chemistry to me, not long ago, “I and grain mixed, they not maintaining their weight as well. prefer my students to come to me with no chemistry. I find The author ascribed this result to the fact that the timothy they too often come with matter and methods to be un- hay when cut fine, with its sbarp solid ends, irritated and learned.” Now, this must be remedied in the chemistry made sore the mouths of the horses, and possibly induced work of the high school; the “indictment must be quashed ;" too rapid eating, as when the hay and grain were moist they the fault must be corrected by proper instructions and skilled would be more likely to eat more rapidly than when fed methods. Without appliances, that is to say, without labora- dry. As this trial is in accord with trials with ruminants tory facilities, radical and valuable revolution is impossible. and with the pig, it would seem quite probable that the old Physical science in the high school must be experimental. and persistent argument in favor of mixing hay and grain

Without multiplying words, then, it may be stated that is not sound. the high school must give, to those who ask it, preparation The second trial reported in this bulletin covered feeding for entrance into university work. It must adapt its science of cut against whole hay to horses. This trial also covered curriculum to the requirements of the standard college or two periods in which the foods were reversed with the sets, university. For long years these bigher institutions com- in order to determine whether any change of weights found pelled certain and definite work in language and mathe- was due to the individualism of the horses, or wbether it matics, they compel that work, with little or no modification was due to the system of seeding. The two periods covered to-day. Why cannot they, equally well, compel proper from August 10 to December 31. As in the other case, we science preparation ? We believe they can; we think they will not review the tabulated data that accompany the bulwill.

letin. This trial was very decisively in favor of the cut There will not be, in the nature of things there cannot be, clover for the four months and a half covered by this period. a set limit to science requirements in the universities. As The food fed was clover, and the autbor points out the fact the tables of the various laboratories, physical, chemical, that clover hay and lucerne, unlike timothy bay, do not pbysiological and biological, become over-taxed, up go the present sharp, solid, cutting edges. The results are decisive, requirements. The standards of entrance are being steadily and in accordance with those of a trial made by the Indiana raised, especially in Indiana University, Michigan Univer- Experiment Station with cattle. Director Sanborn points out sity, Cornell, Yale, Harvard, and Leland Stanford, Jr., the fact that these trials, covering nearly a year's time with Universities, as fast as the high and other secondary schools four horses, showed that horses consume practically the same will admit cf it. So there is no goal; no end; the high amount of food that cattle do when high fed, and make it school will ever need to keep close watch on university matters somewbat clear that horses make as economical use of hay and determine its own work accordingly. Our own State and grain as do cattle, and he calls attention to the fact that university proposes to the bigh school to occupy advanced the practice of charging more for pasturage of horses, where ground in this very matter; to gaiu and hold the confidence grooming is not involved, is not well founded. He also of the university, on the one band, to meet a legitimate de- shows that less food was eaten during the hot months than mand for more complete preparation in science on the other, during the cooler months, and particularly that the horses the high school course must be materially modified.

ate less grain during the hot months than during the cooler months. The trial seems to show also that a rather large

ration of grain for work-horses is an economical one. THE FEEDING OF HORSES. BULLETIN No. 13 of the Agricultural Experiment Station

NOTES AND NEWS. of Utah has been received. This bulletin reports the results THE idea of flower-farming for perfumes seems to be exciting of a feeding trial of horses by the director, J. W. Sanborn. a good deal of interest in New South Wales, as many inquiries It reports the result of a trial in a direction that the Ameri- on the subject have lately been submitted to the Agricultural can Experiment Station literature is almost silent upon, viz.,

Department. There are at present in the colony no means of feeding horses hay and grain mixed, and feeding cut against illustrating the practical operations of this industry, but the

Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales hopes that this defiwhole hay to horses.

ciency will soon be supplied by he institution of experimental It is a common belief with horsemen that when grain, plots on one or more of the experimental farms. The Gazette especially meal, and more especially such meal as corn meal, points out that in scent farms large quantities of waste material is fed to horses alone or mixed with bay, it tends to compact from nurseries, gardens, orchards, and ordinary farms might be in the stomach and produce indigestion. It is believed that profitably utilized, wbile occupation would be found for some it so far compacts that the gastric juices do not have free who are unfit for bard, manual labor. A Government perfume access to the mass of it. Furthermore, it is believed to be farm was lately established at Dunolly, in Victoria, and this subject more to the washing influence of heavy drinking.

promises to be remarkably successful. In the latter respect it is known that the horse's stomach is At the meeting of the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria on very small, and that grain is liable to be washed out of it,

March 14, as we learn from Nature, Professor Baldwin Spencer, as the stomach necessarily overflows with water.

the president, gave an interesting account of a trip he had made

to Queensland in search of Cerato lus. Special interest attaches As usual, the writer fed two lots of horses for nearly three

to this form, since it is the Australian representative of a small months, one lot with hay and grain mixed, and the other

group of animals (the Dipnoi) which is intermediate between the lot with hay and grain fed separately. At the end of this

fishes and the amphibia. Ceratodus has its bome in the Mary and period the food was reversed, and the horses were fed some Burneit River in Queensland, whilst its ally, Lepidosiren, is two months more. It would be unnecessary to quote the found in the Amazon, and another relative, Protopterus, flourishes


in the waters of tropical Africa. Although unsuccessful in ob- plete results for the ten years in question. The author has distaining the eggs of Ceratodus, owing to the early season, Professor cussed the results from these stations and given the monthly and Spencer was able, from a careful study of the surroundings under yearly means of temperature, humidity, cloud, and rainfall. His which the animal lives, to infer that its lung is of as great a ser- general conclusions are: (1) With respect to mean temperature vice to it during the wet as during the dry season a theory in the sea-coast stations are warm in winter and cool in summer, direct opposition to the generally accepted one that the lung whilst the inland stations are cold in summer and hot in winter. functions principally during the dry season, when the animal is (2) At all stations the maximum temperature occurs in July or inhabiting a mud-cocoon within the dry bed of the river.

August, and the minimum in December or January (3) Rela- A second attempt is to be made to build an observatory at

tive humidity is lowest at the sea-coast stations and highest at the top of Mont Blanc. As the workmen who tunnelled last year

the inland ones. (4) The south-western district seems the most through the snow just below the summit did not come upon rock,

cloudy in winter, spring, and autumn, and the southern district

the least cloudy in the summer months, and the sea-coast stations M. Janssen has decided that the building shall be erected on the frozen snow. A wooden cabin was put up, as an experiment, at

are, as a rule, less cloudy than the inland ones. (5) Rainfall is the end of last summer, and in January and early in the spring it

smallest in April, and, as a rule, greatest in November, and it in

creases from east to west. was found that no movement had occurred. According to the

“ The Mean Temperature of the air Lucerne correspondent of the London Times, the observatory is

on each day of the year at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, on to be a wooden building 8 metres long and 4 metres wide, and

the average of the fifty years, 1841 to 1890" was presented by Mr. consisting of two floors, each with two rooms. The lower floor,

W. Ellis, F.R.A.S The values given in this paper are derived which is to be embedded in the snow, will be placed at the dispo

from eye observations from 1841 to 1848, and from the photosition of climbers and guides, and the upper floor reserved for

graphic records from 1849 to 1890. The mean annual tempera

ture is 49.5°. The lowest winter temperature, 37.2, occurs on the purposes of the observatory. The roof, which is to be almost flat, will be furnished with a balustrade, running round it, to

January 12, and the highest summer temperature, 63.8°, on

July 15. gether with a cupola for observations. The whole building will

The average temperature of the year is reached in rest upon six powerful screw-jacks, so that the equilibrium may

spring on May 2, and in autumn on October 18. The interval be restored if there be any displacement of the snow foundations.

during which the temperature is above the average is 169 days, The building is now being made in Paris, and will shortly be

the interval during which it is below the average being 196 days. brought in sections to Chamounix. The transport of the building – The Todas, inhabiting the Nilgiri plateau, says Nature, are from Chamounix to the summit of Mont Blanc and its erection not dying out gradually, as has long been supposed. The last there have been intrusted to the charge of two capable guides — census figures show that they have increased by no less than 10 Frederick Payot and Jules Bossonay.

per cent during the last ten years, there being now nearly eight - Dr. J. Hann laid before the Academy of Sciences at Vienna,

hundred of them altogether. on May 5, says Nuture, another of those elaborate investigations In a recent number of the Journal of the Straits Branch of for which he is so well known, entitled “Further Researches into the Royal Asiatic Society there is an interesting note on the little the Daily Oscillations of the Barometer.” The first section of the insectivora, Tupaia javanensis. It is very common in Singapore, work deals with a thorough analysis of the barometric oscillations and especially in the Botanic Gardens, wbere it may be often on mountain summits and in valleys, for different seasons, for seen running about among the trees. It is easily mistaken for the which he has calculated the daily harmonic constituents, and common little squirrel (Sciurus hippurus), of which it has much given a full description of the phenomena, showing how the am- the appearance.

When alarmed it quickly darts up the trunk of plitude of the single daily oscillation first decreases with increas- the nearest tree, but it is a poor climber, and never seems to go ing altitude, and then increases again with a higher elevation. high up like the squirrel. Besides these points of resemblance, it The epochs of the phases are reversed at about 6,000 feet above appears to be largely frugivorous. It was found that the seeds sea-level as compared with those on the plains. The minimum sown in boxes were constantly being dug up and devoured by on the summits occurs about 6 A.M., and in the valleys between some animal, and traps baited with pieces of cocoa-nut or banana 3 and 4 P.M. The double daily oscillation shows, in relation were set, and a number of tupaias were caught. These being to its amplitude on the summits, nearly the normal decrease, in put into a cage appear to live very comfortably upon bananas, proportion to the decreasing pressure, but the epochs of the pbases pine-apple, rice, and other such things; refusing meat. The exhibit a retardation on the summits, of as much as one or two Rev. T. G. Wood, in his “Natural History,” states that T. ferruhours. In the tropics, however, this retardation is very small. ginea is said to feed on beetles, but to vary its diet with certain He then endeavors to show that these modifications of the daily fruits. The common species at Singapore seems to be almost enbarometric range on mountain summits are generally explained tirely frugivorous, though its teeth are those of a typical insectiby the differences of temperature in the lower strata of air. In connection with this part of the subject, he considers that even

The Mississippi Valley Medical Association will hold its the differences in the daily oscillations at Greenwich and Kew

eighteenth annual session at Cincinnati, Oct. 12–14, 1892. An are mostly explained by the different altitudes of the two stations

excellent programme, containing the best names in the valley and by the fact that Greenwich is on an open hill. In the second

and covering the entire field of medicine, will be presented. An section he has computed the harmonic constants for a large num

address on Surgery will be delivered by Dr. Hunter McGuire of ber of stations not contained in his former treatise of a similar

Richmond, Va., President of the American Medical Association. nature, including some valuable observations supplied by the Bra

An address on Medicine will be made by Dr. Hobart Amory Hare, zilian Telegraph Administration, and others at various remote

Professor of Therapeutics and Clinical Medicine, Jefferson parts of the globe.

Medical College. Philadelphia. The social as well as the scientific - The last meeting of the Royal Meteorological Society for the part of the meeting will be of the highest order. The Mississippi present session was held on Wednesday evening, June 15. A Valley Medical Association possesses one great advantage over paper on “English Climatology, 1881–1890” was read by Mr. similar bodies, in that its organic law is such that nothing can be F. C. Bayard. This is a discussion of the results of the climato- discussed during the sessions save and except science. All ethical logical observations made at the society's stations, and printed in matters are referred, together with all extraordinary business, to the Meteorological Record for the ten years, 1881–1890. The in- appropriate committees their decisions are final and are acstruments at these stations have all been verified, and are ex- cepted without discussion. The constitution and by-laws are posed under similar conditions, the thermometers being mounted comprehensive and at the same time simple. Precious time is in a Stevenson screen, with their bulbs four feet above the not allowed the demagogue or the medical legislator. The offiground. The stations are regularly inspected and the instru- cers of the Pan-American Medical Congress will hold a conferments tested by the assistant secretary. The stations now num. ence at the same time and place.: E. 8. McKee, M.D., Cincinber about eighty, but there were only fifty-two which had com- nati, is the secretary.



parties - that of carrying out its investigations during those months which are best suited to the sanitary condition of its workers.

Secretary's office, 519 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, June 27.







(Edited by D. G. Brinton, M.D., LL.D.)

The Peruvian Languages 874 BROADWAY, New YORK.

Now that the great work of Dr. E. W. Middendorf on the

Peruvian languages has been brought to a conclusion by the SUBSCRIPTIONS.- United States and Canada....

.$3,50 a year. publication of the sixth and last volume, that on the Muchik Great Britain and Europe...

4.50 & year.

(or Chimu or Yunca) tongue, the high value of this contriCommunications will be welcomed from any quarter. Abstracts of scientific bution to American ethnology should be urged on the scienpapers are solicited, and one hundred copies of the issue containing such will tific world. be mailed the author on request in advance. Rejected manuscripts will be Dr. Middendorf is a medical man who practised his proreturned to the authors only when the requisite amount of postage accom.

fession many years ago in various parts of Peru, making a panies the manuscript. Whatever is intended for insertion must be authenti

study of the native dialects his favorite recreation. He thus cated by the name and address of the writer; not necessarily for publication, but as a guaranty of good faith. We do not hold ourselves responsible for

became practically familiar with them as living tongues, any view or opinions expressed in the communications of our correspondents. and backed up that knowledge by an acquaintance with

Attention is called to the “Wants" column. It is invaluable to those who such literature as they possessed. The results of this long use it in soliciting information or seeking new positions. The name and

devotion are now before us in six large octavo volumes, address of applicants should be given in full. so that answers will go direct to

published by Brockhaus, Leipzig, and counting up in all to them. The “Exchange" column is likewise open. For Advertising Rates apply to HENRY F. TAYLOR, 47 Lafayette Place, New

nearly 2,400 pages of handsomely printed material. The languages considered are the Kecbua, the Aymara, and the Chimu, with an appendix on the Chibcha. There is an

ample supply of grammatical analyses, texts, phrases, and, THE DE LAINCEL FUND FOR THE STUDY OF THE

of the Kechua, a copius Kechua-German-Spanish dictionary. MAYA LANGUAGE AND ITS GRAPHIC SYSTEM.

That the Aymara and Chimu vocabularies are not arranged

alphabetically must be regarded as a blemish. One of the THE de Laincel Fund, so-named, after a relative, by a gen

volumes contains the original text and a German translation

of the drama of Ollanta, believed by many to be a genuine tleman of Philadelphia, now residing in Mexico, who contributes handsomely to its support, has for its object a

specimen of a native, pre-Columbian, dramatic production.

There are also many songs and specimens of prose writings thorough study of the graphic system of the ancient Mayas, by collecting vocabularies of that language and its dialects,

in the same tongue. Taking Middendorf's practical observaand obtaining reliable artistic reproductions, by medns of

tions along with Tschudi's "Organismus der Kechua Sprache."

the student will find himself well equipped to master this photograpbs, of the ancient cities and mural inscriptions of

interesting idiom. Central America, also photographing and copying ancient manuscripts or other material which will be of service to

The Orientation of Primitive Structures. students in this special field of research.

The study of the relative directions which the walls and The work will be carried on under the direction of an ad- angles of ancient structures bear to the cardinal points bas visory committee, to be chosen from among ethnologists who scarcely yet received the attention from archæologists which are authorities upon, and students of, the Maya language, it merits. its paleography and art.

Several varieties of this “ orientation," as it is termed, are The exploration of the fund will be carried on under the to be found, each with its own meaning. The ancient direction of Dr. Hilborne T. Cresson of Philadelphia, well Egyptian mastabas and pyramids bave their sides facing the known as an ethnologist in America and Europe. The re- cardinal points. This arose from the desire of having tbe sult of his researches have at times been published by the dvor in the centre of the eastern side to face the rising sun, Peabody Museum, where for the past five years he has been and the western door, sta, to face the setting sup, as it was a special assistant, working under the direction of Professor through the latter that the god Anubis conducted the soul F. W. Putnam of Harvard University. Dr. Cresson's artis- to the other world. On the other hand, the Babylonians tic training at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, in the ateliers of and Assyrians directed the angles, and not the sides, of their the sculptor Alexander Dumont, and the painter J. Leon temples to the cardinal points, for what occult reason is not Gerome (his works having been exposed in the Salon of clear. Again, Mr. J. Walter Fewkes has found that the 1877), joined to that of an accomplished French and Spanish kib vas, or sacred chambers, of the Tusayan Indians at the scholar, especially capacitates him for this line of research. Moqui Pueblo are oriented north-east and south-west. This He has also for some years past been studying the Maya lan- he at first thought was owing to the character of the bluff, guage under the direction of so distinguished an authority but there are reasons to believe it of a ceremonial origin. as Professor Daniel G. Brinton, and a good basis has thus Some curious observations in this connection are reported been obtained for future research.

by Mr. Robert M. Swan, about the Zimbabwe ruins, in the The de Laincel Fund will act in conjunction with some last number of the Journal of the Royal Geographical Soof our leading American institutions, yet to be determined ciety. He found a series of ornaments on the walls of the upon, or independently, as its patron may deem best. The great temple so disposed that one group would receive diwork will be carried on during the healthy season in the rectly the sun's rays at his rising and another at his setting south, adopting the plan already pursued by other exploring at the period of the winter solstice, when these points in that

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latitude were respectively 250 south of east and west; while a nesians are dying out, largely owing to the infertility of third series of ornaments faced the full midday sun. Others their marriages. Certain South American tribes, the were similarly arranged for the summer solstice; and a great Guatos of Paraguay, for instance, will soon disappear from stone over the temple showed, by alignment with the main the same cause. But we need not confine our instances to altar and a carved pattern on the wall, the true north and savage peoples. Physicians say that our “colonial dames," south.

scions of Anglo-American families who have lived several Last year an English archæologist undertook a journey to generations in this country, have much smaller families Greece to make a special study of the orientation of the than their great-grandmothers. ancient temples on that classic ground, but his results have In France this lessening of the birth-rate has assumed not yet appeared. Certainly, as will be seen from the above, serious proportions, and has alarmed patriotic men lest as a the point is one full of significance.

nation it should become numerically too weak to hold its On Prosopology.

own in the conflicts of the future. The distinguished author

nd statesman, the Marquis de Nadaillac, bas published There is little doubt that craniology, as a branch of anthropology, has been much over-estimated, and affords only

some stirring admonitions to his countrymen on the subject

under the titles “Le Peril National and la Depopulation de very insecure material for ethnic classifications. On the

la France.” He finds the birth-rate least in the cities, in the other hand, the study of the features of the face, which may be called Prosopology, from the Greek, prosopon, face, is

richest communes, and in the most prosperous conditions of yielding constantly more valuable results. The width or

society. Turning to its causes, he bas convinced himself

that this diminution is voluntary and of malice prepense on narrowness of the face, the nasal and orbital indices, the prominence of the jaws, the facial angles, and the devel

the part of married couples. They do not want the bother opment of the chin, all are points of prime ethnic signifi- split up; they prefer pleasure and ease to the labor of

of many children; they do not wish their property to be cance. One of the leading European writers on this subject is

parental duties.

Young men prefer mistresses to wives, and Professor Kohlman of Basel, whose works are extremely in

mistresses are always barren. The competition of modern

life and its rabid thirst for enjoyment undermine the family structive. In this country a series of papers on “The Eth

tie. The birth-rate is small, not for physiological but for nology of the Face,” by Dr. A. H. Thompson, have ap

sociological reasons. How far this applies to the United peared in the Dental Cosmos for the current year. They

States has not yet been sufficiently investigated; but it is place the details of the subject in a popular light, and emphasize its value; but they would be more satisfactory had

probably nearly equally true here. their author not been led astray by some of the books which he quotes. To class the Eskimos and the American Indians THE VARIABILITY OF SPECIFIC CHARACTERS AS among the Mongolians is quite out of date; and to call the

EXHIBITED BY THE EXTINCT GENUS CORYwhite race Caucasians, and to divide them into blondes and

PHODON. brunettes as leading subdivisions is scarcely less so. He does, indeed, distinguish an “Americanoid" type, from which he excludes the Eskimos and Aleuts as being true It is a well-recognized law in biology, that a species or a Mongols;" on what grounds he or any one would be puz- genus upon the point of extinction undergoes a great amount zled to say. He describes the hair of this “Americanoid” of variation; and, as an example of this kind, I propose to type as similar to that of the Mongolians, from which, in describe some of the variations which the species of the fact, it differs in nearly every respect. In spite of these fossil genus Coryphodon exhibit. drawbacks, Dr. Thompson's articles form a welcome and The fine collection of Coryphodon material in the Ameripraiseworthy addition to recent American contributions to can Museum of Natural History has enabled me to study anthropologic literature.

this subject; and in a forthcoming paper in the Bulletin of Linguistic Bibliography.

the Museum I shall attempt a revision of the American spe

cies of Coryphodon. The study of American languages will in the future be

The great amount of variation in this genus is shown from vastly facilitated by the admirable series of bibliographies

the fact that no less tban twenty-one species have been de. by Mr. James C. Pilling, which are now being published by

scribed, and only in a few cases have any of them been acthe Bureau of Ethnology. Some idea of their thoroughness

knowledged as synonyms. may be gained from the fact that the latest issued, confined

Taking up the variation of the teeth, I will first describe to the Algonquian dialects alone, has 614 double-columned,

the structure of a typical upper and lower molar of Coryclosely printed, large octavo pages ! Compare this with the phodon. The superior molars are a modification of the 258 pages of Ludewig's " Bibliography of American Aborigi

primitive tri-tubercular type, in which the anterior crescent, nal Literature," which included all the languages of both

or antero-external lobe, has been lost, or so much modified North and South America !

that only traces of it remain. On the antero external porMr. Pilling bas put forth similar volumes, less in size but

tion of the crown there is a prominent cone, which is in not inferior in completeness, on the Iroquois, Eskimo, Da

connection with the single internal lobe by a sharp crest (see kota and Muskokee groups of tongues; and proposes to lay

Fig. a, c); this forms the main grinding surface of the a similar basis for the study of all the North American

tooth. On the second superior molar of a true Coryphodon stocks. It would be most desirable for some similar cata

there is always a well-developed postero-external crescent logue to be made relating to the tongues of South America.

(see Fig. e, c), which is homologous with the postero-exterThe Decrease of the Birth-rate.

nal crescent of other forms. This crescent may undergo a One of the most portentous problems is the decrease of great amount of variation, as will be described later. In the the birth-rate in certain social conditions. It is asserted on last superior molar the postero-external crescent is repreapparently good authority that the Negritos and the Poly- sented by only a crest, which runs parallel, or nearly so,

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