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searched for possible causes of their unhealthy condition. exhibition of streamers of various hues, dancing along the northern The trees in the best condition to examine were those on

arch like great hanging curtains, there was one most unique which the leaves were yet green, but from their general ap

feature which I never saw or heard of before. A little after 10 pearance indicated that they had been attacked by the char

o'clock, when the great brilliance of red and pink streams seemed

to be dying out, and the northern heavens assuming a pale uniacteristic trouble which was shown in a few yellow leaves at

form hue, there appeared directly overhead a well-defined, nebu. the tops. The roots of such trees were found in a perfectly

lous arch, spanning the entire vault of heaven from east to west. healthy condition for some distance beneath the surface; the

At first a companion suggested that it was the Milky Way; but a bark on the trunks from a distance of from five to fifteen few seconds' observation detected the Milky Way, running nearly feet from the base was green, full of sap, and apparently at right angles with the arch — the two resembling each other healthy; the leaves were almost free from insect attack and somewhat in width and general appearance, except that the arch disease, in no case was there sufficient attack of this nature

was more clearly defined and uniform in shape and outline than

the other. In about fifteen minutes it began to fade away and to indicate even a slight injury; the bark, however, at a

disappear, the eastern portion disappearing first. In a short time point about two-thirds up from the base of the tree, was

there was only a bright strip near the western horizon, which found in every case to be infested by Dendroctonus fron

much resembled the tail of a comet; but it, too, soon disappeared, talis in sufficient numbers to kill all the bark for some

and there were then no traces of the arch to be seen. distance above that point, and in this bark fully-developed However, in a few minutes it began to reappear, and soon shone beetles and pupæ were found on May 5, thus indicating out bright and clear as before,- the arch being five to six degrees that the eggs must have been deposited in the bark the pre- in width, – the eastern extremity at the horizon being a little south vious summer or fall. All of the characteristic dead and of east, and the other extremity being a little north of west, as if the dying Pine and Spruce trees examined showed abundant

whole had been drawn by a radius of a circle whose centre was a

little east of the north pole. In ten or fifteen minutes this arch evidence that they had been invaded while yet green by this

also disappeared as before. bark beetle.

Between the arch and the upper extremities of the gay streamIt would seem that the turpentine escaping into the bur

ers in the north there were several degrees of space lighted up by rows made by the beetles in the green bark would render the stars, and without any apparent connection between them. The conditions unfavorable for the progress of their work. They band or arch seemed wider at the zenith than on either horizon have, however, the power of removing it from their burrows, probably the effect of the greater distance of the horizon points and they manipulate the sticky resinous substance with from the position of the observer. The night air was quite cool, seemingly as much ease and in a like manner as the crawfish

and I retired before midnight; and I have not learned whether or not the arch again reappeared.

T. A. BEREMAN. does the clay it piles up around its burrow. Often a half

Mount Pleasant, Ia., July 20. teaspoonful of the turpentine will be found massed about the entrance to the burrows made by the beetle. They push the turpentine out through a hole kept open in the pitchy, ad

Magnetic Storm, Aurora, and Sun-Spots. hesive mass. I have observed them backing out from the A MAGNETIC storm raged here from 10.30 A.M to 4.30 P.M., cenentrance, shoving behind them a quautity of the turpentine, tral time, on Saturday, July 16, 1892. An electro-magnetic wave and at the same time they would be completely enveloped in

reached the general telegraph office of the C. B. & Q. R. R. at it.

10.30 A.M., making it difficult to operate, especially with the Trees invaded by these beetles the previous fall may re

quadruplex. The duration of the electric disturbance was six

hours; but the impulses came with varying intensity. The energy main

green until spring wben they are usually attacked by always appeared as a wave, beat, or oscillation; and when fully the large Dendroctonus terebrans, Hylurgops glabratus, and

developed in the wires, seemed to set up a counter electro-motive Tomicus calligraphus, the two former at the base of the force in opposition to the batteries. The fact that electro-magtree, the latter in the green bark above. They are in turn netic energy traverses space in the form of waves, coincides with followed by pumerous other species of bark and timber the now classical experiments of Hertz, who projected these waves beetles until the invaded trees may be, as I have found, the

not only through space, but brick walls. Perhaps a law like this hosts of at least twenty-five species of scolytids coming like

will be discovered -- All modes of energy alternate.

It is doubtful if a constant pressure exists in nature. In some reinforcements to the aid of D. frontalis to make doubly sure the death of the invaded trees. Later on, these scolytids tricity — without batteries. This is merely a prophecy of that

instances, telegrams have been sent by means of nature's elecare followed by insects belonging to other families until a

time coming when men will appropriate electricity when they want dead or dying tree may be the host of hundreds of species it, as they do light and heat. and millions of examples, breeding in and feeding upon every An aurora appeared at 9.40 P.m., and consisted of many pearlpart of the tree from the base to the terminal twigs, render- colored columns, at times tinged with red, occupying more than ing it worthless for lumber within a year after it dies. 100° in azimuth, and all converging near Polaris. Thus it will be seen that Dendroctonus frontalis may be

At 9.45 an apparition unusual in auroral displays was seen. This the primary cause of not only the death of the trees but of

was a streamer of nearly white light, that, starting in a sharp point their rapid decay.

almost on the horizon, in the north-west, shot with great velocity

north of Arcturus, passed over Corona Borealis, which constellaWest V8. Agricultural Experiment Station, Morgantown, West V&., July 20.

tion it equalled in diameter, crossed Hercules and Cerberus, and,

passing over Altair, descended almost to Mars in the south-east, LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.

terminating also in a fine point. Correspondents are requested to be as brief as possible. The writer's nume

This majestic sword moved bodily 10° to the south, and, is in all cases required as proof of good faith. On request in advance, one hundred copies of the number containing his

after shivering and pulsating throughout its length three times, communication will be furnished free to any correspondent.

vanished, after existing fourteen minutes. The whole aurora The editor will be glad to publish any queries consonant with the character lasted forty minutes. On July 9, a large cluster of spots, of the journal.

with two smaller groups and one larger isolated spot, were Auroral Display.

seen on the sun. All the larger spots had bridges, and on the On Saturday evening, July 16, there was visible, from this local- 12th and 13th the tongues across the large one began to curve, ity, in the northern heavens, the most brilliant auroral display which curvature rapidly increased on the 14th and 15th. On the which I have witnessed since the year 1859. Besides the usual 16th, these jets were arranged nearly in a circle, or had assumed

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the twisting, rotary, or cyclonic form. One of the tongues was

A Satellite of the Moon brighter than the solar surface, and seemed to be the most brilliant at from 9 30 to 10 30 A.M., at which time the electric wave dis

I HAVE seen accounts of an attempt to discover whether the

moon has a satellite, and the accounts that have reached me seem turbed the telegraphs. Whether the solar turbulence causes ter

to show one serious fault in the procedure While I am not thorrestrial magnetic upheavals is a question that future physicists

oughly conversant with all the points involved, it does seem to me, must decide. A sun-spot maximum is drawing near, and already there are

that, in taking a photograph of the region in which such a satellite

would be found if it exists, the apparatus should be arranged lively electro-magnetic times.

EDGAR L. LARKIN.

with reference to stellar motion, and leave the moon out of quesKnox College Observatory, July 19.

tion. Of course, the moon would be blurred, but we are not con

cerned about that. The fixed stars would appear plainly on the The Crinoid Heterocrinus Subcrassus.

plate, while any one that had a motion different from theirs, esTwo or three years since, I concluded to find out, if I could, pecially a rapid motion such as a satellite of the moon must have, the character of the termination of the column of the crinoid would appear blurred on the plate; in which case only the blurred Heterocrinus subcrassus. Having a lower silurian slab with about stars, if such occurred, need be examined with any hope of finding one hundred specimens of the calyx, with a great profusion of the a satellite of the moon.

C. P. MAXWELL. columns diverging in every direction, I selected a culumn attached Dublin, Tex., July 20. to its calyx, and followed it by uncovering, until I was rewarded by discovering the column diverging into well-defined roots; length

Auroral Display. of column from calyx 121 inches, about 17 inches under the surface.

On Saturday night, July 16, 1892, I was returning to my home At that time I believed that the genus Glyptocrinus were float

in Rockville, Indiana, from Clinton, Indiana, sixteen miles southers, and devoid of bases, or roots.

west. Mr. Harry McIntosh, a young man of this place who had About eighteen months ago something caused me to doubt that

been helping me make a survey near Clinton, was riding with me idea, and I commenced the investigation of the terminations of

in my buggy. We amused ourselves looking at a most beautiful their columns, and now, after a great deal of work, and after many

sunset as we rode over the Lafayette and Terre Haute road, along discouragements, I have been able to so far develop roots on the

the foot of the bigb hills east of the Wabash River. terminations of the columns of Glyptocrinus neali, Glypt. dyeri,

When we turned eastward, over the hills toward Rockville, it and Glypt. baeri, that I have a specimen of each species, show

began to grow dark, and most of the clouds that showed up so ing the calyx, column, and roots intact, on the slab, one slab

beautiful at sunset began to vanish, till only a few streaks of of Glypt. baeri having on its surface several specimens of that

stratus clouds remained. As we were descending the west hill at character.

Iron Creek, five miles south-west of Rockville, we saw in front of One character of the specimens surprised me, the diversity of

us what we supposed was the new electric light at Rockville, the length of the columns between calyx and roots in the speci

thrown upward and reflected from a cloud or mist. As we were mens just mentioned, the column of Glypt. neali, from two to

ascending the hill on the east side of the creek and near its sumfour or five inches; Glypt baeri, from one-half an inch to six or

mit, we saw in our front the reflection of a great ght from

behind us. eight; Glypt dyeri, from one to four or five inches between calyx

It was so noticeable as to cause us both to turn about and roots.

on our buggy seat and look backward. There, at a bearing S. I have also found a specimen of Heterocrinus simplex, showing

60° W. (that is the bearing of the road, with which the light was calyx, column, and inverted saucer. like base, attached to another

in alinement), we saw a great wbite light radiating from a point column.

DR. D. T. D. DYCHE.

at the borizon where it was brightest, right, left, and upward to a Lebanon, o.

height of 100 to 16°, weakening in brilliancy as it radiated and

terminated in a dark band or segment of rainbow shape, some 10° Professor Parker's Further Studies on the Apteryx

wide. The light seemed to radiate from a point a half-radius In No. 435 of Science the writer invited attention to the very

abore the centre of the circle which the black segment would valuable contributions to our knowledge of the morphology of

indicate. Above the dark segment another segment or band of Apteryx that had been made by Professor T. J. Parker, F.R.S.,

light, not so bright as the one at the horizon, formed a rainbow, of the Otago Museum (New Zealand). Those investigations have

or arcb, some 10° to 15° wide. Above that second band of light been continued on more extensive material, and the London Royal

was a light baze, or mist, through which the stars could be easily Society have just published in their Transactions (1892) the results,

distinguished. Some 10° up in that mist, and directly over the in a paper entitled “Additional Observation on the Development

centre of the light at the horizon, was a light about as large as a of Apteryx” (11 pages; two col. lith. plates, of 19 figs.). Professor

man would appear to be if suspended from a balloon a thousand Parker has kindly sent me a copy of this work, and I desire to say,

feet distant. It was about four times as long vertically as wide in the present connection, in continuation of what already has

horizontally. Young McIntosh saw it first and called my attenbeen noted by me in my former review, that more advanced em

tion to it, as I was watching the bright light at the horizon. bryos of the bird under investigation (stage F') show “the pollex

When I first caught sight of it, it had the appearance of the head is unusually large, and the fore-limb has the characters of the

of a comet, only it was long vertically. When young McIntosh wing of a typical bird.” Better figures are given than in the first

first saw it, it seemed to be a blaze such as a large meteor appears paper, showing structures of the brain and skull, and also that one

to carry at its front. We halted and watched it about ten min"specimen exbibits an unusual mode of termination of the noto

utes, during wbich time it (the small light) slowly faded till only chord.” In other figures (stage G') the final form of the chondro

its locality could barely be noticed, then suddenly loomed bright cranium, before the appearance of cartilage bones, is shown, and,

almost to a white blaze, then slowly faded as before. It would what is a very interesting fact, that in A. oweni there is always

loom up in five seconds, ard consume five minutes in fading a solid coracoid region to the shoulder girdle, while in A. australis,

away. It kept the same position all the time, for we watched its

At this as far back as stage F', there is a coracoid fenestra and a liga- position with relation to the stars to see if it moved. mentous procoracoid.” Finally, it is worthy of note that " in

second appearance I decided to commit the general appearance to addition to the elements described in the corpus an intermedium

memory so I could sketch it afterward This little light loomed may be present ” As I have already said, the working out of

up and faded four times when the big light under it faded also

and made it dark there. these anatomical characters, in such an important form as Apteryx, will most certainly prove to be of the highest importance and use

I am not sure we saw this light the first time it appeared, but to the general comparative anatomist the world over. There could

think we did. The small light above looked as the moon does be no safer band to accomplish it for us than that of the distin

when shining through a thin cloud, except as to the oblong sha pe guished biologist of the Otago Museum. R. W. SHUFELDT.

vertically. Takoma, D.C., July 24.

When the first or south-western light faded nearly out, a light

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at the horizon in the south loomed up, but not so bright as the because of the abundance of underbrush, amid which the poison first, nor had it any of the upper characteristics of the first, nor sumac, Rhus venenata, is sure to be encountered by the unwary. did it last over five minutes. When this second light faded a The trees are often very large, exceeding 100 feet in height. The tbird loomed up in the north, quite as bright at the horizon as the demand for white cedar for shingles, siding, planking for boate, first, but it was obscured or cut off from our view by a stratus and such other purposes as require great durability under exposure cloud. This cloud was about 10° above the horizon, at its under to the weather, far exceeds the supply.” Much of the uncleared side (which, by the way, was its most northern limit). This land is well adapted for fruit raising and “ truck gardening, limit, I judge from my frequent observation of clouds, was fully and there is still room for a large addition to the permanent poputwenty-five miles north of us. We could see the light through lation of the State. one hole in the cloud near its bottom (or distant) side, and also Mr. C. C. Vermeule, the consulting engineer and topographer through several thin places, but could not determine its upper of the survey, gives a comprehensive review of the water supply shape. This third light (counting the southwestern light as the and water power of the State, with tables of rain-fall and evapfirst) lasted about five minutes, when a fourth light loomed up in oration, and accounts of the guaging of numerous rivers. A the north-west, and, very bright at the horizon, reached upward table is also given of all the water powers, with mention of the about 15°, lasted a few minutes, and faded out as did the others. owner, kind of mill, fall, and horse-power. It is the intention to Then one appeared in the north-east, in the direction of Rockville; publish the full report on water power in the State as Volume III. but we were so near the town we were sure it was the new electric of the final report some time during the present year. Finally, light (we bad been gone a week), but on entering the town found notes are given by other hands on artesian wells, on the Passaic the old gasoline lamps still doing service.

River drainage and the active iron mines in the State. The inforOn the first appearance of tbese lights at the horizon, I thought mation given cannot fail to be of value to the inhabitants of the I saw a flash of light, not as a blaze, but as if a mirror had been commonwealth.

JOSEPH F. JAMES. turned so as to flash the light into my face, then away so quick

Nature Readers Seaside and Wayside, No. 4. I could not be certain what I saw. Young McIntosh thought he

By JULIA

MCNAIR WRIGHT. Boston, D. C. Heath & Co. 1892. 8°. saw the same flasbes of light when the great lights first made

361 p. 70 cents. their appearance.

I saw this same electrical storm (if that is what it is) in the This volume is one of a series of reading-books written, the summer of 1884, from the town of Clinton, Indiana, and in July, author tells us, “to direct the minds of our youth in their first I think. It bad all the features I have given of this, except the studies to the pleasant ways of Natural Science.” The earlier one in the south-west with its three lights and dark segment, here- numbers of the series were devoted to lessons on the habits of in described. The Clinton display was watched by apparently the animals and plants, but the present volume deals with a much wbole population of the place, and was described by the Clinton wider range of subjects. The book begins with a lesson on the Argus at the time. I reported it to the U. S. Signal Office at the origin and structure of the globe and passes on to the consideratime, as I was then making voluntary observations for that office. tion of the geological epochs and of the animals and plants that

The small light I have described as seen in the south-west, in the characterize them. It is, in fact, a collection of brief essays on first light last Saturday night, is a new feature, so far as I know or important topics in astronomy, geology, palæontology, and can learn from my authorities. These lights occurred from about zoology. The diversity of topics would seem calculated to cause half past nine to half past ten o'clock at night.

confusion in the mind of a child; but this is, perhaps, an evil I wish to hear from others who may have seen these lights, by inseparable froin the modern system of education. letter or paper containing published account of them.

Though the facts are presented in a somewhat too fanciful Rockville, Ind., July 17.

JOHN T. CAMPBELL. dress, tbe information is for the most part accurate, and the au

thor has taken great pains to point out that there are exceptions

to many of the general statements. She has included, so far as BOOK-REVIEWS.

possible, the results of the latest investigations. Geological Survey of New Jersey. Annual Report of the State

A few noticeable errors should be corrected. For example, the Geologist for the year 1891. Trenton, 1892. Maps and

pig is made to figure as a typical odd-toed ungulate (p. 349). On plates.

page 300 tbe sperm whale is mentioned as the “Greenland sperm To this report Professor R. D. Salisbury contributes a paper whale,” which is, of course, misleading, as this animal is only called “ A preliminary paper on drift or Pleistocene formations of very rarely found in Arctic waters. In another place (p. 148) the New Jersey." The title is somewhat misleading, inasmuch as author refers to the squirrels and rats as being the first mammals there are few statements in it concerning the New Jersey forma- to appear on the globe, a statement which no palæontologist tions. It embraces mainly an account of the nature of the drift, would accept. We notice again (p. 320) that the vampire bats the formation and movements of glacial ice, the work effected by are described as very large bats given to blood-sucking,” This ice, and a summary of the development, movements, and work is quite erroneous, as the true vampires, Desmodus and Diphylla, accomplished by the ice sheet of North America. New Jersey is are small bats, remarkable chiefly in the modification of their incidentally mentioned, and the only new contribution made is teeth and digestive organs. the statement concerning the discovery of the remains of a once The influence of English text books is apparent in different extensive drift-deposit south of the terminal moraine. It is con- parts of the volume. The common mole, for example, is described cluded that this was deposited by an ice-sheet previous to the under the name of the European genus Talpa ; although as the formation of the great moraine; and that “the interval which book is presumably intended for American children, it would elapsed between the first and tbe last glacial formations of New have been better to mention Scalops or Scapanus, to which genera Jersey was several times as long as that which has ela psed since the commonest American moles belong. We can hardly find the last." Assistant Geologist C. W. Coman contributes an in- fault with our author in this instance, however, seeing that no teresting paper on the oak and pine lands of southern New Jer- general treatise on American mammals has been published for sey. The topographical survey showed that in 1888 there were nearly half a century. only 430,730 acres of cleared land in the southern counties, against In the illustrations, with which the book is well supplied, ar1,326,000 acres of forest. The proportion has not been greatly tistic effect has been aimed at rather than strict accuracy; a altered since. Both uplands and swamps are heavily covered number of them are entirely fanciful and represent only creatures with timber, much of wbich is valuable for various purposes. of the imagination. They could be replaced to advantage, in our "From a little distance a cedar swamp presents the appearance opinion, by figures of some of the real wonders of animate of a solid mass of dark green, while even when in the midst of it nature. the eye can penetrate but a few yards among the thickly cluster- In spite of these defects the book is a good representative of its ing, smooth, gray trunks. The gum and maple swamps are class, and the lessons will doubtless be read by children with inscarcely less dense, and are even more difficult to penetrate, terest and profit.

F. W. T.

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9

A Text-Book of Physiology. By M. FOSTER, M.D. Sixth Edition,

Revised. Part IV. (comprising the remainder of Book III.,
The Senses and Some Special Muscular Mechanisms, and
Book IV., The Tissues and Mechanisms of Reproduction).

New York, Macmillan & Co. 1891.
WITHOUT doubt Foster's “Text-Book of Physiology" must be
accorded the foremost place among the works upon this subject,
which have been publisbed in the English language. It embodies
the results of the most recent researches in this department of
biological science, and is not only comprehensive, up to date, and
accurate, but is admirably arranged and most convenient as an
encyclopædic work of reference upon all that relates to the sub-
ject.

A large portion of the present volume is devoted to the senses, including sight, auditory sensations, olfactory sensations, gustatory sensations, cutaneous sensations, the muscular sense, and tactile perceptions and judgments. Each of these subjects is treated in a masterly manner, the anatomical elements concerned in each special sense being minutely described, and the facts and theories relating to the perception of various sensations being fully detailed.

Chapter VII., “On Some Special Muscular Mechanisms,” contains three sections: one devoted to the voice, one to speech, and one to walking.

Book IV., which concludes the volume and the work, gives a

very satisfactory account of “the tissues and mechanisms of re-
production.”
Diphtheria, Its Natural History and Prevention. By R. THORNE

THORNE, Assistant Medical Officer to Her Majesty's Local
Government Board. London and New York, Macmillan &

Co. 1891.
This is a valuable résumé of wbat is known at the present day
with reference to the etiology and prevention of diphtheria. The
volume abounds in interesting details relating to the prevalence
of the disease in England and Wales, and gives numerous facts
showing the not infrequent transmission of the disease by con-
taminated milk and its probable transmission by cats, which bave
been proved to be subject to the disease as a result of experimental
inoculations in the trachea with bits of diphtheritic membrane, or
cultures of the Klebs-Löffler diphtheria bacillus.

According to Thorne Thorne there has been a progressive increase in the mortality from diphtheria in England and Wales during the past twenty years, and this progressive increase has coincided in time with steady improvement in regard to such sanitary circumstances as water-supply, sewerage, and drainage; and also with a continuous diminution in the death-rate from the group of zymotic diseases and from typhoid fever.

The diphtheria mortality remains, as heretofore, greater in the sparsely-peopled districts, but there is a marked increase in its prevalence in large towns and cities.

a

56 p.

652 P.

For exchange. A fine thirteen-keyed flute in leather A position HS Piastreckte duatemathematisireana

Publications Received at Editor's Office.

Exchanges.

Wants. [Free of charge to all, if of satisfactory character.

Address N. D, C. Hodges, 874 Broadway, New York.] Any person seeking a position for which he is qualiBENOTIRE, CAPT, CHARLES. Life Histories of Ameri

fied by his scientific attainments, or any person seeking can Birds. Washington, Government. 4o. Paper. 413 p. ID. Taxidermist going out of business has quantity of of a teacher of science, chemist, draughtsman, or what

some one to fill a position of this character, be it that Chadwick, French E. Temperament, Disease and finely-mounted specimens of North American birds,

not, may have the 'Want' inserted under this head Health. New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons. 89. mammals and reptiles and skins of birds for sale, 85 p. 75 cts. including a full local collection of bird skins, show

FREE OF cost, if he satisfies the publisher of the suit

able character of his application. Any person seeking DALL, WILLIAM H. Instructions for Collecting Mol. ing some great variations of species; also quantity in formation on any scientific question, the address of lusks. Washington, Government. 8o. Paper. of skulls with horns of deer and mountain sheep,

auy scientific man, or who can in any way use this and mounted beads of same. Will give good ex.

column for a purpose consonant with the nature of MOOREHEAD, WARREN K. Primitive Man in Ohio change for Hawk Eye camera with outfit. Apply the paper, is cordialiy invited to do so.

New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons. go. 262 p. 83. quickly to J. R. Thurston, 265 Yonge St., Toronto, PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. Bulletin Canada. 1888–91. Washington, The Society. 8°.

JOHNS (1892) RIDGWAY, ROBERT. The Humming Birds. Washington, Government 8o. Paper. 381 p.

covered case, for a photograph camera suitable for mak- physics. Address A. B. TURNER, Johns Hopkins RILEY, C.F. Directions for Collecting and Preserv- | ing lantern slides. Flute cost $27, and is nearly new. University, Baltimore, Md.

ing Insects. Washington, Government. 8o. U. (). COX, Mankato, Minn.

paper. 147 p. UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA. Quarterly Bulletin. To exchange ; Experiment Station bulletins and WANTED:-A collection of postage stamps; one

made previous to 1870 preferred. Also old and Vol. I., No. 1. 4o. Paper. 32 p.

reports for bulletins and reports not in my file. I curious stamps on original letters, and old entire will send list of what I have for exchange. P. H. V S. stamped envelopes. Will pay sash or give in ROLFS, Lake City, Florida.

exchange first-class fossils, including fine crinoids.

WM. F. E. GURLEY, Danville, Ill.
Reading Matter Notices.

Finished specimens of all colors of Vermont marble for Ripans Tabules : best liver tonic. fine fossils or crystals. Will be given only for valuable specimens because of the cost of polishing. GEO. W.

ANTED.-To purchase laboratory outfit; bal. WA

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For exchange.--Three copies of "American State

Papers Bearing on Sunday Legislation," 1891, $2.50, new
Societas Entomologica. and unused, for The Sabbath," by Harmon Kingsbury, WA

ANTED.-The services of a wide-awake young 1840; “The Sabbath," by A. A. Phelps, 1842; History

man, as correspondent, in a large manufactur International Entomological Society, Zu- of the Institution of the Sabbath Day, Its' Uses and ing optical business; one preferred who has a thor.

Abuses,” by W. L. Fisher, 1859;

" Humorous Phases of ough knowledge of microscopy and some knowledge rich-Hottingen, Switzerland. the Law, by Irving Browne; or other works amounting references. Optical, care of Science, 874 Broadway,

of photography. Address by letter, stating age and to value of books exchanged, on the question of governAnnual fee, ten francs. mental legislation in reference to religion, personal liberty,

New York, etc. If preferred, I will sell "American State Papers,' The Journal of the Society appears twice a and buy other books on the subject. WILLIAM AD-WANTEDD We want ang and all be the following, month, and consists entirely of original ar

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zines or buy them cheap for cash: Academy, Lonticles on entomology, with a department for

For Sale or Excha for books a complete private don, vol. 1 to 28, 35, Jan. and Feb., '89; Age of Steel, advertisements. All members may use this chemical laboratory outfit. Includes large Becker bal

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Journal, ogist, vol. 1 to 8; American Machinist, vol. 1 to 4;

1862-1885 (62-71 bound); Smithsonian Reports, 1854-1883; / Art Amateur, vol. 1 to 7, 0t., 4; Art Interchange, in all countries of the world. U. S. Coast Survey, 1854-1869. Full particulars to en

vol 1 to 9; Art Union, vol. 1 to 4, Jan., 44, July, '45;

Bibliotbeca Sacra, vol. 1 to 46; Godey's Lady's Book, The new volume began April 1, 1892. The quirers. F. GARDINER, JR., Pomfret, Conn.

vol. 1 to 20; New Englander, vol. 11; Zoologist, Series numbers already issued will be sent to new

Wanted, in exchange for the following works, any

1 and 1, Series 3 vol. 1 to 14; Allen Armendale (a members. standard works on Surgery and on Diseases of Children:

novel). Raymer's "Old Book " Store, 243 4th Ave. For information address Mr. FRITZ Rull, Wilson's "American Ornithology, 3 vols.; Coues' “Birds

S., Minneapolis, Minn. of the Northwest” and “ Birds of the Colorado Valley," President of the Societas Entomologica, 2 vols.; Minot's

.-By a young Zurich-Hottingen, Switzerland.

land;" Samuels' " Our Northern and Eastern Birds;" all
the Reports on the Birds of the Pacific R. R. Survey, high school in one of the Gulf States, or as instructor
bound in 2 vols., morocco; and a complete set of the in botany, physiology, and geology in an academy
Reports of the Arkansas Geological Survey: Please give or normal school. Address B., care of Librarian,
editions and dates in corresponding. R. ELLSWORTH Swarthmore College, Penn.

CALL, High School, Des Moines, Iowa.
10% DISCOUNT.

To exchange Wright's “ Ice Age in North America" two daily or weekly papers. Have worked on

and Le Conte's Elements of Geology”' (Copyright 1882) paper for about two years Would like a position on We will allow the above discount to any for Darwinism," by A. R. Wallace **Origin of Species," editorial staff of humorous paper. Address GEO. subscriber to Science who will send us an by Darwin, “Descent of Man," by Darwin, Man's C. MASON, 14 Elm St., Hartford, Conn. order for periodicals exceeding $10, counting mals," by Romanes, Pre-Adamites," by Wincheill

. T tural works at sight (no writing). One familiar Place in Nature," Huxley, "Mental Evolution in Ani

"RANSLATOR wanted to read German architec. each at its full price.

books wanted except latest editions, and books in good

condition. C. S. Brown, Jr., Vanderbilt University, with technical terms desired. Address "A.,” Box N. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, N. Y. Nashville, Tenn.

149, New York Post Office.

"Land and Game Birds of New Eng WANTE Junior

, a position as principal of a public

SCIENCE CLUBBING RATES.

berry, rose, potato, cabbage, and others. Some of the worst fungous diseases are not mentioned, such as oat and wheat smut, apple rust, peach yellows, pear and apple bligbt, etc. It cannot, however, be expected that in so small a book everything could be mentioned and described. It is, too, not improbable, that as these diseases cannot be prevented by spraying, that they are omitted intentionally. On the whole the book is one wbich will prove useful to the general fruit grower. JOSEPH F. JAMES,

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Spraying Crops; Why, When, and How. By CLARENCE M.

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D. C. Heath & Co. have in press, and will soon issue “ Elements of Plane and Spherical Trigonometry” and “A Treatise on Plane and Spherical Trigonometry,” by Edward A. Bowser, Professor of Mathematics and Engineering in Rutgers College. The former is a brief course in the elements of trigonometry, par cular attention being given to the numerical solution of plane and spherical triangles. It is prepared especially for high schools and academies. The latter is for more advanced work and covers the entire course in higher institutions. The books abound in numerous and practical examples, the aim being to make the subject as interesting and attractive as possible to the student.

THE WEEKLY BULLETIN

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