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Rae on John Wilkes, Dr. Buchan on Wind, and Mr. Price Hughes on Wesley. Canon Isaac Taylor contributes the articles on Writing and op York and Yorkshire, and Cavendish that on Wbist. Dr. Mills expounds Zend, and Mr. G. Saintsbury criticises Zola. The first volume of the new edition was issued in March, 1888, so that the work bas been completed in less than five years a very short time indeed when its magnitude is considered. The “ Encyclopædia" contains over thirty thousand articles, contributed by nearly one thousand different writers, and includes among its contributors many of the chief authorities in various departments of knowledge.

“Questions and Answers about Electricity," a small volume of 100 pages (50 cents) from the press of the D. Van Nostrand Company, is peculiar in some respects. It has four authors and one editor, and the latter, we fear, bas taken undue liberties with the manuscripts of the authors. In no other way can we account for the presence of such words as “ampage,” furtherest,” “shellaced,” etc.; and such statements as, when cells are connected in multiple, the current can travel “ only a few feet." Though intended specially for amateurs and students, we fear the book will prove more interesting to those “ well up” in the subject. A glossary, by the editor, no doubt, adds to the originality of the work.

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final chapters give an account of various model series and of the progress of the system in elementary schools.

-The D. Van Nostrand Company have just published “The Practical Management of Dynamos and Motors," by Francis B. Crocker, professor of electrical engineering in Columbia College, and Schuyler S. Wheeler, D.Sc. To the man in charge of an electric light or power plant this volume will prove invaluable, as it is the first book, as far as we know, devoted specially to their requirements. It gives simple and readily comprehended instructions in the practical use and management of dynamos and motors. The different subjects are treated separately and in logical order, and are arranged so as to facilitate ready reference on any point on which information is desired.

($1.) Metal-Coloring and Bronzing is the title of a new 12 mo volume of 336 pages just issued from the press of Macmillan & Co. (Price $1.) The book is the result of experiments and investigations carried on for eighteen months by Arthur H. Hiorps, principal of the metallurgy and engin ering department of the Birmingham (England) municipal school; and is, we believe, the first systematic treatise on metal-coloring (more commonly known as bronzing) that has been problished. The essential portion of the work is treated under three principal divisions, namely, chemical, electro-chemical, and mechanical metal coloring, the first being given greater space on account of its greater importance. The introductory portion contains a brief account of the properties of the ordinary metals and their chemical relations with regard to oxygen, sulphur, chlorine. etc.; and also deals with the chemical effects of the atinosphere on metals, the relation of metals to color, and chemical principles and changes. The rest of the volume is devoted mainly to the mechanical processes employed. As an authority on metallurgy the author of this work is well known; and this, with the fact that the book is the first in its peculiar field, insures for it a secure place in technical literature.

“ The Sloyd System of Wood-working” is the title of a 250page volume from the pen of B. B. Hoffmann, A.B., superintendent of the Baron de Hirsch trade-schools, and just published by the American Book Co. (Price $1.) The book gives an excellent account of the theory and practical application of the Naas system of manual training, which has already received considerable attention in the volumes of Science. The first two chapters of the work give the clearest and most comprehensive exposition of the system we have seen; the third chapter (some things in which might better have been omitted for commonschool purposes) gives a history of the manual training idea; the


Horsford's Acid Phosphate. Antes correspondence to Henry L: Osborne, Ham: Kalamazoo, Mich.


Wants [Free of charge to all, if of satisfactory character. Address N. D. C. Hodges, 874 Broadway, New York.] WANTED: American Journal of Copchology,


these for For sale or suitable exchange.-A spectrometer condition and price. R.Ellsworth Call, Louisville, Ky.

sale will please address the undersigned, stating made by Fauth & Co., Washington, D. C., according to the plan of Prof. C. A. Young. This instrument is suitable for the most advanced investigations A GRADUSTE ENGINEER will give instruction

evenings in geometry, trigonometry and sur. Cost originally $700 and has veying, mechanics, physics, mechan cal drawing been used but little. Will be disposed of at a con. and general engineering construction Five years' siderable reduction. Address Department of Phys-experieuce in field and editorial work on engineerics, Ohio University, Athens, O.

ing journal References furnished C. S. H., 102 I will send British land and fresh-water shells in

Tribune Building, Now York return for those of America, any part, sent to me. Dr. T. H. Andrews, Jefferson Manve at present about fifty or sixty species, with A POSITIOS as desired in the outh preferably

the Gulf States, I can he
many .


Can also i struct in other br uches. Suary only Medical College, Philadelphia, says of

Dominal, as I am simply desirous of employment The Biological Department of Hamline University while spending the winter in the mouth. À private desires to offer microscopic slides of animal tissues, family preferred, but will acce t regular school or whole animals, in exchange for first-class fossils. work if not too confining. MORRIS IBBS, M.D, Address L. .

line University, Hamline, Minn. "A wonderful remedy which gave me For sale. -A set of the Berichte der Deutschen W

ANTED.-By well. qualified and experienced Chemischen Gesellscaft, from Jan. 1, 1877, to Jan. 1

science master and associate of the R yal

School of Mints, London, aged 26 (at present in most gratifying results in the worst 1892, bound in twenty-six volumes to Jan. 1, 1868 and remaining four years unbound.

Eugland), a mastership in technical college or uni.

Also the Bulle forms of dyspepsia.” tin de la Société Chemique de Paris, from Jap. 1

versity for any of the following subjects: Engineer1879, to Jan. 1, 1892, bound in eighteen volumes to istry and metallurgy, etc., etc.

ing sciences geology and mineralogy, physics, chem.

Cau provide excel-
Jan. 1, 1888, and remaining four years unbound.
Dr. Marcus Benjamin, care of D. Appleton & Co., Sussex St., Rochdale, England.

lent references and credentials. Apply, J. G., 17 It reaches various forms of 1 Bond St., New York City. For sale. -1,500 hird, and 125 mammal skins, which A and be practical mineralogist ot twenty years

GRADUATE of . in vicin

experience desires to give bis services and a cabi

net of 25, 00 specimens, all naned. witb xi out the cine seems to touch, assisting ity and are preserved and made up according to the latest approved methods. As I offer the above at a

same number of duplicates, in minerals. crystais,

rocks, gems fossils. sheils archæ li gical and ethno. the weakened stomach, and very low price, it would be a good opportunity for a

college or

Willard E. Treat, East Har: logical specimens and woods to a ġ iustitutiou de. ford, Conn.

The owner will in.

siring a fine outfit for study making the process of diges

crease the cabinet to 50,00 specimens in two years

For Sale.-A new Model U. S. Army Hospital and will act as curator Corresponde 1er solicited tion natural and easy.

Microscope (Zentmayer), also \-inch and 14-inch from any scientific institution. J. W. Flortter,
Objectives. HENRY C. WELLS, 151 Broadway, M.D., Ph.D., San Francisco, Cal., General P. O.
New York,

Descriptive pamphlet free on application to
Rumford Chemical Works, Providence, R. I.

Dyspepsia that no other medi- are first class and labelled with strictly reliable

The American Geologist for 1893.

Beware of Substitutes and Imitations.

For sale by all Druggists.

Edited by PROF. S. CALVIN, University of Iowa; Dr. E. W. ('LAYPOLE, Buchtel College; Joan EYERMAN, Lafayette College ; DR. PERSIFOR FRAZER, Pennilort. Soc.; PROF F. M. CRAGIN, Colorado College; PROF. Rob'T T. Hill, U. S. Irrigation Survey; DR ANDREW C. Lawson, University of California; Frank D. KNOWLTON, U.S. National Museum; Joseph B. TYRRELL, Geol. Sur of Canada; EO | LRICH, Minnesota, Geological Survey: PROF. I. C. WHITE, University of West Virginia; PROF. N. H. WINCHELL University of Minnesota. Now in its Xth volume. $3.50 per year. Sample copies. 20 cents. Address




, Constable PC.



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Finest Ladies' Suede & Kid Gloves. Estos de belle characterpieces of the Avian.

. UMBRELLAS. Steamer and Carriage

Coachmen's Fur Capes and Gloves.

Broadway B

1916 st.


[Science (weekly) established in 1883, N. D. C. HODGES,

874 Broadway, New York City.]
Titles of Some Articles Published in Science since | Ball, V., C. B., LL.D., F.R.S., Dublin, Ireland.

Barnes, Charles Reid, Madison, Wis.
Jan. 1, 1892.

Baur, G., Clark University, Worcester, Mass.

Beal, w. J., Agricultural College, Mich.
Aboriginal North American Tea.

Beals, A. H., Milledgeville, Ga.

Beauchamp, W. M., Baldwinsville, N.Y.
Agriculture, Experimental, Status of.

Bell, Alexander Graham, Washington, D. C.
Amenhotep, King, the tomb of.
Anatomy, The Teaching of, to Advanced Medical Bolley, H. L., Fargo, No. Dak.

Boas, Franz, Clark University, Worcester, Mass.

Bolles, Frank, Cambridge, Mass.
DENT & FOWNES' Anthropology, Current Notes on.

Bostwich, Arthur E., Montclair, NJ.
Architectural Exbibition in Brooklyn.

Bradley, Milton, Springfield, Mass.
Celebrated English
Arsenical Poisoning from Domestic Fabrics.

Brinton, D. G., Philadelphia, Pa.
Artesian Wells in low&.

Call, E. Ellsworth, Des Moines, [&.
Astronomical Notes.

Chandler, H., Buffalo, N.Y.

Comstock, Theo. B., Tucson, Arizona.
Bird on Its Nest, The.

Conu, H. W., Middletown, Conn.
Birds Breeding at Hanover, N. H.

Coulter, John M., Indiana University.
Botanical Laboratory, A.

Cragin, F. W., Colorado Springs, Col.
Botanists, and Nomenclature.

Cresson, Hilborne T., Philadelphia, Pa.
Brain, A Few .

Davis. W. M., Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass.

Dimmock, George, Canobie Lake, N.H.
Canada, Royal Society of.

Dixon, Edward T., Cambridge, England.
Celts, The Question of the.

Farrington, E. H., Agric. Station, Coampaign, In.
Chalicotherium, The Ancestry of.

Ferree, Barr, New York City.
Chemical Laboratory of the Case School.

Fessenden, Reginald A., Lafayette, Ind.
Children, Growth of.
Collection of Objects Used in Worship.

Flexner, Simon, Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Ma.

Foshay, P. Max, Rochester, N.Y.
Cornell, The Change at.

Gallaudet, E. M., Kendall Green, Washington, D.C.
Deaf, Higber Education of the.

Garman, S., Mus. Comp. Zool., Cambridge, Mass.
LAP ROBES. Diamonds in Meteorites.

Gibbs, Morris, Kalamazoo, Mich.
Diphtheria, Tox-Albumin.

Golden, Katherine E., Agric. College, Lafayetto, Ind.
Dynamics, Fundamental Hypotheses of.

Grlonell, George B., New York City.
Electrical Engineer, The Technical Education of.
Eskimo Throwing Sticks.

Hale, Edwin M., Chicago, Ill.
Etymology of two Iroquoian Compound Stems.

Hale, George S., Boston, Mass.

Hale, Horatio, Clinton, Ontario, Canada.
Eyes, Relations of the Motor Muscles of, to certain Halsted, Byron D., Rutg. Coll , Now Brunswick, N.J.

Hall, T. Proctor, Clark University, Worcester, Mass.
Facial Expressions.
Family Traits, Persistency of.

Haworth, Erasmus, Oskaloosa, Iowa.

Hay, 0. P., Irvington. Ind.
Fishes, The Distribution of.
Fossils, Notice of New Gigantic.

Haynes, Henry W., Boston Mass.
Four-fold Space, Possibility of & Realization of.

Hazen, H. A., Weather Buroau, Washington, D.C.

Hewitt, J. N. B., Bureau of Éthnol., Washington,
Gems, Artificial, Detection of.

D. C.
Glacial Phenomena 1 Northeastern Now York.

Hicks, L. E., Lincoln, Neb.
Grasses, Homoptera Injurious to.
Great Lakes, Origin of the Basins of.

Hill, E. J., Chicago, Ill.

Hill, Geo. A., Naval Observatory, Washington, D.C. “Healing, Divine."

Hitchcock, Romyp, Washington, D.C.
Hemiptor us Mouth, Structure of the.

Holmes, E. L. Chicago, Ill.
Hofmann, August Wilhelm von.

Hoskins, L. M., Madison, W18.
Hypnotism among the Lower Animals.

Hotchkiss, Jed., Staunton, V&.
Hypnotism, Traumatic.
"The book is good, thoroughly good, and will long Indian occupation of New York.

Houston, Edwin J., Philadelphia, Pa. remain the best accessible elementary ethnography Infant's Movements.

Howe, Jas. Lewis, Louisville, Ky. in our language."-The Christian Union. Influenza, Latest Detalls Concerning the Germs of. Jackson, Dugald C., Madison, Wisconsin

Hubbard, Gardiner G., Washington, D.C. "We strongly recommend Dr. Brinton's · Races Insects in Popular Droad in New Mexico.

James, Joseph F., Agric. Dept., Washington, D.C. and Peoples' to both beginners and scholars. We Inventions in Foreign countries, How to Protect.

Johnson, Roger B, Miami University, Oxford, O. are not aware of any other recent work on the Inventors and Manufacturers Association.

Keane, A. H., London, England.
science of which it treats in the English language.
Iowa Academy of Sciences.

Kellerman, Mrs. W. A., Columbus, O.
-Asiatic Quarterly.
Jargon, The Chinook.

Kellicott, D. S., State University, Columbus, O.
Jessidæ; Notes on Local.
"His book is an excellent one, and we can beartily Keller, Helen.

Kellogg, D. S., Plattsburgh, N. Y.

Lintner, J. A., Albany, N. Y. recommend it as an introductory manual of ethnol. Klamath Nation, Linguistics.

Loeb, Morris, New York City. ogy."--The Monist.

Laboratory Training, Alms of.
Lewis H. Carvill, Work on the Glacial Phopomona.

Mabery, Charles F., Cleveland, Ohio.
"A useful and really interesting work, which de- Lightning. Now Method of Protecting Buildings from. McCarthy, Gerald, Agric. station, Raleigh, N. C.

Macloskie, G., Princeton, N.J.
serves to be widely read and studied both in Europe Lion Breeding.
and America."-Brighton (Eng.) Herald.

MacDonald, Artbur, Washington, D.C.
Lissajou's Curves, Apparatus for the Production of.
“This volume is most stimulating. It is written
Malze Plant, Growth and Chemical Composition of.

MacGregor, J. C., Halifax, Nova Scotia.

MacRitchie, David, Easter Logie, Perthshire, Scot with great clearness, so that anybody can under Maya Codices, a Key to the Mystery of.

land. stand, and while in some ways. perforce, superficial, Medicine, Preparation for the Study of. grasps very well the complete field of humanity." Mineral Discoveries, Washington.

Marshall, D. T., Metuchen, N.J.

Masou, 0. T., Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D. C. The New York Times. Museums, The Support of.

Mill-paugh, Charles F., Morgantown, W. Van Palenque Tablet, a Brief Study of. “Dr. Brinton invests his scientific illustrations and Patent omice Building, The.

Morse, Edward S., Salem, Mass. measurements with an indescribable charm of par- Physa Heterostropha Say, Notes on the Fertility of. Nuttall, George H. F., Johns Hopkins, Baltimore

Nichols, C. F., Boston, Mass. ration, so that 'Races and Peoples.' avowedly a rec. Pict's House, A.

Md. ord of discovered facts, is in reality a strong stim | Pocket Gopher, Attempted Extermination of.

Oliver, J. E., Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.
ulant to the imagination."-Philadelphia Public Polariscopes, Direct Reflecting.
Psychological Laboratory at Toronto.

Osborn, Henry F., Columbia College, New York City.

Osborn, Herbert, Agricultural College, Ames, Iowa. Psychological Training, The Need of. "The work is indispensable to the student who re

Pammel, L. H., Agricultural Station, Ames, Iowa. Psylla, the Pear-Tree. quires an intelligent guide to a course of ethno- Rain-Making.

Pillsbury, J. H., Smith College, Northampton, Mass. graphic reading."-Philadelphia Times. Rico-Culture in Japan, Mexico and the United Preble, Jr., W. P., New York City:

Poteat, W. L., Wake Forest, N. C.
Price, postpaid, $1.75.
Rivers, Evolution of the Loup, in Nebraska.

Prescott, Albert B., Ann Arbor, Mich.
Scientific Alliance, The.

Riley, c. v., Washington, D. C.
Sistrurus and Crotalophorus.

Ruffner, W. H., Lexington, Va.
Star Photography, Notes on.

Sanford, Edmund C., Clark Univ., Worcester, Mass.
Star, The New, in Auriga.

Scripture, E. W., Clark University, Worcester, Mass.

Seler, Dr. Ed., Berlin, Germany.
Storago of Storm-Waters on the Great Plains.
Teaching of Science.

Shufeldt, R. W., Washington, D.C.
By DANIEL G. BRINTON, M.D. Tiger, A New Sabre.Toothed, from Kansas.

Slade, D. D., Museum Comp. Zool., Cambridge, Mass. Timber Trees of West Virginia,

Smith, John B., Rutgers Coll., New Brunswick, N. J.

Southwick, Edmund B., New York City.
"The book is one of unusual interest and value.”- Traches of Insects, Structure of.
Inter Ocean.
Vein. Formation, Valuable Experiments in.

Stevens, George T., New York City.
“Dr. Daniel G. Brinton writes as the acknowledged Weeds, American.
Weeds as Fertilizing Material.

Stevenson, S. Y., Philadelphia, Pa.

Stone, G. É., Colorado Springs, Col. authority of the subject."-Philadelphia Press.

Taylor. Isaac, Sottrington, England. will, a Recent Analysis of. “ The work will be of genuine value to all who Wind-Storms and Trees.

Thomas, Cyrus, Washington, D. C.

Thurston, R. H., Cornell Universlty, Ithaca, N.Y. wish to know the substance of what has been found Wines, The Sophisticated Fronch. Zoology in the Public Schools of Washington, D. C. True, Frederick W., Nat. Mus., Washington, D.C.

Todd, J. É., Tabor, Iowa. out about the indigenous Americans."--Nature. "A masterly discussion, and an example of the

Turner, C. H., Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, O. successful education of the powers of observation." Some of the Contributors to Science Since Jan. Ward, R.'Dec., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass.

Wake, C., Stanlland, Chicago, Illi. - Philadelphia Ledger.

1, 1892.

Ward, Stanley M., Scranton, Pa.
Price, postpaid, $2.
Aaron, Eugene M., Philadelphia, PA.

Warder, Robert B., Howard Univ., Washington, D.C.
Allen, Harrison, Philadelphia, Pa.

Welch, Wm. H., Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Md.
Ashmoso, Albert S., New York City.

West, Gerald M., Clark University, Worcester, Mass. , Ithaca

Whitman, C. O., Clark University, Worcester, Mass.
Williams, Edward H., Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, P&

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874 Broadway, N. Y. Baldwin, J. Mark, University of Toronto, Canada.


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Harvard Coll Lib 14 Apr9



There is at present much more material offerin, publication in Science GRINUM I. Henry Leslie Osborn

866 Reflex ACTION IN TURTLES. M. J. Elrod...... 368 than can be used so long as the paper remains at its ent size. It now rests A LABORATORY OF PLANT DISEASES. C. W. Woodworth.


with the scientific public whether the size of the paper shall be doubled and the AN IMPORTANT COLLECTION OF MOLLUSCA. Henry A. Pilsbry.

369 price raised from $3.50 to $6. Non-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY. G. A. Miller....... 870

The scientific community in America is small, we know,-only about oneALTAKAPAS COUNTRY. John Gifford .....


fourth that in Great Britain,--and it will require the assistance of at least eight LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.

Nervous Diseases and Civilization. A. D. hundred scientific men and women not now on our subscription lists to justify Rockwell....

873 Observations on the Cretaceous at Gay Head. P. R. Uhler....

378 our making an enlarged Science. Possibly so many new subscribers cannot be The Reticulated Structure of Protoplasm, Alfred C. Stokes..

374 obtained promptly from a class of persons who already have large calls upon Auroral Displays. James Hyatt

374 Alleged Extinction of Mulatto. Jas. Lewis

them for the support of scientific institutions. Howe....

But we hope each and all our 375 Book REVIEWS.

readers will do all that is possible. Lessons in Elementary Mechanics..

Elementary Manual of Applied Mechanics.. 375
Introduction to Geodetic Surveying.

875 Coals and Cokes in West Virginia


Rates of Subscription. A Manual of Physics.

876 The Woodworkers' Manual.



1 Subscriber, $6 (1 year, 37 weeks), (1 year if Science is enlarged as proposed). Entered at the Post-Office of New York, N.Y., As

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American Bell Telephone

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You may enter us as subscribers to Science from January 1, 1893, and we 95 MILK ST., BOSTON, MASS. remit herewith





This Company owns the Letters Patent granted to Alexander Graham Bell, March 7th, 1876, No. 174,465, and January 30, 1877, No. 186,787.

The Transmission of Speech by all known forms of ELECTRIC SPEAKING TELEPUONES fringes the right secured to this Company by the above patents, and renders each individual user of telephones, not furnished by it or its licensees, responsible for such unlawful use, and all the consequences thereof and liable to suit therefor.

FOR SALE, Audubon's “ Birds of America,” 7 vols.; Audubon's Quadrupeds of America,” 3 vols. ; McKenney's “ Indian Tribes of America,'' 3 vols. Price, $200. Address

C. A. MOUTON, Lafayette, La.


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The book will be a pleasant reminder to any pen, 100 copies can be made. 50 copies

many of rough experiences on a frontier which is of typewriter manuscripts produced in :15 OF THE LABRADOR PENINSULA. rapidly receding."-Boston Transcript.

minutes. Send for circulars and samples.

“The picture of our desolate North-western terri- AGENTS WANTED. By ALPHEUS SPRING PACKARD, M.D., Ph.D. tory twenty-five years ago, in contrast with its civilized aspect to-day, and the pleasant features of

LAWTON & CO., the writer's style, constitute the claims of his little

20 Vesey St., New York. Sportsmen and ornithologists wil oe interested in book to present attention."The Dial. the list of Labrador birds by Mr. L. W. Turner, which has been kindly revised and brought down to

INDEX date by Dr. J. A. Allen.

N. D. C. HODGES, Dr. S H. Scudder has contributed the list of butterflies, and Prof. John

874 Broadway, New York, N. Y. TO VOLUME XVIII OF Macoun, of Ottawa, Canada, bas prepared the list of Labrador plants.

Much pains has been taken to render the bibliog- All readers of Science should also take the raphy complete, and the author is indebted to Dr. Franz Boas and others tant suggestions; and it is hoped that this feature of the book will recommend it to collectors of Ameri

THE OLDEST AND BEST issued at an early date. It is hoped that the volume will serve as a guide Architectural publication in the country. Issued to the Labrador coast for the use of travellers, weekly in Three Editions. The INTERNATIONAL

WOODCOCK AND QUAIL yachtsmen, sportsmen, artists, and naturalists, as EDITION for 1893 will have many special World's

-Gameland, the 1 lu trated well as those interested in geographical and histori. Fair features, including 24 colored plates-Helio

magazine of shooting and cal studies. cbromes. All editions contain interesting articles

fishing, tells you where to on Architecture, Sanitation, Archæology, Decora

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Three months' trial subN. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, New York.

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GAMELAND, 1,267 Broadway, New York, N. Y.

SCIENCE te per le code de lampen AMERICAN ARCHITECT, is in

AMERICAN ARCHITECT, is in preparation, and will be


Casts of Fossils,

Relief Maps.

Ward's Natural Science Establishment
Mineralogy, Geology, Paleontology, Zoology, Osteology, Anatomy.

Send for Circular. ROCHESTER, N. Y,

Stuffed Animals

and Skins, Mountea

Skeletons, Anatomical

Models Invertebrates


ried away.


Itza. One of the Stelæ at Quirigua has bad a nace carved on it quite recently; but the sculplures of this place are in a much

better state of preservation than those of Copan owing to their VANDALISM AMONG THE ANTIQUITIES OF YUCATAN being at some distance from the road, and being covered with a AND CENTRAL AMERICA.

dense tropical growth; while those of Copan are within a mile of

the village, and there was formerly a road orer the Plaza Grande BY M. H. SAVILLE, ASSISTANT IN PEABODY MUSEUM, HARVARD UNIV., and among the idols. The burning of the bush, to clear the land CAMBRIDGE, MASS.

for milphas, has also injured many of the sculptures owing to the The ancient buildings and sculptures of Yucatan and Central

cracking of the stones by the heat. America have within a few years been much damaged and dis

While in Nicaragua I learned that the sculptures on the Island figured by the indifference of the natives of those countries, and of Zapatero in Lake Nicaragua have within a few years been by the vanity of travellers, some of them unfortunately Ameri- much broken and disfigured. These were described by Squier in can,

who paint their names in large characters on the sides of Nicaragua, Its People, Scenery, Monuments, etc.,” Vol. II. the buildings and carve them on the sculptures.

As the governments of Mexico and the Central American reBriefly, I will enumerate a few instances that have come under publics are making little or no effort to preserve or care for the my personal observation.

antiquities within their boundaries, it remains for the United The magnificent “House of the Governor" in Uxmal, probably States to do sometbing to preserve these vanishing memorials of the grandest building now standing in Yucatan, is almost covered the past. The initiative has been taken by the Peabody Museum, with names on the front and on the cemented walls inside. These Cambridge, which has been granted, for ten years, the care of names are painted in black, blue, and red, and the letters are in the antiquities of Honduras A wall has been built enclosing some cases twelve inches high, and here are to be seen the names the principal remains in Copan, and a keeper been placed in of men who are widely known in the scientific world. The charge with strict orders to allow nothing to be destroyed or car. 66 “ House of the Dwarfs" in the same city has suffered in a like

Thus a strong effort is being made by the Peabody manner. Many of the sculptures which have fallen from the Museum to protect the wonderful carvings in stone of the ancient buildings in Uxmal bave been wilfully broken, and I noticed city of Copan. particularly that two of the beautifully carved turtles from the 6. House of the Turtles” had been broken apparently by a ma


BY FRANK D. SKEEL, A M., M D., NEW YORK. The large face figured by Stephens in “ Incidents of Travel in Yucatan,” Vol. II., p. 434, is in a mound in the backyard of a The ancient Japanese, in common with most Oriental pations, shop in Izamal. This has been almost destroyed. The whole of measured time by the position of the sun. Their day commenced the face between the eyes and the lower part of the chin is gone, and ended with sunrise. As Japan lies between the thirtieth and and I was told that the stones thus obtained were used in repair- the forty-fifth parallels of latitude, the days and nights vary coning a fence. On the other side of this mound is the bas-relief in siderably in length during the year. To fulól the conditions of stucco discovered by Charney, and this is slowly crumbling their notation a timepiece must divide into equal parts the periods away. The steps leading up to the top of the Great Pyramid of daylight and the periods of darkness To construct a time. are being thrown down; and many mounds in Yucatan are being piece which will perform this erratic division of time is a me. destroyed at the present time to furnish building material. In chanical problem of no mean order. This, the ancient Japanese fact, if a bee's nest should be found in one of the old buildings, have accomplished in several very ingenious ways. the Indians would tear down part of the structure to get at the Their clocks may be roughly divided into two general classes:hopey.

1. Those with a constant rate, in which the changing length of In Copan, wben the Peabody Museum Honduras Expedition the hours is indicated by the spacing of the numerals, which are compared the condition of the “ Idols ” to-day, with the photo engraved on movable pieces of metal. graphs taken by Mr. A. P. Maudslay seven years ago, it was 2. Those with a varying rate, baving the numerals equally found that during that time some of the very finest sculptures had spaced, the lengtb of the hour being regulated by the rate of the been disfigured by blows from machetes and other instruments. clock. The Stela given as a frontispiece in Stephens's "Incidents of Travel Under the first division there are two types, namely, clocks in Central America,” Vol. I., has been much marred by some one with rectilinear dials, and clocks with circular dials. Clocks of who has broken off several ornaments and a beautiful medalion the former type are driven by a weight or a spring. Those of face from the northern side. One of the faces and several noses the second type by weight only. The power is transmitted by a have been broken off from the sitting figures on the altar figured cord or chain to which, in clocks with rectilinear dials, the index by Stephens in the same volume, opposite page 142. On some of is attached. The hour-sigos are engraved on separate pieces of the idols and altars names have been carved, notably on the back metal, which slide in a vertical groove in the front of the case. of the Stela figured opposite page 158 in Stephens, and a large Parallel to this is a slit in the case, through which the hand is fragment has been broken from the same Stela. While excavat- attached to the cord. The hours of day and of night are indiing in one of the chambers of the Main Structure we uncovered a cated by different characters. The spaces between these signs beautiful hieroglyphic step, but before we bad time to secure a are regulated by moving the pieces of metal bearing the hourphotograph of it, some visitor improved the opportunity while no signs nearer together or farther apart as occasion may require. one was about to break off one of the letters.

Some clocks of this type are provided with graduations and a In Quirigua a small statue, discovered by Maudslay and re- table by which the hour-signs may be properly adjusted in ac. moved by him to a small house near the rancho of Quirigua, had cordance with the season of the year. The hand moves downthe head and one of the arms broken from it during the interval ward over the face of the dial as the clock runs down and resumes between two visits. This statue was of the highest importance, its place at the top when it is wound. The escapement is the as it very much resembled tbe celebrated “Chaac-mol” now in verge, with crown-wheel. balance-wheel, and hairspring. The the Mexican Museum, but discovered by Le Plongeon at Chichen driving-power is either a weight or a spring, as before stated.

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