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hail-storm was approaching and while the peculiar shelf or cornice
Grand-Gulf Formation. which projects from the base of the storm-mass was in the zenith. I am glad to see that Judge Johnson accepts my determination This shelf has a flattish and rather smooth surface on its under of the brackish waier character of the fauna of bis Pascagoula side and when seen from a distance appears to consist of a mass clays, as it is a matter of some importance in the genesis of the of cloud having an under-pavement of low domes or flattish bil- tertiary strata of the Gulf border; and I am not disposed to quarlows, and the broader and more peaceful it looks, the worse is rel with him if he chooses to retain the term “ formation" for the wrath of the storm above and within it. Lightning seldom them provided it is made clear exactly what he understands by comes from it, yet it is in a state of intense electrical excitement. that term. His original communication was somewhat obscure While it is passing, there is a loud hissing from stretched wires on both these points and by placing a species of Venus in the bed (not connected with the earth), a stream of sparks, and at night a (which is a strictly marine genus) I was led to suppose that he reglow like St. Elmo's fire. A berd of cattle can sometimes be seen garded the bed as (not deep sea but) purely of salt water origin. in the darkest night by their own light.
In saying that I have permitted “conjecture " "to outrun and The fact is, the physiolgical effects of electric induction are so forestall positive discovery in my brochure of January last, common in the higher mountains, and are often so ludicrous, that Judge Johnson simply indicates that he is not aware of the mawe are in danger of throwing aside these pbenomena as of no spe- terial in my possession and which though published (for the most cial scientific interest. Yet we here have a complex problem in- part) during the last ten days, has been nearly two years in volving not only the electrified clouds and the air as dielectric, manuscript awaiting the printer's opportunity. but also the electrical properties of the ground itself. Now many My short paper on the Pliocene of the Carolinas gave merely a of the prospectors for metalliferous veins declare that the be- tabular view of the results to which seven years of field-work and bavior of lightning on veins containing certain kinds of ores dif- study of the material collected by numerous other workers in the fers from the ordinary. Some of them profess to be able to know field had led me. This may be found substantiated in Bulletin 84 the nature of the minerals in a mountain by observing the buz- of the Geological Survey just printed, but the portion relating to zing and other phenomena on the passage of electric clouds, but Florida had been type-written for the use of Messrs. Eldridge and it is difficult to get them to talk about it, as they appear to regard Jussen before they entered upon their field-work, and it is, therethe matter as a trade secret. Even experienced prospectors leave fore, pot exact to state that the differences between the older and a certain peak on the approach of severe thunder storms, they de- the newer Miocene were “established” by those gentlemen, who claring their sensations of shock to be unendurable, even when had tbe essential solution of this question in their hands to begin the lightning does not strike the mountain. They report that with, Mr. Jussen having devoted under my direction some time stones are loosened from the cliffs and fall in dangerous fusilades to the study of the Old Miocene fauna of the Chipola beds before down the mountain side. No doubt these are in part land-slides, he entered the field at all. but some of them are reported to take place when no rain fell, Hasty generalization and basty writing of all sorts are " baneonly snow or bail, or before the rain reached the place. My in- ful” I willingly admit, and an excellent example of what is to be formants used this language: “ The mountain split and threw off avoided by lack of haste is shown by Judge Johnson himself in those rocks." I have been desirous of determining the truth of the letter alluded to (p. 247). these matters by personal observation, but thus far have not found I have nowhere asserted that the Pascagoula clays are of Chesathe opportunity. It is at least a supposable case that electric at- peake age. As a matter of fact, they have nearly the whole of traction or repulsion dislodges blocks already loosened. Have any the Grand Gulf series between them and the Chesapeake formaof your readers made observations on these matters pertaining to tion. Judge Johnson's Waldo formation comprised beds belongthe effects of different kinds of rocks or minerals on electric ing to two different epocbs, the typical locality at Waldo, from bis clouds, or vice versa ?
own specimens, being Chesapeake, and otber localities mentioned Perhaps a nearly related problem is furnished by the causes by him, in his definition of the formation, are Old Miocene. I do (electrical or otherwise) of the restlessness and often sleeplessness not know what he refers to by the expression “overlying clays” and oppressed breathing that accompanies the warm westerly or at Aspalåga on the Appalachicola River, and certainly bave never Chinook winds over the mountains.
GEO. H. STONE. "shown” them to “be Chesapeake. Aspalàga lies in the region Colorado Springs, Oct. 24.
of the oldest Old Miocene, the fossils which I have seen from
there are those solely of the Chattahoochee group. On the other The Gila Monster.
hand, the Miocene discovered by Johnson at De Funiak Springs THERE has been considerable discussion as to the poisonous char
and eastward to Abe's Springs on the Chipola River is not the acter of this lizard, and of late it seems to be accepted that it is
Older Miocene but the Chesapeake, with a typical Chesapeake
fauna so far as yet developed. Still further, the Chattahoochee not poisonous by the scientific people from the fact that the ani
beds of Langdon distinctly underlie the Chipola beds, so far as mal has no poison-sack or fangs, this does not by any means settle
they have yet been identified, and the fauna, while related to that the question, for many of us know by personal experience that it
of Chipola proper, is not the same. is poisonous, and very much so at times. There are several
In short, the Miocene limestones of Florida are so closely simipeople almost every year in Arizona and elsewhere who either lose their lives by it or suffer intolerable agony from it, and the
lar that the only way of identifying them (short of continuously notion that it is not poisonous does not lessen the number of
tracing the beds, which is for the most part impracticable in sufferers. If the animal is in its normal condition and bites a
Florida) is by their fossil contents, which can only be adequately
studied in what Judge Johnson calls the “closet,” that is to say, person, no harm usually comes from it. It is a very pugnacious animal and is easily excited to frenzy, and especially so when it
a museum supplied with the literature and specimens for comis being captured alive; at such times it emits a yellow and very
As the Grand Gulf lies probably above both the Older and the rank-smelling saliva, which, if it enters the circulation by a wound or otherwise, produces death or great suffering in human beings.
Chesapeake Miocene, I fail to see how the water-bearing sands
at its base can serve to discriminate or define the distinction be. One case that came under my observation was that of a young
tween the two older formations. man, in Arizona, who was bitten under those circumstances and
Some part of the Grand Gulf is who was sick for several months and had the disintegration of
very likely contemporaneous with part of the later Miocene, but the blood and the effusion of serum that so frequently occur
as yet information is absolutely deficient on this point. What in those suffering from a rattlesnake's bite. I have no doubt that
we have called the “upper bed” at Alum Bluff, or the “Ecphora this explanation accounts for the poisoning of people by other
bed" of my Bulletin 84, is typical Chesapeake Miocene, identical
with that at Waldo so far as its fossils are concerned. Litbologi“non-poisonous” lizards of our arid region. I should not be at all surprised to hear that even the horned toad that the boys so
cally, the beds are quite different. As for the Hawthorne and delight to torment is also poisonous under such circumstances.
Ocheesee beds, both contain fossils, and we have fossils from the MARCUS E. JONES.
former collected by Judge Johnson himself. For details, the enSalt Lake City, Nov. 10.
quiring reader is referred to Bulletin 84, above mentioned.
Finally, in regard to Judge Jobpson's “outline of the evolution line of the study of human anatomy and physiology, and passes of the Florida Peninsula,” I confess to being ignorant of its exist- from this subject to the study of the dog, the chicken, tbe lizard, ence either in print or otherwise, until long after my own views the frog, the fish, and then to the invertebrates, beginning naturbad not only been verbally communicated to many members of ally with insects and crustacea and tben passing through the the U. S. Geological Survey and presented to the Biological So- lower orders of invertebrates somewhat more hurriedly. After ciety of Washington, but had been circulated in type-written baving thus given a general study of a type illustrative of each copies for the use of Mr. Eldridge's field-party. It is proper to of the large groups of animals, the last half of the book is occusay that wbile I had for some time entertained the theoretical pied with a popular study of the larger and better known ani. view of the insulation of the Eocene island of Florida, the final mals, chiefly mammals and birds. This part of the book is very proof was supplied by the field observations of Mr. T. W. Stanton abundantly illustrated with figures of the animals mentioned and of the U. S. Geological Survey, while the exploration of the Chi- described, and throughout the illustrations are abundant and good. pola beds, for material by which their age was determined, and For the purpose designed this book is open to the criticism that it the discovery of their existence in the typical locality on the attempts to crowd rather too much detailed information and too Chipola River were first made by Mr. Frank Burns of the U. S. many scientific terms into a short compass. But, on the whole, Geological Survey; though Langdon had previously observed the the style is simple, easily understood by the student for whom the lower bed at Alum Bluff, which proves to be of the same age. book is designed, and the book seems to be admirably adapted
WM. H. DALL. for exciting an interest in zoological subjects among students of Smithsonian Institution, Oct. 31.
the secondary grade of schools. The scholar will hardly get a
systematic knowledge of zoology out of the book, but this could BOOK-REVIEWS.
not be expected of any zoology adapted to the secondary schools.
The work can hardly fail to excite an interest, however, in the A Course on Zoölogy. Designed for Secondary Education. By
scholar and lead him to using his own eyes in the observation of MONTMAHON and BEAUREGARD. Translated from the French
nature, which is, of course, the chief design of scientific instrucby Wm. H. GREEN. Phila., J. B. Lippincott Co. 75 cts.
tion in the lower schools. This book can thus certainly be recomTHE introductory books of science of Paul Bert for use in the mended for introduction into high schools and even into schools lower schools are very well known in this country, and have been of lower grade. of very great value in introducing science into the lower grades of education. The above course of zoölogy by Montmahon and
Chemical Theory for Beginners. By LEONARD DOBBIN and JAMES Beauregard is designed as a second book in the same series, and
WALKER. New York, Macmillan & Co. 8o. 248 p. 70
cents, is planned to give to a higher grade of students a somewhat extensive study in zoölogy. The translation of this book into Eng- THE study of chemical theories should be based upon a wide lish will be of great value to many of our high schools where an range of experimental facts; and the title of this little volume is elementary text-book in zoology is desired and one interesting to unpromising. The theories, however, are supported by numerous students. The plan of the book is the natural method of pro- experiments. The beginner may find some things bard to underceeding from the known to the unknown. It begins with an out- stand, but much that is profitable. Those who are familiar with
CALENDAR OF SOCIETIES. cestor of the Vertebrates was the organ
Reading Matter Notices. which we know as the Pituitary Body or Philosophical Society, Washington.
Ripans Tabules : for torpid liver. Hypophysis cerebri in all existing VerteNov. 26.–F. L. 0. Wadsworth, Method brales, ihis being represented in the As
Ripans Tabules banish pain. of Determination of the Metre in Terms of acidians, as shown by Julin, by the subneurWave Length of Light; B. E. Ferpow, Re-al gland and its duct, and in Amphioxus by cent Contributions Towards the Discussion the so-called olfactory pit. The Pituitary of Forest Influences; R. T. Hill, The Occur- Body is to the lateral Nares what the Pineal By DANIEL S. TROY. rence of Iron in Mexico.
Body is to the lateral Eyes. Bashford Dean This contains a discussion of the reasons New York Academy of Sciences, Biologi-exbibited an entire Cladodus, a unique speci; for their action and of the phenomena pre
men recently collected in the Cleveland cal Section.
sented in Crookes' tubes. Shales. The tail, for the first time shown, Nov. 14. The papers were: Arthur indicates historically the origin of this part
Price, postpaid, 50 cents. Hollick, On Additions to the Palæobotany in modern elasmobranches. of Staten Island. About forty species
N. D. C. HODGES, Publisher, were presented, of which half had been Publications Received at Editor's Office.
874 Broadway, New York. already described from Greenland Cretaceous and from the Laramie. The fossils, leafADDISON, STEELE AND BUDGELL. Sir Roger de Cov- MINERALS. Cabinet Specimens, Collections, and
material by the pound, for minerfragments, fruits, and seeds, occur in fire- erley Papers. English Classics for Schools. New alogists, collectors, colleges, schools, and chemists.
York, American Book Co. brick clay, or in ferruginous sandstone or
148 p. 12o. 20 cents. Send for 100-page catalogue, paper bound, 15 cents;
ALLSOP, F. C. Practical Electric-Light Fitting cloth bound, 25 cents; supplement 2 cents. GEO. L. concretions. The genera notably repre- New York, Macmillan & Co. 275 p. 12o. $1.50. ENGLISH & Co., Mineralogists, 733 & 735 B'way, N.Y. sented were Populus, Platanus, Myrica, BABET. 99 Methods of Utilizing Boiled Beef.
from the French. New York, John Ireland. Kalmia, Acer, and Williamsonia. H. F.
122 p. 89. 75 cents.
ACK NUMBERS and complete sets of leading Mag. Osborn, Report upon a Collection of Mam- BARKER, A. S. Deep-Sea Sounding. New York,
AM. MAG. EXCHANGE, Wiley. 183 p. Maps. 8o. $2.
Schoharie NV mals from the Cretaceous (Laramie). The
BARKER, GEO. F. Physics ; Advanced Course. multituberculates, Meniscoëssus and Ptilo- Second Edition. New York, Holt. 902 p. 8o. dus, were assigned to the Plagiaulacidæ, CAMPBELL, H. J. Elementary Biology. London and RESTORE YOUR
YOUR EYESIGHT New York, Macmillan & Co.
12°. $1.60. the former a probable ancestor of Polymas- CONTRIBUTIONS from the Botanical Laboratory of
Cataracts, scars or films can be absorbed and todon. The relations of these mammals
paralyzed nerves restored, without the knife the University of Pennsylvania. Vol. I., No. 1.
or risk. Diseased eyes or lids can be cured by
Philadelphia, University of Pa. 72 p., pl. 8o. were shown to be closer to Puerco than to DINGLE, EDWARD. A study of Longitude. Plymouth,
our home treatment. "We prove it.” Hun.
dreds convinced. Our Illustrated pamphlet, Upper Jurassic forms. Arthur Willey, On Eng., Geo. H. Sellick. 24 p. 8o. 1s.
Home Treatment for Eyes," free. Don't miss it. GALTON, FRANCIS. Finger Prints. London and Everybody wants it. THE EYE," Glens Falls, N.Y. the Significance of the Pituitary Body, and
New York, Macmillan & Co. 216 p. 8o. $2. made the suggestion, founded on researches Hoskins, L. M. Elements of Graphic Statics. Lon. on the Ascidians and Ampbioxus, that, if
don and New York, Macmillan & Co. 191 p., pl.
8o. $2.25. the Amphirhinic condition of the bigher IRVING, WASHINGTON. Ten Selections from the vertebrates was preceded by a Monorbinic Sketch-Book. English Classics for Schools.
COLLEGE PROJECTOR New p. 129. 20c. condition, the nose in the latter case was not MOLENNAN, Evan. Cosmical Evolution. Chicago,
FOR INCANDESCENT represented by the small pasal sac of Petro- Donobue, Henneberry & Co., 1890.399 p. 80.
Ivanhoe. English Classics myzon, of which the unpaired character is Scott, SIR WALTER.
LIGHT undoubtedly secondary, as shown both by 484 p. 12o. 50 cents.
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London and Edinburgh, Adam & Charles Black. 8o. 274
This volume presents modern views and much valuable information upon the constitution of matter, atomic and molecular weights, classification of elements and compounds, vapor densities, and other physical properties, thermo-chemistry, chemical change, solution, and electrolysis. It claims to be an introduction only, although a fair knowledge of chemical facts and experiments is assumed; and it would he unreasonable to expect such complete ness as in the works of Ostwald, Meyer, and Naumann. It may prove attractive to many who would be repelled by the more comprehensive works; or, better still, it may awaken a thirst for such exactness of scientific statement as requires more mathematics than Dr. Scott admits into his elementary volume.
pays his compliments in his usual way to Professor James Hall and Professor Hyatt. Some of the new species are from the Cincinnati, or Hudson River, group of south-eastern Indiana.
- St. Nicholas is universally considered “tbe best of cbildren's magazines.” Contributors for 1893 include John G. Whittier, Edmund C. Stedman, Frank R. Stockton, George W. Cable, Frances Hodgson Burnett, Thos. Wentworth Higginson, George Keppan, Charles Howard Shinn, Laura E. Richards, W. 0. Stoddard, Harriet Prescott Spofford, Susan Coolidge, Mary Hallock Foote Kirk Munroe, Hezekiah Butterworth, President Gilman, Rev. Dr. Lyman Abbott, Howard Pyle, Colonel R. M. Jobnston, John Burroughs, H. H. Boyesen, Nora Perry, Poultney Bigelow, Charles F. Lummis, Edith M. Thomas, Kate Douglas Wiggin, and Mary Mapes Dodge.
Following the principles announced by Tejsserenc de Bort, G. Raymond has prepared a little brochure (Paris, Gauthier-Vil. lars) concerning the influence of the chief centres of atmospheric pressure on the prediction of the weather. De Bort laid down his general plan some years ago, and Raymond now presents a num. ber of specific examples that seem to follow in accordance with it; illustrating the conditions for mild winters, moist summers, and so on. The book deserves study by those who have access to our International weather bulletins, and who can undertake the difficult task of generalizing their innumerable facts.
Henry Collins bas written an interesting little pamphlet on “ The International Date Line” (Bardeen, Syracuse, 15 cents), giving a chart of the line that runs irregularly through the Pacific, and on either side of which the dates differ by a day. Teachers will find it instructive; although a few matters of fact might bave been more fully ascertained before publication, as by correspondence with consuls. The interesting point is raised: Who first celebrate the New Year? It is clearly shown that the 180° meridian from Greenwich has not the importance often given it in the matter of changing dates.
AMONG THE PUBLISHERS.
“THE Eighteenth Report of the Geological Survey of Indiana: Palæontology,” by S. A. Miller, contains descriptions of a large number of new fossils from various formations, mainly of Upper Silurian and Sub-Carboniferous age. Crinoidea largely predominate, no less than 39 new species and 4 new genera being described. It is unfortunate that some of the species are described from single specimens. All are, however, illustrated. Mr. Miller
POSITION is desired in the South, preferably
the Gulf States, where I can teach the sciences. Can also instruct in other branches. Salary only
nominal, as I am simply desirous of employment For Sale.-A new Model U. S. Army Hospital while spending the winter in the South. A private Microscope (Zentmayer), also yinch and 144-inch family
preferred, but will acceot regular school Objectives.
HENRY C. WELLS, 151 Broadway, work if not too confining. MORRIS GIBBS, M.D,
science master and associate of the Royal Just the thing for collecting birds and small mam. School of Mines, London, aged 26 (at present in mals. Will exchange for a 22-cal. cane-gun or good England), a mastership in technical college or uni
books on ornithology. Write for particulars, stat-versity for any of the following subjects: EngineerDr. T. H. Andrews, Jefferson ing what you have for exchange. R. C. McGREGOR. ing sciences, geology and mineralogy, physics, chem
istry and metallurgy, etc., etc. Can provide excelMedical College, Philadelphia, says of
lent references and credentials. Apply, J. G., 17 For sale.A very fine stone sword (?) so named
Sussex St., Rochdale, England. by myself. It is perfect-15 inches in length, a little Horsford's Acid Phosphate. Mas platbe color perhaps "Limestone, and is the Mtion in the metallurgy and chemical analysis over 2 inches in width, and inch . It
instruclargest implement of the kind known. Some fifteen of iron and steel. Complete or special courses ap. “A wonderful remedy which gave me years ago, when it was not mine, I was offered $40 plying to the manufacture of pig irons and steels,
as for it; since that time it has come into my posses- well as to their uses. Address METALLURGIST," sion; that price will now buy it.
Address Rev. C. most gratifying results in the worst
care SCIENCE. FOSTER WILLIAMS, Ashwood, Tenn. forms of dyspepsia."
GRADUATE of the University of Pennsylvania For exchange. – Fine specimens of Wis. fresh-| A
and in practical mineralogist of twenty years' water pearls. °I want books or papers on marine experience desires to give his services and a cabi. and fresh-water algæ; also classified specimens of net of 25,000 specimens, all named, with about the
I will exchange for Smithsonian reports or It reaches various forms of same;
same number of duplicates, in minerals, crystals, crystallized minerals. D. M. ANDREWS, Dodge rocks, gems, fossils. shells, archeological and ethnoCentre, Mind.
logical specimens and woods to any institution de. Dyspepsia that no other medi
siring a fine outfit for study. The owner will in. For Sale or Exchange.-The undersigned has a
crease the cabinet to 50.000 specimens in two years cine seems to touch, assisting
lot of first-class duplicate bird's skins and sets of and will act as curator. Correspondence solicited eggs, both rare and common, for sale or acceptable from any scientific institution. J. W. Hortter,
M.D., Ph.D., San Francisco, Cal., General P. 0. the weakened stomach, and se changed Also about two hundred second class
skids and five hundred eggs, suitable for study Delivery.
specimens, at very low figures. The latter, for making the
C tion natural and easy.
about forty species of fossils, principall" de position in laboratory or chemical works. Address
vonian. MORRIS GIBBS, M.D., Kalamazoo. Mich: 12134 E. 7th Street, New York, care Levy. Descriptive pamphlet free on application to Rumford Chemical Works, Providence, R. I.
The American Geologist for 1893.
Beware of Substitutes and Imitations.
For sale by all Druggists.
Edited by PROF. S. CALVIN, University of Iowa; DR. E. W. CLAYPOLE, Buchtel College; JOHN EYERMAN, Lafayette College ; DR. PERSIFOR FRAZER, Penn. Hort. Soc.; PROF. F. W. CRAGIN, Colorado College; PROF. Rob's T. Hill, U. S. Irrigation Survey; DR. ANDREW C. Lawson, University of California; Frank D. KNOWLTON, U. 8. National Museum; JOSEPH B. TYRRELL, Geol. Sur.of Canada; E. O. ULRICH, Minnesota Geological Survey: PROF. I. C. White, University of West Virginia; PROF. N. H. WINCHELL, University of Minnesota. Now in its Xth volume. $3.50 per year. Sample copies. 20 cents. Address
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Turner, C. H., Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, O. Some of the Contributors to Science Since Jan. Wake, C., Stanlland, Chicago, Iul. By CLARENCE LOWN and HENRY BOOTH
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