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sical conditions, the climate, the fauna and flora alike forbid it, now been about three months without food); when he saw the and this has not been done. Man lives in less hospitable regions rat be grew quite excited, and struck at bim twice. I waited now than when the Trenton gravel was laid down; the climate at about half an hour, expecting the rat to die, but the bite seemed the close of the glacial period was not more severe than that ob- to have no effect, so I left the rat in the case. As this was a taining to-day in the Arctic circle. The reindeer, musk-ox, seal, Saturday, I did not see him again until Monday, and I then found and walrus sustain man to-day in Arctic America, and why the rat still alive; but with a bad bite on the side of its head, and should they not have done so in the Delaware valley, when a the snake had two holes, made by the rat's teeth, through its prominent feature of this fauna, as their bones in the gravel tes- rattle. The gardener told me that they had a fierce battle on tify, they once were? There is an Arctic flora in existence now; Sunday afternoon, but they now seemed each afraid of the other. so why not here in the distant long ago of Glacial times; and I killed the rat, and left the body in the snake's case, but he forests, we know, can flourish at the very edge of a glacier. would not eat it. I next put a white mouse in his case, but of

This whole matter is not so exclusively a geological question as this he took hardly any notice. About the end of March I shot the votaries of that science declare. The archæologist has this two goldfincbes, and placed the dead bodies in his case. On vissurface soil and the sand and gravel beneath it clearly within the iting him again in a day or so, was delighted to find that one range of his domain, and he is no archæologist whose training of the goldfinches had disappeared. After this I supplied him falls short of ability to study intelligently the bistory of these frequently with dead birds, and about once a month he condesuperficial deposits.

scended to eat; but the birds he eat were always small ones, such As yet, concerning the gravel deposits of the Delaware valley, as goldfinches, chipping sparrows, and warblers; he never ate the geologists have merely put in a denial, which should not any as large as the English sparrow or purple finch, several of weigh against the careful researches of those who bave given which I put in his case; and he never fed while any one was lookyears to the study of this subject. What is needed in these over- ing at him. crowded latter days is a proof that palæolithic man is an impossi- His rattle was permanently injured by the rat's attack, and bility. When this is forthcoming, and not until then, will the ever after sounded only a feeble and subdued kind of alarm. He student of early man in America haul down his flag.

changed his skin once during the summer; and, after the change, As to the present controversy, here is the whole matter in a the tints of the beautiful diamond pattern on his back were exnutshell:

tremely bright and vivid. I.

I could not get him to feed at all after the beginning of August, The stones are inspected,

and he died in October, 1892, having been in captivity for a little And Holmes cries “rejected,

over a year, for the first six months of which he went entirely They're nothing but Indian chips"

without food. I gave him a shower-bath occasionally, wbich he He glanced at the ground,

seemed to enjoy, and was, I think, more ready to feed after he Truth, fancied he found,

had been well moistened in this way. And homeward to Washington skips.

I bave now another and larger specimen of this rattlesnake to II.

take care of. It was received from Florida in October last, and

is quartered for the winter in a very warm and comfortable They got there by chance He saw at a glance

green-house. He has not as yet eaten anything, but I may be able And turned up his nose at the series;

to send you, next year, some report as to how he behaves. They've no other history,

I. B. WILLIAMS.
I've solved the whole mystery,

Toronto, December.
And to argue the point only wearies."
III.

Intelligence in the Lower Orders.
But the gravel is old,

SOMETHING over a year since a young lady of my acquaintance
At least, so I'm told;

had an experience with a beetle, which, I think, showed a very " Halt, halt!” cries out W. J.,

marked degree of intelligence in the insect; and, as such instances · It may be very recent,

are somewhat rare, I venture to send you an account of it. And it isn't quite decent, For me not to have my own way.”

This beetle was a specimen of Pelidnota punctata Linn., which

was given to her in September. At first she kept it in a small IV.

box, feeding it with grass, leaves, and small pieces of fruits, such So dear W. J.

as peaches, pears, etc. Occasionally she would give it a drop of There is no more to say,

water to sip. It would sometimes bite a little out of a leaf, would Because you will never agree

eat the fruits, and would take water eagerly. That anything's truth

From the first she would take the insect in her fingers several But what issues, forsooth,

times a day and stroke or caress it, also putting it to her lips and From Holmes or the brain of McGee.

talking to it all the while she handled it. When she put it to her CHARLES C. ABBOTT, M.D. lips it would brush its antennæ over them with a gentle, caressing

motion.

When she left her room she would shut the “buggie" up in its Water Rattlesnake in Captivity.

box. One day, about two weeks after she received it, she was IN your issue of Nov. 11, there was an interesting account by called out suddenly and neglected this precaution. She was abR. W. Jones of a rattlesnake that would not eat. I had the care, sent a considerable length of time, and when she returned the this year, of a water rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus), which, insect was not in its box nor anywhere to be seen. Fearing that after some trouble, I persuaded to eat. It was sent from Florida she might injure it, she stood still and called “buggie, buggie,” to the Toronto Natural History Society, in September, 1891; and when it came crawling from its retreat toward her. at first we intended to put him in a cellar for the winter, and let After this, she would frequently leave it free in the room when him hibernate; but I thought a warmer place would be more she went out, and when she returned, if the insect was not in likely to suit him, and so leave was obtained from the authorities sight, she would call it, and it would crawl or fly to her. As this to keep him in a large conservatory at the horticultural gardens. was continued, it would more and more frequently fly to her inHe had a glass-sided case to live in, 3 feet long and 15 inches stead of crawling, until at last it flew nearly every time it was wide, and was himself about 3 feet long.

called. When it came in this way, she would put it to her lips I put a bull-frog in with him one day, but he took no notice of or to her nose, and the insect would appear to be pleased, moving it, beyond just touching it with the tip (or tips, to be quite cor- its antennæ gently over her lips, or taking the end of her nose berect) of bis tongue. I then tried him with a brown rat (he had tween them and touching it with a patting motion.

395 p.

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She kept it in her room in this way, at the hotel where she was and seven miles east of here, who could not have been less than spending the summer, until about the first of November. She ten miles apart on an air-line, and they report the sound together then returned to her home some three hundred miles further with the oiber phenomena to have been about the same as they south, taking the insect with her. Here she at first kept it in her were here. I have no reliable reports from any greater distance chamber, but the nights being sometimes very cool, it would be- than that. But this indicates that the body must have been of come torpid and not get lively again until afternoon. Thinking considerable size, and at a considerable distance from the earth. it too cool for “buggie" there, she removed it to the kitchen.

C. F. MAXWELL As it still appeared more or less dormant, she put it on a cloth

Dublin, Tex., Dec. 1. above the hot-water boiler. Here it revived somewhat, but was not very lively nor did it eat very much.

Ink-Stains. About the middle of December it fell to the floor accidentally, To remove bad ink-stains from white linen (shirts, table-linen, by which fall it was evidently injured, as after that time it would etc.) place the stained part in Sabarraque's Solution, leaving the eat nothing, and no longer recognized the young lady. About a article in the solution until the linen is white. This must be used week later it died.

B, only for white goods. After a short time in the solution the ink

stain will gradually take on a copper color. gradually fading to a Meteoric Shower.

greenish hue, and finally nearly white. Washing in cold rain. THE well-known stream of meteors — the Andromedes or Bielids

water will finish. I believe this to be new.

A. M. WHITON, M.D. - overtook the earth on Wednesday, Nov. 23, 1892. At this

Brockport, N.Y., Doc. 8. observatory they were seen soon after sunset, and the fall was continued at a uniform rate until eleven hours, when their number

BOOK-REVIEWS. in a given time was diminished by half. The display was at a maximum of magnificence between the hours of nine and ten.

Eleventh Annual Report of the U. S. Geological Survey, 1889-1890. From 9 to 9.16, one hundred fell; from 9.35 to 9.46, one hundred; Part II. Irrigation. Washington, 1891. xiv., PI. 30. from 10.13 to 10.26, one hundred; and this rate was maintained Fig. 4. nearly all the evening. Likely, three-fourths of all that came

Irrigation and Water-Storage in the Arid Regions. By GEN. A. W. were seen, since the eye was held steadily on the radiant, which

GREELY. Washington, 1891. 356 p. Pl. 37. was in Andromeda, not far from Brooks's comet. Of course, the meteors were not connected with that body. The highest number

Final Report of the Artesian and Underflow Investigation and of the seen at once was six, and they seemed to emerge from the same Irrigation Inquiry, Made under the Direction of the U. S. Depoint. Two were almost as brilliant as Jupiter, and left trains. partment of Agriculture. Washington, 1892. Parts 1, 2, 3, 4. Perbaps one-tenth of all seen had trails. Their velocity was not

Many Plates and Maps. 52d Congress, First Session. Sen. great, as this stream overtakes the earth, instead of meeting it.

Ex. Doc., No. 41.
EDGAR L. LARKIN.

Census Bulletins on Irrigation. Arizona, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Knox College Observatory, Galesburg, Ill.

New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Arte

sian Wells for Irrigation. By F. H. NEWELL. Washington, Pseudoaurora.

1891-1892. In Science for Dec. 2 (p. 318) there is an interesting note re

Extra Census Bulletin, No. 23. Agriculture. Irrigation. By F. garding a peculiar appearance simulating the aurora around

H. NEWELL. Washington, Sept. 9, 1892. electric lights in Minneapolis. The writer approached the city from the suburbs and noticed nothing till he had passed the gas The subject of irrigation has of late years assumed an imporlights, but as he approached an electric ligbt he saw beams tance that it has long merited but has not received. If that man emanating from it, and these disappeared on passing the light. be a benefactor of the human race who makes two blades of grass The air was full of frost particles, giving an appearance of light grow where one grew before, how much more a benefactor was fog. These appearances were simply shadows cast upon the fog he who first drew from creek or river the waters tbe heavens by projecting arms or objects in the beam from the light and had refused to bestow, and who thus became tenfold, yes, a thousandno connection with electricity. These rays may be seen at any fold, a human benefactor! Unfortunately, his name, his birth, time when there is smoke, light fog, or mist. The easiest way his lineage, are all unknown, for the process of irrigation under to see them is to stand directly under the light and look up. one form or another has been practised since the earliest time of Another way is to approach the light from a distance of 300 feet which there is any historic record. Perhaps the idea originated with the iron support of the lamp hiding the bright light from in those countries where rivers overflow their banks periodically, the eye. Any little opacity in the globe will throw a shadow and where a certain definite time in the year may be considered into the fog. Oftentimes these rays are very beautiful, especially to bring the flood. Be that as it may, in Egypt, in India. in when seen through the branches of a tree.

China, irrigation has been a practice for many thousand years, These shadows are really the same as the Brocken Spectre, about and in these countries is now more extensively in vogue than ever which so much has been written. See this journal for Sept. 27, before. It is not only in civilized and semi-civilized communities 1889, for an explanation of the phenomenon. Also American that irrigation is found, but in savage ones also, for recent travMeteorological Journal, March, 1890, p. 515.

ellers have noted the presence of irrigating ditches among certain H. A. HAZEN.

African tribes, which, while not savage in the worse sense of the Washington, D.C., Sept. 10.

word, have still not yet reached the platform upon which semi

civilized races are assumed to stand. Brilliant Meteor.

In these older, eastern countries, irrigation is thus of very great On the night of Nov. 29, about 8 o'clock, a very large meteor antiquity. In the newer ones of the western and southern hemiwas seen passing westward, a little to the south of this place. spheres, while of far less age, it cannot be said to be of any less Just as it seemed to be passing the body exploded, producing a importance. The Australian colonies have done a wonderful sound that was distinctly heard, resembling that of a rocket ex- amount of irrigation engineering, this being necessary by reason plosion or a pistol-shot. After the explosion a body half as large of the peculiar climatic conditions and their vast tracts of otheras a full moon moved away to the westward, making a hissing, wise unproductive territory. The work, too, being under gor. or frying sound. I have seen no one who saw the meteor before ernment auspices, is of a more gigantic character than in any of the explosion. The whole country was brilliantly lighted for a the newer countries using irrigation. Of these our own country moment as if by a continued electric discharge, but at the time is not the least. In our western territory, while there are vast of the explosion the light was red and blue, or perhaps violet. areas that can never be brought under t'ie dominion of the plow The sound of the explosion was heard by parties five miles west and harrow, there are almost equally vast ones that will be gardens

a

in that time when the vivifying touch of water shall have reached nature, since they have themselves a control over the weather bethem. Even now in California, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and yond the reach of men elsewhere. In 40 years the flume of the other western States, the subject of irrigation is a dominant one; miner has grown into the ditch of the farmer, and brings to light and, as it is so vitally concerned with the growth and prosperity more wealth now than when its stream was directed upon the of the people, the general government bas taken hold of it in cer- auriferous gravels. In these 40 years irrigation has extended tain ways. The titles which head this article are some of the until it may now be clearly seen to approximate tbat condition in more recent publications concerning this great question. They which all the water available is put to use upon the soil, and no are by no means all that have appeared, but from a mere glance more can be obtained. The limit is in sight even though it has at them one may glean an idea of the extent and importance of not quite been reached, the limit of water which may be drawn the work.

from streams by gravity ditches. The future must deal with The portion of the Eleventh Annual Report of the U. S. Geo- other sources of supply and other means of utilizing existing logical Survey, which deals with irrigation, is a comprehensive sources." document, full of valuable information. It is enriched by three The third title, the final report of the irrigation commission or maps of the arid region of the United States, and upon which are the “Artesian and Underflow Investigations ” of the Department plotted the areas under irrigation, the forestal areas, and the of Agriculture, is of a miscellaneous character, but contains much drainage areas. It may be well to say that the arid region, as valuable information. A very limited edition only was printed, defined by the report, is all the country lying between the 100th and it is probably not to be found in many other than public meridian on the east, and the irregular line formed by the Sierra libraries and those of congressmen. The first part, by R. J. Hinton, Nevada mountains, as far south as the 37th parallel and the Pacific special agent, deals with the subject in a general way, considerOcean south of it, on the west. Over this vast area there are scat- ing the progress made in America in irrigation works as compared tered tracts of greater or less extent that are now being irrigated. with other countries, its value for fruit culture, and the progress Tracis that without water would never be able to support any of irrigation in the States and Territories of the great plains but a scanty population; but that with it, will be and are the

region and the Pacific slope. Part 2, by E. S. Nettleton, consists homes of thousands.

mainly of profiles and maps, but also contains remarks upon un. The report details the scope of the work undertaken, and de- derground and artesian water-supply of the eastern portion of the scribes the metbods by which it was carried on. The means of plains, largely in the two Dakotas. Part 3, probably the most measuring the volume of water discharged by different streams, important of all, contains the reports of the geologists. The obthe measurements of rainfall, the amount of evaporation from ject of this division of the investigation was to ascertain “tbe river or lake surfaces, and finally the hydrography of the drainage source, volume, and availability of the underground waters of basins, are all treated in full. The latter is especially complete, most of the area of the great plains.” Professor Hay's field was for we have here accounts of the Yellowstone, the Missouri, the between the 97th meridian and the Rocky Mountain foot-bills. Arkansas, the Rio Grande, the Gila, the Truckie, the Carson, the He explains the geological structure, topography, and water-supSalt Lake, and the Snake River basins. There are also tables of ply of the region, and then devotes considerable attention to the monthly discharges of many large and small streams, and tables artesian wells of the Dakotas, examining into and describing the of gaugings at various stations. Under the head of “Engineer- geological structure of the country where wells are now found or ing" are given details of the work of various field-parties. Then where they may be successfully sunk in the future. The portion of comes a statement of the director of the survey, to a House com- territory covered by the report of Professor R. T. Hill is in Texas, mittee on irrigation, in regard to the arid lands. In the course of eastern New Mexico, and Indian Territory west of the 97th this the situation and extent of forests, the general physiogra- meridian. In his general discussion of underground waters, he phy of the district, artesian irrigation, conditions affecting the shows their existence to be dependent upon geological structure, artesian water-supply, tbe limit of utilization of artesian water and explains in a lucid way why this is so. Topography, bas, of are discussed; many tables of statistics concerning wells are given, course, much to do with it, but topography is really dependent followed by a general consideration of the geological conditions upon geological structure. There is little likelihood of obtaining affecting the supply. The last paper is a bibliography of irriga- artesian water in mountain regions, because of the highly metation literature, embracing many titles, but not claiming to be in morphosed condition of the rocks, and the (generally) great incliany way complete. This, in brief, is an outline of the contents nation of the strata. On the contrary, be says, “the most favoraof the second annual report of the irrigation survey, during the ble and usual condition for artesian wells is that of strata inclined course of which over $235,000 was expended.

slightly at an almost imperceptible angle with the surface slope. The second title mentioned contains mainly tables of tempera- This condition prevails in gently sloping basins and not in mounture and rainfall for Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, Cali- tains.” It is by bearing this principle in mind that successful fornia, and Colorado. It is prefaced by a report on the climatol- search for artesian water may be conducted, although, of course, ogy of the arid region by General Greely, in which are discussed all gently sloping plains are not equally likely to retain surface the general features of rainfall over the area.

In several appen

water to give it out eventually as artesian. dices by Lieut. W. A. Glassford are given accounts of the climatic Many details of geological structure of the different regions inconditions of the States and Territories dealt with in the report, vestigated by Professor Hill are given. They are too numerous which will prove of value to the inbabitants of the respective to be mentioned here. The author's familiarity with the Texas regions. It is not possible to refer in detail to all the interesting and Indian Territory country enables him to present its geological features of these reports. We cannot forbear quoting the intro- features with great clearness. This is especially the case with ductory paragraph to the account of California and Nevada, as it the Grand Prairie region. The water conditions here consist of shows the value already attached to irrigation in places where (1) rivers, (2) springs, (3) artesian wells. Of these the most interit has been used. It may be well to say, however, that these esting and remarkable are the springs. One of the largest groups remarks do not apply to all parts of the State, inasmuch as the is a few miles from the city of San Antonio. It forms the head rainfall in the north-western portion is normally as great as in of the San Antonio River, and flows at a rate of 23,000 gallons many parts of the country where irrigation is never practised. per minute, or 50,000,000 gallons per day, forming a lake or Lieutenant Glassford says:

natural reservoir near the city, and furnishing the 48,000 inhabi“Irrigation does not present itself to the Californian farmer and tants with water without any appreciable decrease in the flow of capitalist as a mere experiment, as a problem whose solution de- the river. Another group is near Del Rio, on the edge of the Edmands the risk of any loss of time or labor, as a thing to be cau- ward's Plateau, about five miles from the Rio Grande. Of this tiously considered and timorously adventured. Here is a State in Professor Hill says: “From the deep-seated rock at its bottom which all are agreed that the irrigating ditch is the life of the valley, the water can be seen welling up in a great column, and it has and the only point which at all needs determination is the amount the same peculiar greenish blue of the other streams of this class. of water available. Here has developed an agricultural population No live oaks or other trees surround it, and it stands alone, a who look upon rainless skies not as a curse, but as the best gift of great fountain in the desert." These springs occur at intervals

9

along a line 400 miles in length. **They do not break out from bluffs or fall in cascades, but appear as pools, often in the level prairie. ... The pools are carpeted with exquisite water-plants, forming a waving mass in which may be seen many fishes. So transparent and crystalline are these waters, that objects 15 to 20 feet below the surface appear only a foot away. No tint of surface débris or of storm sediment mars the crystal clearness, for they are purified by rising through nature's filter, a thousand feet of the earth's strata.” These are natural artesian wells, the water being forced from the ground by hydrostatic pressure acting from many miles away. In his summing-up of the Grand Prairie, Professor Hill remarks: “I drove during the great drought of 1877 from Decatur to Fort Worth [about 50 uniles) over a rich, grass-clad region, without being able to secure a drop of water for myself or team the entire distance, while dozens of suffering teamsters were begging and trying to buy water from the owners of the few and all but exhausted surface wells along the way. With the knowledge now before us, every foot of that vast area of the Grand Prairie, being underlaid by water, could be cut into 40-acre tracts, upon each of which, if flowing water could not be obtained, magnificent negative wells rising nearly to the surface could be obtained, furnishing an abundance of waters unaffected by drought.”

The red beds” of Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico occupy an area of about 100,000 square miles and receive their name from the color of the rocks, “glaring vermilion or deep-brown chocolate sometimes prevailing, varied only bere and there by a bed of snow-white gypsum.” The principal area is about 350 miles long by an average of 150 miles wide. The whole series is considered to be “probably a single unbroken formation, representing the sediments of an ancient inland sea.” This country is not favorable for the finding of artesian water, although a few surface wells occur at intervals. The Llano Estacado is a plain of about 50,000 square miles area, nearly level, unbroken by trees or bushes, and unseamed by water-channels. Its name is from

the Spanish, meaning a wall or palisade, and is derived from the fact that there is a steep and abrupt declivity on all sides but that toward the south-east. It is practically without surface water, there being only a single running stream throughout its whole extent, and this has a length of only about 10 miles, when it is swallowed up in the earth. The cause is found in the porosity of the soil which allows the rain to soak into it immediately. This circumstance, however, is favorable for securing water by wells, and accordingly it is found that wherever they have been dug, water has been found. With water upon its surface, the sterile character of the great Llano will soon be a thing of the past.

We cannot go further into the details of Professor Hill's report here, but must content ourselves with saying that it is to be hoped it may be published in some more accessible form than in a government document that is limited to an edition of less than 1,500 copies.

The report of Professor L. E. Hicks deals mainly with the conditions in Nebraska, and we have an account of the geological structure of the State as related to underground waters. He also considers the irrigable lands and gives an interesting account of the Loup Valley, which lies on the borders of the bumid and tbe arid regions, where rainfall is sometimes abundant and again scanty. It becomes, therefore, a matter of great practical moment to ascertain the possibility of irrigating the land. This can only be done in the valleys, the rest of the country being cut and scarred in a peculiar and intricate way. The capacity of the Loup River for irrigation is limited to about 1,000,000 acres of land, and, as it happens, this is also the amount of land that is capable of irrigation. The last report in the volume is by Professor G. E. Culver, who treats of the artesian wells of the Dakotas.

Part IV. of this report is by J. M. Gregory and F. F. B. Coffin. The part written by the former is general in its character and treats of the conditions in western Nebraska, Kansas, and Okla

164 p

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homa, and eastern Colorado. Coffin's short report deals with the If, now, the various offices investigating the irrigation question Dakota artesian basin and contains little of value.

were consolidated under one management, the danger of duplicaThe papers mentioned last in our title are the irrigation bul- tion, and the expenditure of money twice over for the same work letins of the Census Office. These have been prepared by Mr. F. would be avoided. The intimate connection between the matter H. Newell, special agent on irrig on, and they cover nearly all of irrigation and the agriculture of the country shows the advisathe territory in which irrigation has been or may be practised, bility of placing it under the control of the Secretary of Agricul. except California and Nevada, and these States are under con- ture. There bas already emanated from that department one of sideration. In these bulletins we have accounts of what has been the most valuable of recent reports. The connection of the done in the separate States, together with a general outline of the Weather Bureau would facilitate the collection of rainfall and physical conditions. One of them is devoted to artesian wells, temperature statistics; and the establishment of a Bureau of Irriand in it mention is made of the various artesian areas of the gation with a corps of irrigation experts, all under the control of States. The latest of tbe series is largely statistical in its char- one bead, would give in the end far better results than can be exacter and contains four maps of the country west of the 97th pected from the diverse character the work now presents. The meridian, upon which are shown the irrigated areas, the size of U. S. Geological Survey and the Census Office are collecting crops produced by irrigation, the proportion of irrigated land to statistics of rainfall, estimating the flow of streams or studying the whole, and finally the average size of the irrigated crop hold- the relations of soil to climate. These may properly be regarded ings in various sections. This notice is already too long to enter as the work of the Weather Bureau. So, too, when the irrigainto the details of these bulletins: we can only commend them to tion inquiry of the Department of Agriculture was in existence, those making a study of this important subject.

it duplicated portions of the work of the Geological Survey. The The direrse origin and character of the publications treated of time now seems ripe for a consolidation of the various irrigation in this notice, all of them, however, emanating from the general inquiries. The headquarters of this Bureau of Irrigation seems government, cannot fail to give rise to some thought. It is ob. by right to be the Department of Agriculture. served that the Geological Survey, the Weather Bureau, the Irri.

JOSEPH F. JAMES. gation Inquiry Branch of the Department of Agriculture, and the

AMONG THE PUBLISHERS. Census Office are all concerned in their production. It is true that the Weather Bureau is now an integral part of the Depart- A CURIOUS undertaking, entitled “The Scientific Roll; and ment of Agriculture, but it was not when the report in question Magazine of Systematized Notes," has been conducted for some was issued. There are, then, three separate departments of years by Alexander Ramsay of London. Three parts concerning the government concerned with this work. Where it is thus di- meteorology are before us, with sub-title, “Climate: Baric Con. vided there is certain to be more or less duplication. It will be dition.” These are occupied by a bibliography from 1688 to 1850, remembered that when the surveys of our western territory apparently not complete, extended abstracts from antiquated under Hayden, Wheeler, and Powell were being carried on, there authors, and an injudicious essay by the author on “ Why does was a continual clash and more or less repetition. When they the Barometer Rise and Fall?” The author's industry is praisewere finally consolidated under one head, this duplication was worthy, but the results of his industry do not seem to us of high done away with and the work executed with equal thoroughness. value to modern students.

Dyspepsia

Exchanges.

Wants
(Free of charge to all, if of satisfactory character.
Address N. D. C. Hodges, 874 Broadway, New York.]
The Biological Department of Hamline University

GRADUATE ENGINEER will give instruction
A

evenings in geometry, trigonometry and surdesires to offer microscopic slides of animal tissues, veying, mechanics, physics, mechanical drawing or whole animals, in exchange for first-class fossils. and general engineering construction.

Five years Address correspondence to Henry L. Osborne, Ham. experience in field and editorial work on engineer: line University, Hamline, Minn.

ing journal. References furnished. C. S. H., 102
For sale.-A set of the Berichte der Deutschen Tribune Building, New York.
Chemischen Gesellscaft, from Jan. 1, 1877, to Jan. 1
1892, bound in twenty-six volumes to Jan 1, 1888 A the Gulf States, where I can teach the sciences

POSITION
and remaining four years unbound. Also the Bulle
tin de la Société Chemique de Paris, from Jan. 1?

Can also instruct in other branches. Salary only 1879, to Jan. 1, 1892, bound in eighteen volumes to bominal, as I am simply desirous of employment Jan. 1, 1888, and remaining four years unbound.

while spending the winter in the South. À private Dr. Marcus Benjamin, care of D. Appleton & Co., family, preferred, but will accet regular school Dr. T. H. Andrews, Jefferson 1 Bond St., New York City.

work it not too confining. MORRIS GIBBS, M.D,

Kalamazoo, Mich.

For sale.-1,500 bird, and 125 mammal skins, which Medical College, Philadelphia, says of are first-class and labelled with strictly reliable data. They were collected in this immediate vicin

ANTED.-By well - qualified and experienced W

science master and associate of the Royal Horsford's Acid Phosphate. , (

latest approved methods. As I offer the above at a England), a mastership in technical college or uni. very low price, it would be a good opportunity for a versity for any of the following subjects: Engineer

college or a museum. Willard E. Treat, East Hart- ing sciences, geology and mineralogy, physics, cbem. “A wonderful remedy which gave me ford, Conn.

istry and metallurgy, etc., etc. Can provide excel. most gratifying results in the worst Microscope 2entmayer), also y.inch and 14-inch Sussex St., Rochdale, England.

U. S. Army Hospital lent references and credentials. Apply, J. G., 17 forms of dyspepsia."

Objectives. HENRY C. WELLS, 151 Broadway.
New York,

GRADOATE of the University of Pennsylvania
For sale or exchange.-A Stevens' new model

and a practical mineralogist of twenty years' pocket shot-gun, 44 cal., with 22-cal. rifle barrel. experience desires to give his services and a cabi.

net of 25,000 specimens, all named, with arout the It reaches various forms of Just the thing for collecting birds and small mam mals. Will exchange for a 22-cal. cane-gun or good rocks, gems, fossils, shells, archæological and ethno

same number of duplicates, in minerals, crystais, ing what you have for exchange. R.C. McGREGOR. siring a fine outfit for study. The owner will in2841 Champa st., Denver, Col.

crease the cabinet to 50,000 specimens in two years cine seems to touch, assisting For sale. --A very fine stone sword (!) so named and will act as curator. Correspondence solicited

by myself. It is perfect-15 inches in length, a little from any scientific institution. J. W. Hortter, the weakened stomach, and over 2 inches in width, and 1 inch thick. It is of a M.D., Ph.D., San Francisco, Cal., General P. O.

dark slate color, perhaps limestone, and is the Delivery. making the process of diges- largest implement of the kind known. Some fifteen years ago, when it was not mine. I was offered. C Polytechnic

, Organic and Analytical, desires a

HEMIST tion natural and easy.

for it; since that time it has come into my posses-
sion; that price will now buy it. Address Rev. C. position in laboratory or chemical works. Address
FOSTER WILLIAMS, Ashwood, Tenn.

21342 E. 7th Street, New York, care Levy.
Descriptive pamphlet free on application to
Rumford Chemical Works, Providence, R. I.

Dyspepsia that no other medi

The American Geologist for 1893.

Beware of Substitutes and Imitations.

For sale by all Druggists.

Edited by PROF. S. Calvin, University of Iowa; Dr. E. W. CLAYPOLE, Buchtel College; Joan EYERMAN, Lafayette College ; DR. PERSIFOR FRAZER. Penn. Hort. Soc.; Prof. F. W. CRAGIN, Colorado College; PROF. Rob'T T. Hill, U. S. Irrigation Survey; DR. ANDREW C. Lawson, University of California; Frank D. KNOWLTON, U. 8. National Museum; Joseph B. TYRRELL, Geol. Sur.of Canada; E. O. ULRICH, Minnesota Geological Survey: PROF. I. C. White, University of West Virginia; PROF. N. X. WINCHELL, University of Minnesota. Now in its Xtb volume. $3.50 per year. Sample copies, 20 cents. Address

THE GEOLOGICAL PUBLISHING CO., Minneapolis, Minn.

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