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2. It would be worth while, perbaps, is a trial was made

On Left-Handedness. to obtain negro labor for the rice plantations. The negro is Why are most people right-handed ? Why are a few proof against malarious influences in a considerable measure. left-handed ? These are questions which have puzzled all Might not colored laborers be imported from Georgia and physiologists who have attempted their solution. The varithe Carolinas ?

ous theories put forward are compactly presented by Sir

Daniel Wilson in his recent work, “The Right Hand: LeftCURRENT NOTES ON ANTHROPOLOGY. – XI.

Handedness" (London, 1891). His final conclusion is that

left-handedness is due to “an exceptional development of [Edited by D. G. Brinton, M.D., LL.D.)

the right hemisphere of the brain." But it must be acknowlCanadian Archæology.

edged that his evidence, consisting of a single autopsy, is

far from sufficient. UNDER the efficient superintendence of Mr. David Boyle, curator, the archæological collection of the Canadian Insti

Sir Daniel calls attention to the fact that the forms of tute, Toronto, has grown to be the largest in existence, illus

some ancient stone implements prove that palæolithic man trating the prehistoric condition of man in the province of

was sometimes left-handed, and distinctly was not ambidexOntario. His excellent reports, which have appeared an

trous, as some have maintained. He does not refer to De nually since 1887, describe with great accuracy and sufficient

Mortillet's tables in the Bull. Soc. D'Anthopologie, 1890, fullness the yearly accessions to the collection of antiquities.

which show that at that time in France the men averaged Objects which can properly be called palæolithic have not

more than twice as many left-handed individuals as at yet been found in Canada. This is the opinion of Mr.

present; and at certain localities, as at Chassey, on the upper Boyle as expressed in his last report. Of course, forms

Rhone, the left-handed were in the large majority. simulating those of the old stone age occur, but this is not

In Sir Daniel's generally very thorough volume there are conclusive. Stone is the principal material, and in its shap

but few references to this phenomenon in the lower animals, ing and dressing the Canadian Indians were not behind their

and no mention of its occurrence in snails. It may, indeed, neighbors to the south. The collection also contains many

sound like a “bull," to talk of animals as left-handed who specimens of their pottery. It is well burned, ornamented

have no hands, but the physiological phenomenon is plainly with designs in scroll and line, and some of the vases are

present. It is shown in the direction in which they conalmost classic in outline.” The pipes, both stone and

struct the spiral of their shell. With the ordinary vine clay, are a prominent feature in the reports, and evidently

snail this is from left to right; but once in about 3,000 times were the objects of solicitous workmanship. Copper speci

it is from right to left. They are then known as sinistrorsa. mens are by no means unusual, some being knives, others

In the genus Partula far more frequent examples occur, and spear-beads, with planges and sockets, others ornaments, as

indeed species have been named from this peculiarity. Whatbeads, bracelets, etc. Examples in bone, shell, and horn are

everits cause, in mollusk and in man the same law is operative. also figured. About a hundred of the crania unearthed have

The Mentone Cave-Burials. been examined. They indicate a people with moderately

Near Mentone, but on the Italian-side of the frontier, there dolichocephalic skulls, averaging a cranial index of 74.5.

are several caves in the cretaceous sea-cliffs, whose contents It is to be hoped that the government of the Dominion

have long attracted the lively attention of archæologists. will continue to lend assistance to this creditable effort to

Unluckily, they have been worked over so much that the illustrate the archæology of Ontario.

original stratification is no longer apparent; but throughout The Question of the Basques.

the mass, flint chips and rude bone implements have been

abundantly found, of such a character that they have been As some readers of Science have manifested an interest in

unanimously referred to palæolithic man, to that period of the Basques, they will doubtless be pleased to learn that at

his existence in western Europe which De Mortillet has the next meeting of the French Association for the Advance

called Solutreen. ment of Science, to be held at Pau, from the 15th to the 22d

Thus far, all is harmony; but in this deposit, at various of September next, the Anthropological Section intends to

depths, skeletons have been unearthed, and a lively discusdevote most of its energies to settling "La Question Basque."

sion ensued as to whether these should be considered also of According to an announcement of the President of the Sec

palæolithic time, or of later date. This debate has been retion, Dr. Magitot, the question is to be attacked on all four

newed by fresh discoveries of such remains in February last, sides: first, the history and origin of the Euskarian people;

a good description of which, by Mr. A Vaughan Jennings, next, their anthropological characters; third, their language;

appears in Natural Science for June.

They are said to be and finally, their traditions and folk-lore. From such an

of unusual size, relics of men from six and a half to seven onset as this we may hope for some positive results. Not much can be expected from a study of the language. measuring skeletons.

feet tall; but it is well known how easily one is deceived in

With them were worked ornaments There is probably no other living idiom which has had its

of bone and shell, necklaces, and finely-chipped arrowheads. vocabulary so completely foreignized as the Basque. At

These indications point conclusively to the fact of deliberate the Congrés Scientifique International des Catholiques last

interment at a period when mortuary ceremonies were definite year, the Comte de Charency, who is a good authority on

and solemn rites, and unquestionably, therefore, to neolithic the tongue, stated that at least nine-tenths of its words were

times. In spite of the depth at which they were found, perborrowed from the Latin and Romance languages, and then

haps twenty-five feet below the modern level of the cave proceeded to point out that a considerable percentage of the

floor, they must be accepted as endorsing De Mortillet's reremainder were Celtic, Greek, or Germanic in origin. There

jection of the human remains as palæolithic. is almost nothing left of the original Euskarian but its grammar; and this, it may be added in passing, shows no

Ethnology as Philosophy. relationship to that of either Ural-Altaic or American Among the most thoughtful writers on the meaning and tongues, in spite of various statements to the contrary. mission of ethnology must be named Dr. A. H. Post of



Bremen. He is the author of several important works, and any special medicinal value they may possess as household reme. an essay of his, on “Ethnological Jurisprudence,” was dies. Some two hundred species are mentioned. One might translated and published last year in the Monist, at Chicago.

reasonably question the justice of considering the locust (Robinia In a recent number of the Globus he publishes some

pseudacacia), the honey locust (Gleditschia triacanthos), or the

wild bydrangea (Hydrangea arborescens) as weeds. The list ** Ethnological Reflections,” which are intended to set forth

would naturally not be the same for all States, but it is a little the true position of ethnology with reference to other sci

surprising not to find Potentilla norvegica mentioned. In southHe defines ethnology as the natural history of so

western Ohio, and doubtless other localities, whole fields have cial life," and he believes that the time will come when all been overrun by this plant, and it is much worse in this respect the so-called “social sciences " will be taught as its branches. than P. canadensis, which is mentioned in the Bulletin. A numHe points out with force that this will bring about a revolu- ber of typographical errors show carelessness in proof-reading. tion in all traditional methods of education, for there is a At a meeting of the Paris Geographical Society on May 20, fundamental and irreconcilable antagonism between the according to The Scottish Geographical Magazine, M. Venukoff two methods. Natural science denies absolutely the free gave a sketch of the surveys executed in Russia during the year will of man, the validity of a priori reasoning on any sub- 1891. After referring to the exploration of the Black Sea conject, the possibility of a "categorical imperative" in ethics, tinued by MM. Spindler, Andrussof, and Wrangell, of which an the abstract truth of any doctrine of religion or morals, the

account was given on page 154 of this volume, he turned to the

geodetic and topographical work executed in the Crimea, which supremacy of any individual. All is an endless and un

has been the means of ascertaining that the Roman Kosh (5,601 avoidable chain of cause and effect.

feet high) is the culminating point of the mountains of the peninIt appears to me that such a view of ethnology is true so

sula, and not the Tchatyr Dagh (5,002 feet), as has hitherto been far as it relates to the growth of societies under natural sur- supposed. The phenomena of terrestrial magnetism and the local roundings. The social unit is cribbed and confined by iron attractions of the mountains of the Crimea have also received atlaws, and its development is in a measure subject to these; tention. Among the geodetic works produced is a large map of but in a measure only. It is even less true of the individual. the triangulation between Kishineff and Astrakhan, along the For to deny free-will to man not only leads at once into

parallel of 47° 30' N. This arc extends over nineteen degrees of logical contradictions of the grossest kind, but is contrary to

longitude. It is remarkable that this triangulation, though quite

independent, agrees exactly with that of the 52d parallel in regard the soundest maxims of inductive philosophy. As John

to the anomalies observed in the length of different degrees of Stuart Mill, whom no one will accuse of prejudice, pointed longitude (see vol. vii., p. 494). Between the same meridians the out, we are certain of nothing so surely as of our own feel- differences of the lengths of degrees of longitude, as measured ings, and of these the strongest is that of our own individu- geodetically and calculated astronomically, have always the same ality, and of it as a free agent.

sign. Dr. Post has here committed the same error as another

For several years the chemical division of the U. S. Departdistinguished ethnologist, lately mentioned in these columns

ment of Agriculture, under H. W. Wiley, has been giving consid(Science, June 3), that of seeking to make ethnology syn- erable attention to the subject of adulterants, and in part seventh thetic, when its study should be objective and analytic. of bulletin No. 13 is reported a series of investigations made on the Where it leads him, his article curiously shows.

adulterations of tea, coffee, and cocoa preparations. The conclupage he says that to the ethnologist no social condition is good

sion reached is that teas are not now adulterated to so great an or bad, but merely present as a subject for study; and on

extent as formerly, and that the adulterants used are, as a rule,

not such as may be considered prejudicial to health. In the case the very next page he falls to bewailing the egotistic strife

of coffee the use of adulterants seems to be on the increase. Of in modern society as threatening the ruin of the social edi

the samples of ground coffee examined, 90 per cent were found fice!

to be adulterated in some way, some of them containing no ffee

whatever. Chicory is largely used as an adulterant of coffee, as NOTES AND NEWS.

well as wheat, rye, corn, peas, acorns, molasses, etc. Not only is The next meeting the American Association for the Advance

ground coffee adulterated, but numerous imitations of unground ment of Science, to be beld in Rochester, N.Y., Aug. 17-24, will

coffee are on the market, a few imitating green coffee, but the be of unusual interest and importance, especially to the members

larger number intended to be mixed with roasted coffees. The of the Section of Biology. At this meeting will be considered the

following description of some of them is taken from the bulletin: place of meeting for 1893, and consequently the attitude of the

“8,951. Coffee pellets, molded, but not in the form of coffee beans. association toward the Columbian Exposition. But even of greater

When mixed with ground coffee would escape the notice of the importance to biologists will be the consideration and probably the

purchaser, also probably in mixture with whole coffee. Compo

Manudecision of the question of the division of the section into two,

sition; wheat flour and bran, rye also probably present. one for the botanists, and one for the zoologists. It is hoped, also,

factured by the Clark Coffee Company, office 156 State Street, that there will come up for discussion the report of the American

Boston; factory, Roxbury, Mass. Price, 6 cents per pound, or 51 Branch of the International Committee on Biological Nomen

cents in 10-barrel lots. The manufacturers claim that an addiclature. This report has nothing to do with the naming of

tion of 33 per cent of these “pellets' to genuine coffee will make

• an equal drink to the straight goods.' The manufacturers, species, but will consider the terminology to be employed in anatomy, embryology, etc. In view of the matters of general in

after making extravagant claims for their product, state, with

evident intention to further a fraud, that it is uniform in color, terest to the whole association, and those of vital interest to Section F, it is expected that there will be a large attendance of botanists

and can be furnished with any desired color of roast.' 8,955. and zoologists and a long list of papers to be presented before the

Imitation coffee beans. Composed of wheat flour, light roast.

Manufactured by the Swedish Coffee Company, New York. 8,956. present section of biology.

Similar to 8,955, and of the same manufacture. Composition; - Bulletin No. 23 of the West Virginia Agricultural Experi- wbeat flour and probably saw-dust. Dark roast; two kinds of ment Station, entitled “Illustrated Descriptive List of Weeds," berries. 8,957. Imitation coffee beans. Composition; wheat contains a considerable amount of information in a condensed flour. Manufactured by L. H. Hall, 1,017 Chestnut Street, Philaform. It is written by Dr. C. F. Millspaugh, botanist of the sta- delphia, Pa.” Another method of sophisticating coffee is to treat tion. Illustrations of all the important families, as well as of a it for the manufacture of coffee extract, after which the grains number of species, enable one unfamiliar with the weeds to recog- are roasted a second time, with the addition of a little sugar to nize them. Short descriptions are given of each, with mention of cover the berries with a deceptive glazing.

On one



4.50 a year.



From that day until the present this study and classification of the higher plants has been almost the only subject to

which any very great attention has been given. In our own A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER OF ALL THE ARTS AND SCIENCES.

country the people who came to it, if they had had any train. ing at all in botany, had been impressed with the importance

of the same ideas. They had come to a new country. It N. D. C. HODGES,

was their first duty to make known to those abroad who were

studying plants, what the flora of this country was; and, from 874 BROADWAY, New York. the year 1750 on, collections of great number and often of

considerable value went across the water.

From 1750 to late in the present century little attention SUBSCRIPTIONS.-United States and Canada....

.$3.50 a year.

was given to any other department of botany; and it is only Great Britain and Europe...

within the last ten or fifteen years that descriptive botany Communications will be welcomed from any quarter. Abstracts of scientific

has had any competitors for favor. In Germany, however, papers are solicited, and one hundred copies of the issue containing such will the matter is widely different; it has been a much longer be mailed the author on request in advance. Rejected manuscripts will be time since systematic botany, the study of plants as far as returned to the authors only when the requisite amount of postage accom- their classification is concerned, was the only topic which panies the manuscript. Whatever is intended for insertion must be authenti

attracted attention. The reason of this is perfectly evident. cated by the name and address of the writer; not necessarily for publication, but as a guaranty of good faith. We do not hold ourselves responsible for

People exhausted the subject to a certain degree in that counany view or opinions expressed in the communications of our correspondents. try, and they then naturally turned their attention to some

Attention is called to the “Wants" column. It is invaluable to those who other phase of plant study. Germany and France stand far use it in soliciting information or seoking new positions. The name and in advance of this country to-day in the investigations which address of applicants should be given in full, so that answers will go direct to

their botanists have pursued, solely because of the longer them. The “Exchange" column is likewise open.

time during which they have been at work, and the greater For Advertising Rates apply to HENRY F. TAYLOR, 13 Astor Place, New York.

amount of time which each investigator is able to give to his own special subject.

But students nowadays are not expected to collect flowers MODERN BOTANY."

and find out their names and then congratulate themselves BY CHARLES R. BARNES, PROFESSOR OF BOTANY IN THE UNIVERSITY that they have studied botany. They are put to work with

the microscope to see the very minutest arrangement of the I VENTURE to say th the ideas conjured up by the words

complicated machinery of plants. They are set to work with “botany” and “botanists” in the minds of those of you

the pencil to delineate these arrangements; to record their whose school days ceased anywhere from fifteen to twenty

observation in a way which appeals at once to the eye, withyears ago, or perhaps even at a later date, will be one which

out the intervention of words; and, in spite of the repeated is very widely different from the ideas that those words

assertion that they cannot draw, they are told to do the very ought to bring up. To most people the word “botany

thing which they cannot do until they have learned how to calls something which chiefly means the collecting of flow

do it. They are asked to equip themselves with chemical ering plants in the spring; pulling flowers to pieces in an

and physical knowledge, in order that they may be able to endeavor, too often a vain endeavor, to find out a long, hard

study this machinery in action; and when they have attained name for the plant; an endeavor wbich is often vain unless

a sufficient knowledge of other sciences, then, and then only, they have acquired the very useful trick of looking in the

can they expect to unravel some of the mysteries of plant index for the common name. The word “botanist” brings life, in many ways the least mysterious of organic things. to mind a sort of harmless crank who spends most of his

Now, what is the object and purpose of such training as time in wandering about fields and woods and poking into

this ? First, it is to develop skill of eye, hand, and brain. swamps aud bringing home arms full or boxes full of plants;

It is to bring to them something of those qualities to which percbance drying them and preserving them. Yet these two

the essayist of the evening alluded. It is to enable them to ideas are so extremely foreign to the subject of botany as it

see in the material things around them something more than

bits of matter. is thought of to-day, that I venture to present to you some

It is to enable them to gain that breadth of bints of what modern botany is, and particularly what mod- comprehension and grasp of intellect which it is desirable ern botany is on its economic side. The study that I have

that every educated man should attain. I hope, therefore, indicated as being the common one is the study of a part

that the members of this society will use their utmost enonly of botany; one to be sure which is not without its value;

deavor to have this sort of vital and vitalizing study combut it is only the most elementary part of the subject. It

menced in the schools below the college and university; in was very natural that when people began, in the revival of

what we may call the primary schools as contrasted with the learning, and at the close of the middle ages, to study plants, secondary ones. Most of the high schools in the State to-day, they should first turn their attention to the plants which

I am sorry to say, are studying this subject in the same way

in which it was studied twenty-five years ago, and they are were nearest at hand, and to those plants which attracted their attention most readily on account of their size. So we

doing this work partly because they have had no pull from find that the early studies of plants are almost exclusively higher schools to lift them to a higher level, and partly bean attempt to describe and classify; at first simply to de

cause they know no better way. scribe the plants which one found about him; later to ascer

On its economic side this sort of training has its chief tain what the relations of these plants to each other were.

value, and it is that, I take it, in which the members of this

society are mainly interested. Let me select a few topics 1 An address delivered before the State Agricultural Society of Wisconsin,

from the very great number at my disposal in order to illusFeb. 1, 1892; stenographically reported and published by permission of the secretary in advance of the volume of Proceedings for the year.

trate to you, if I can, just what the economic bearing of this

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science is; just what we may expect from it; just what we Only a few months ago a paper was published by two of have a right to demand from it.

the men who have been experimenting longest on this matter Take the single topic of the culture of plants. In how far of nitrogen assimilation; and they give some hints in regard bas that been exhausted ? How much do we really know to the harvesting of those plants which produce large quanabout the reasonableness of our modes of cultivation ? How tities of nitrogenous material that may turn out to be of very much do we know about the effect of other modes of culti- great money value. It has been found that the contents of vation than those which have been in vogue for fisty, or one leaves of clorer, so far as nitrogen was concerned, was very hundred, or hundreds of years? One suggestion in this direc- much greater at the close of the day, or near the close of the tion may suffice as an illustration. If any man should sow day, than it was in the morning or during the forenoon. Indian corn in the same way that he sows wheat, with the That is, during the day, especially on brigbt and sunny days, expectation of obtaining any crop of grain from it, we should the plants were able to manufacture large quantities of these almost consider him an idiot. And yet I wonder whether materials. Now one of the main things for which our clover it is very much less idiotic to sow wheat in the way that we crop is grown is the large amount of nitrogenous materials do, with the expectation of attaining the best results possible which it contains as compared with other fodders. It is from this as a grain crop. I do not say that we do not get quite plain that if these results are correct, the harvesting of a crop, often a good crop. A magnificent one, as compared such a crop as this near the close of the day is going to give with what we have ever had, has been raised in the past year; us a fodder whose money value is decidedly greater than that but who knows whether the cultivation of wheat in some- of one harvested early in the day, before the plant has been thing the same way in which Indian corn is cultivated, that able to manufacture these substances; for in the course of the is, by giving it a much greater range for obtaining its nour- night the large majority of them are utilized for the plant's ishment, and better advantages of light and air, would not own growth, and are converted into other forms of material increase the yield by a very large percentage ? Indeed, which are less valuable as animal food. there have been some experiments, on not a very small scale, But I cannot dwell upon that topic. Let me give you a which would seem to indicate that there are possibilities hint froin another field. Perhaps if I should ask any of you in this direction which we have not yet even attempted to what is the purpose of the shade-trees along the streets of ascertain.

our cities and villages the answer would be quite unanimous You hear a great deal from our own university experi- that these trees were for shade and beauty; and yet these ment station about the food of animals; and Professor Henry trees are not used for that purpose. At least nobody, I think, is constantly experimenting to ascertain just what are the would imagine that that was their use, if he passed along best foods to produce a given result with a given animal. the streets of our own city. He would think that the main He has endeavored to ascertain something of the effect of purpose of the best elms was to furnish adequate stays for different rations upon the bones, upon the muscles, upon the some electric pole or to support the telephone wires which fat of various animals. Why should we not have some ex- pass through them. He would suppose, if he saw the city force periments carried on in regard to the food of plants? Does making a street, that the chief purpose of the roots of the anybody know what the effect of a given ration of food for trees was to be grubbed out of the way for the first curbstone a plant will be ? So far as I can recollect, experiments on or sidewalk that the city wished to put along that way. If what we may designate as feeding plants, have been carried one saw. people trimming their shade-trees, he would think on to a very limited extent. We have endeavored to ascer- that the main advantage of these was to afford an object lestain particularly where plants obtain their nitrogen; and for son as to how badly work could be done, and how much the last twenty-five years, almost, this question has been one injury could be inflicted upon an unoffending plant, apparunder experiment and under discussion. I suppose that ently with the intention of affording it early relief from its many of you know something of the prolonged experiment sufferings by death. Our treatment of shade-trees in the which has been carried on at Rothamstead; and perhaps streets of cities and villages is one of the crying shames of some of you know of the recent experiments of Hellriegel this day. Watch the “trimining” of street trees. Ignorant and Wilfarth, and Frank, men who are endeavoring to find laborers half chop and balf break off the limb of a tree, and out whether plants, when kept in very vigorous condition, leave the rough end exposed to wind and weather instead of can obtain nitrogen from the air, or whether it is absolutely caring for the wound properly. We seem to think we have necessary to get it from compounds in the soil. Here is a no more duties towards that particular tree except to ged rid problem which has been attacked in the way these other of a branch that may be a little bit in our way. We do the questions ought to be attacked, and in the very way in which very thing which will subject that tree to the greatest danger. we may expect a solution of these thousands of other problems We offer the very best chance for the attack of parasitic aniin regard to feeding plants. The most recent experiments mals and plants on that tree; as though our main purpose in regard to this source of nitrogen for plants make it quite was to destroy it, instead of our alleged intent, to trim it in possible that when plants are in a very vigorous and thrifty order to maintain and augment its beauty. condition they are then able to fix the free nitrogen of the This naturally suggests the management of forests. Manair; and that when they are not at their highest notch of agement of forests ?

agement of forests? We hardly know of such a thing in vigor, they are then able to get their supply of nitrogen this country. We do not manage our forests. We simply only from nitrogenous compounds in the soil.

On this very

cut them down, and then are glad that the cutters can move point we have some recent experiments that perhaps would on to some other acre and cut it down in the same way. We interest you; and, bear in mind, I am only mentioning these have made almost no provision in this country for maintain. as illustrative. I am trying to show the necessity for such a ing our supply of timber. People may say what they please preparation in botanical study as will enable the men who about the inexhaustibility of our forest resources. Those of are most deeply and profoundly interested in this very study you who have given the subject any attention know that it to carry on some of those experiments that it seems so higbly is utter folly to say that our forest resources are inexhaustidesirable to carry on.

ble, or that they are not being exhausted at a most extrava


gant rate. Now meu trained in the knowledge of how plants botanists of the country as those men who are studying live and grow and behave have some basis on which they means of discovering, checking, and curing the plant discan suggest ways of managing forests which will not only eases; men who are studying how plants grow, and how they yield all the timber that is needed at the present time, but may be helped in their growth and not harmed. They are which will enable these forests to continue to yield such sup- men who are studying what is the rational basis for our plies for an indefinite period of years. Forest management modes of culture; and it is to these men the agriculturist is not unknown in other countries. We simply have trained must turn, with the hope that their experiments will lead no men in this country to have any idea what forest man- him in the future, as they have in the past, to more rational agement means.

modes of cultivation, and to better knowledge of the organAnd then we have the immense subject of diseases of isms, the very intricate organisms in spite of their simplicity, plants, and that is a study which seems to have attracted the with which he has constantly to deal. greatest attention at the present day. The division of vegetable pathology at the Department of Agriculture at Wash

NOTES ON A DESTRUCTIVE FOREST TREE ington is receiving a vast deal more attention than the divi

SCOLYTID. sion of forestry, and yet I doubt very much whether its money value to the people is any greater. The money value of the study of both these subjects to the American people, The family of beetles known as Scolytidæ contains in this and particularly to the farmers of the country, is almost country, so far as known, something over 160 species. They beyond calculation. We hardly realize what this money are small, cylindrical, brown or black beetles. The largest value is. We are so used to losing a certain percentage of one of the family, Dendroctonus terebrans, is thirty-two hunour farm crops by diseases that we really pay no attention dredths of an inch long, while the smallest, Cripturgus to it. If our animals, our focks and herds, should be deci- atomus, is but four hundredths of an inch long. With a mated as often as the crops are, we should hear such a bue few exceptions, beetles belonging to this family breed in the and cry as would bring immediate attention on all hands to bark of wood of different forest and fruit trees. Each it. I suppose there is no one of you, who has given the species usually has a preference for certain kinds of trees. subject a moment's thought, but will agree with me that Those feeding on the bark are called bark beetles, while the loss from rust on the wheat crop for the present year, those entering the wood are termed timber beetles. The stated in the very lowest possible terms, could not fall below bark beetles breed in and feed upon the inner bark of trees one per cent. How much money does that mean on six or logs, and when fully developed emerge through the bark, hundred odd million bushels of wheat? It means several leaving it pierced with small round holes. The timber beetles million more than has been laid out in the study of plants enter directly through the bark, making their “pin-hole" in all the centuries. It means a great many hundreds of tunnels in all directions through the wood; their eggs are thousands of dollars more than we shall lay out the next deposited in these tunnels, and when the young are fully century for the study of plants; and yet we are learning and developed they emerge from the original entrance made by can learn how not only to check but how absolutely to pre- the parent beetle. vent such diseases as this. I do not say that this particular It has been claimed that Scolytids never attack healthy, one can be absolutely checked at the present time, but we living trees. We acknowledge that as a rule the different know ways in which it can be reduced to a minimum, even species of this family have a preference for unhealthy trees at present. The same thing might be said in regard to such or those which have been broken by storm or felled by the diseases as those of the smut in corn and oats. Very careful axe, but in this Dendroctonus frontalis we certainly have estimates of certain years have shown us tbat as much as ten an exception to the rule. From the abundant evidence I per cent sometimes of an oat crop is damaged by that one have obtained during extended and careful investigation, I disease alone. That might mean a good many millions of am convinced that the death of large and small, vigorous dollars on that one crop. So that a study of these plant dis- trees of five species of pine and of the black spruce was eases is by no means either fruitless or valueless.

caused primarily by the attack of this insect; in fact, this But you say, “Why not let anybody who is concerned species seems to have a preference for the green bark on the with these matters study them ?” Chiefly because it is not living pine and spruce which they invade. possible for any man who does not know something of the As Entomologist of this Station, I have conducted some life history of the parasite which causes a disease to go about investigations regarding the ravages of this beetle, and, since checking or curing it. He may guess at some remedy, and May 2 of this year, have travelled about 340 miles through be may, by a lucky guess, hit upon the right remedy. He may some of the principal regions of the State, where the pine think of some process that possibly will turn out the right and spruce are most common. The species of pine observed one, but he is not nearly so apt to think about the right pro- were the White Pipe (Pinus alba), the Yellow Pine (P. cess or to hit upon the right experiment as the man wbo bas echinata), the Pitch Pine (P. rigida), the Table Mountain been properly trained for this kind of work. That sort of Pine (P. pungens), and the common Scrub Pine (P. inops). training means time to study, and time to work, and money The Black Spruce (Picea Mariana) is also a common and support while the work is being carried on.

valuable tree on some 500,000 acres of the higher mountains I might dwell at very much greater length on these vari- and table-lands of this State. ous topics; but enongh has been said, I hope, to give you some Trees varying from five inches in diameter to the largest, idea of what modern botany is and what the modern botanist finest specimens of the five species of pine mentioned, and of is. It will at least give you a truer idea than you would the Black Spruce, were found dying in different sections have if you considered him merely as the man who goes out from a cause which it was my duty to investigate. A large and gathers some plants, useful as this may be, or the man number of the dead, dying, and green trees were felled and who tears apart some flowers to find out what the names of examined. Every part of the trees from the roots near the the flowers are. Rather, I would have you think of the surface to the terminal twigs and leaves was carefully


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