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BY CLARENCE M. WEED.

which we know as St. Mary's River is the true Belly River. Crow, Corvus americanus. Two nests. This seems natural and proper, for at the point where they Bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus. One nest. meet, the St. Mary's is a larger stream than Belly River. Cowbird, Molothrus ater. Three eggs found in a boboAs stated by Mr. Doty these lakes are two in number, the

link's nest. lower about seven miles long by a mile wide, the upper per- Red-winged Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus. Two nests. haps eleven miles long and nowhere more than a mile in Baltimore Oriole, Icterus galbula. Several vests. widtb. The lower lake lies north and south, and the upper, Red Crossbill, Laxia curvirostra. In 1891 a very young Mr. Doty's Bow Lake, is bent about half-way up its length, specimen was brought me that apparently must have been its upper or south-western half lying nearly east and raised in this vicinity. west, and its lower or northern half nearly north and south. Yellow bird, Spinus tristis. Two nests. Beyond the head of this upper lake is the narrow river-val- Purple Finch, Carpodacus purpureus. One nest. ley running back in two principal branches for a dozen miles Bay-winged Bunting, Poocætes gramineus. Several nests. and heading on the Continental Divide. The southernmost English Sparrow, Passer domesticus. Several nests. of the two branches is much the larger of the two, and is fed Savanna Sparrow, Ammodramus sandwichensis, var. saby extensive glaciers, which I have visited.

vanna. One nest. The lower end of the lower lake is not more than seven or Chipping Sparrow, Spizella socialis. Several nests. eight miles from the Chief Mountain, the most striking Song Sparrow, Melospiza fasciata. Several nests. landmark in this region. The waters flowing into the St. Swamp Sparrow, M. georgiana. One nest. Mary's River are divided from those which flow into Cut Snow Bird, Junco hyemalis. One nest observed at GrafBank and Milk Rivers, tributaries of the Missouri, by a high ton Centre, N.H., fifteen miles south-east. ridge running out from the Rocky Mountains, and known Indigo Bird, Passerina cyanea. Two nests seen in as Milk River Ridge.

1891.

Barn Swallow, Chelidon erythrozaster. One nest ob

served. BIRDS BREEDING AT HANOVER, NEW HAMP

Purple Martin, Proqne subis. One nest.

Bank Swallow, Clivicola riparia. Two pests.
SHIRE

Cedar Bird, Ampelis cedrorum. Two nests.
Great Northern Shrike, Lanius borealis. Two nests.

Red-eyed Vireo, Vireo olivaceus. One nest.
The village of Hanover, N.H., is in the region dividing
the Canadian and Allegbanian faunas, and possesses many

Yellow Warbler, Dendroica æstiva. One nest. animal forms from both. To assist in determining more

Chestnut-sided Warbler, Dendroica Pennsylvanica. One definitely the precise limits of these faunas, the Ornithologi

pest. cal Club of the New Hampshire College undertook last

American Redstart, Setophaga ruticilla. One nest. spring to record the birds breeding within five miles of Han

Oven-bird, Seiurus aurocapillus. One nest.
The following list includes the species observed this

Catbird, Galeoscoptes carolinensis. Two nests. season by the members of the club. Especial mention should Brown Thrush, Harporhynchus rufus One nest. be made of the assistance rendered by Messrs. P. L. Barker,

House Wren, Troglodytes cedor. One nest. R. A. Campbell, and C. E. Hewitt.

Short-billed Marsh Wren, Cistothorus stellaris. A nest Greeu Heron, Ardea virescens. One nest observed. supposed to be of this species is reported. American Woodcock, Philohela minor. Three nests ob

Chickadee, Parus atricapillus. Two nests. served.

Tawny Thrush, Turdus fuscescens. Three nests. Ruffled Grouse, Bonasa umbellus. Three nests observed.

Hermit Thrush, T. pallasi. Two nests. Cooper's Hawk, Accipiter cooperi One nest observed.

Robin, Merula migratoria. Several nests. Acadian Owl, Nyctala acadica. One nest observed.

Blue Bird, Sialia sialis. Several nests. Black-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus erythrophalmus. One nest

Of course this list includes only a portion of the birds observed.

breeding here, but it may serve as a basis for future obserBelted Kingfisher, Ceryle alcyon. Two nests observed.

vations. Downy Woodpecker, Picus pubescens. One nest ob- New Hampshire College. served.

Golden-winged Woodpecker, Colaptes auratus. Two nests observed.

HOT WEATHER IN MARS. Night Hawk, Chordeiles virginianus. One nest found fifteen miles south-east of Hanover; and others reported by outsiders within three miles of the village.

The recent severe, protracted, hot weather, that existed in Chimney Swallow, Chætura pelagica. Many nests. the central and eastern portions of the United States during

Ruby-throated Humming-Bird, Trochilus colubris. One the latter part of July, formed, in all probability, but part nest.

of various general phenomena produced by profound solar Kingbird, Tyrannus tyrannus. One nest.

disturbances. Pewee, Sayornis phoebe. Many nests.

So many of the earth's natural phenomena find their Traills' Flycatcher, Empidonax pusillus, var. trailli. origin in the solar radiation, that it is impossible to vary One nest.

either the amount or the distribution of the solar energy Least Flycatcher, Empidonax minimus. One nest seen without markedly modifying terrestrial phenomena. Such at Grafton Centre, N.H., fifteen miles south-east.

influences, however, are not limited to terrestrial pheBlue Jay, Cyanocitta cristata. One nest at Fairlee, Vt., nomena; they must extend beyond the earth and be shared eighteen miles north.

by all the members of the solar system.

over.

BY PROFESSOR EDWIN J. HOUSTON.

Natural phenomena form but links in endless chains of

FLATHEAD” DEER. cause and effect. An evolution or expenditure of energy, In the American Naturalist for August, 1887, were given such, for example, as that following a sun spot, produces a

some instances of the occurrence among deer of hornless number of allied phenomena which are themselves the specimens. Here we shall summarize these, preparatory to causes of subsequent phenomena, and these in turn the

giving in full some original particulars furnished us by a causes of still other phenomena, the chain extending in German correspondent. most instances far beyond our ken.

Lord Lovat is quoted as having seen humle (hornless) There has been unusual solar activity during 1892, as has

stags. They are able to thrash stags of their own or greater been evidenced by an unusual number of sun spots. The than their own weight. Several of them were undisputed great spot observed in Philadelphia and elsewhere in the

masters of large herds. early part of the year was one of the largest ever studied, Mr. Horatio Ross has also shot them. They are more and since that time numerous other abnormally large spots frequent than generally supposed. They are no whit inhave appeared.

ferior to their horned brethren. A full-grown humle is very It would seem that these rather unusual outbursts of solar formidable in fight. During the rutting season Mr. Ross energy have produced the following terrestrial phenomena,

has seen one in possession of a large herd of hinds, who viz. :

drove off all rivals. (1.) The recent brilliant auroral displays.

Both these gentlemen's experience refers to Scotland. The (2.) Magnetic storms, or marked disturbances in the values

following mentioned special cases refer to Germany, H. of the magnetic intensity, in inclination and declination.

von Nathusius of Altaldensleben, Saxony, and Ludwig (3.) Unusually severe electric storms, as evidenced by the

Beckman have supplied very interesting information which existence of abnormal earto currents. These electric storms is well worth reading to those interested in venery. are in reality connected with the magnetic storms.

These hornless deer occur wild, they write, and are very (4.) Marked disturbances in the earth's meteorological fertile and impressive. In the Illustrirte Zeitung, published phenomena. These have been evidenced by the long spells

in Leipzig (Oct. 2, 1886), there is a picture of a fight between of unseasonable weather that have occurred so frequently in horned and a hornless stag, in which the hornless stag disthe United States during 1892, one of wbich was the recept

plays the mastery. Hornless stags have been mentioned in unusally hot weather before alluded to, the unusual severity

German sporting literature since the seventeenth century. of which accords well with the unusual solar activity.

These are cases of what is regarded as variation, but which So, too, does the severity of the allied phenomena. Take, really appear to be referable to atavism, as will be immedifor example, the auroral displays, which have seldom been ately seen. equalled in these latitudes for brilliancy. So also the electric

There are two species of deer that are normally destitute storms and magnetic-storms, which have been unusually se- of horns as a characteristic. The first of these is the muskvere during 1892. According to the observations of Mr. Finn deer; these have peculiarly long canine teeth. These (Mosand others, as many as eleven such storms were recorded chus moschiferous) are natives of Thibet and Nepaul. The during this time. Their dates were as follows: February

second is the water deer, Hydropetes inermis. It is found 13, March 6, March 12, April 24, April 25, April 26, May 16,

in the marshes of the Yangtze, above Chin-kiang, China. May 17, May 18, July 12, and July 16.

The Chinese are strongly averse to the flesh, which EuroThe storm of July 16 was unusually severe, and caused

peans, for want of better, pronounce tolerable. great disturbances on the various telegraph lines. The earth

Passing from living to extinct forms of deer, we find that, currents were so strong that the lines could be operated en- tracing them backwards, they become more and more simple tirely by means of earth-currents. This was done, for exam

as to horns, till reaching the lower miocene no member of ple, in the case of one of the lines between New York and

the family is possessed of antlers. It will thus be admitted Boston. On the same day, July 16, an enormous spot that the claim that instances of hornless deer of the present appeared on the sun.

time are only cases of atavism, or reversion to the early And now for possible extra-terrestrial influences and phe- condition of the head of the species, is simply the truth. nomena. The recent opposition of Mars has brought that Further, the above facts prove that horns are of the nature planet nearer the earth than she has been at any time since of acquired characters — a rather interesting fact just now to 1877, and nearer than she will ever be again until 1909. The bring out in connection with the Wiesmannia that is raging. opportunity has therefore been particularly good for studying The following is a translation of the communication we those peculiarities of the surface that have always been of received from our German correspondent:such interest to astronomers.

“The hunter of the deer species has for long designated Some observations recently made on Mount Hamilton ap- the deer which are destitute of antlers by the name of “flatpear to show a marked decrease in the mass of snow within heads,' or moenche. On the skull of such deer appears a the polar caps, as is inferred from certain characteristic

so-called hornbase, usually the real bearers of the antlers, markings at these points of the planet. This disappearance remarkably stunted and entirely overgrown with the elonis unusual, and would seem to indicate unusually hot weather gated hair of the forehead. The cause of such striking apin our sister planet. The Martian thermometer bas probably

pearance is often beld to be the long.continued inbreeding been way up, and the weather has, to form a phrase from occurring in certain districts, or the lack of new blood obthe fiery color of the planet, been at a red-heat.

tained by bringing in deer not related. We may add, therefore, another effect produced by the “If we notice how the deer and roebucks which have been unusual sun-spot, viz., 5. The extra-terrestrial effects. confined for domestication and freely fed with oats, rye,

Of course the influence may be mutual. It may be that peas, corn, acorns, chestnuts, and beechnuts, often develop the upusual proximity of Mars may be the cause of the great uncommonly large and branching antlers, it seems just to number of spots, in which case we may thank Mars for the conclude that a lack of these and other means of nourishrecent terrific beat.

ment hinders the growing of horos. In fact the so-called

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flatheads' are more particularly found in the pine-wood every compound. It finds its satisfactory analogue in the regions, where game is obliged to subsist solely upon heather crystallographic law of the constancy of the interfacial forage (sweet broom), and where food is to be found only in angles, first propounded by Steno in 1669, and re-enunciated occasional places.

by Romé de l'Isle in 1783. It affirms that for a certain “As transitory forms, there are also in such districts, in crystal species, under conditions of absolute identity of chemaddition to the few flatheads found at all times, deer having ical constitution and equality of temperature, the correspondone .scurr' or stunted horn, wbile the other horn is well ing interfacial angles in different individuals will be found developed, bearing perhaps ten to twelve branches, and the always to be equal and constant; and this holds in imperfect majority of the rest of the deer have only small, smooth as well as perfect crystals. It is evident then, that what antlers of light color, some curiously bent or spirally the law of definite proportions is, in regard to chemical contwisted. Deer wbich instead of antlers bear a long, straight, stitution, the law of constancy of the interfacial angles is, in spear-like horn on one side were formerly called 'provincial respect to crystalline form.

murderers,' as they were considered very dangerous enemy Another equally perfect and beautiful correspondency of other deer during the rutting season, and on which ac- obtains between the law of multiple proportions and that of count their destruction was sought.

the rationality of the indices. The former emphasizes the “In the main, these so-called deformities, and even the simple multiple ratio of one element as it unites with some total absence of antlers on the flatheads, can in no way be other element to form two or more compounds; whereas considered an indication of the lack of procreative power, nor the latter, an important crystallographic law, attributed to can they be classed with the abnormal forms or the total loss Haüy, articulates the remarkable fact that the modifications of antlers, which results from injuries, and which reappear of specific crystalline form always take place by a multipliin their young The flathead deer are seldom unequal in cation of one or more of the index values (or the reciprocals strength or weight to the others of the same age and the of these, the parameter values), by small and simple numbers same district, but occasionally excel the latter in these re- or fractions, by rational and not by irrational quantities. spects. They also early enter the rutting season, and show The analogy bere existing is easily appreciated: in the one themselves equally ready for the conflict. Their art and case we have presented the method (namely, by simple mulmanner of fighting are singular enough; like the female, tiple ratio) of the formation by weight of chemical comthey rise up high on their hind feet, and with their fore-feet pounds containing the same elements; in the other, the they, from above, mercilessly strike their antagonist. It is method, also by simple multiple ratio, by which is deterremarkable how the antler-bearing antagonist intuitively mined the modification of fundamental form of a crystalline enters such conflict by rising on his hind feet, making no species. use of his terrible weapons. On such occasions the flathead, A third analogy is found in the comparison of the law of having developed superior skill in his movements, almost

valency or equivalence in the chemical domain, and tbe always puts to flight in a few rounds much larger deer with law of replacement or substitution in the crystallographic. immense forked horns. Also at other seasons the contests The first of these, of course, refers to the relation by weight may be observed in regions where the flatheads are found, in which the various elements react; potassium being exand where at times a troop of such game is run together into changed for sodium in the proportion of 39 of the former to a narrow space, as is the case occasionally during the prepa- 23 of the latter; and, in like manner, chlorine (35.5) for rations of a suspended hunt; yet those encounters are less bromine (80). The chemical type or idea is continued in fierce and soon ended, as they are brought on by the momen- such reactions, although one of the original constituents may tary invitations and accidental meeting of the deer in the have been substituted by another element. Correspondiogly, press.”

the law of replacement allows the crystallographic type or Have there been any cases of deer, bisons, etc., with 'flat' idea to be continued, though by altered agents. Thus, the or hornless heads noticed in America ?

A. recognized substitution power of magnesium and calcium

allows, in compounds of the latter, a greater or less substituSOME ANALOGIES BETWEEN MOLECULES AND tion of the former, without change of crystalline form; calCRYSTALS.

cite and dolomite are both rhombohedral in crystallization, the angles of the two differing slightly.

A fourth analogy is expressed in the allotropisms and CHEMISTRY and crystallography are closely related isomerisms of chemistry, and the dimorphisms and polybranches; they are, indeed, but parts of one great whole. The morphisms of crystallography. The allotropism of elements special design of chemical laws is to present the methods is probably to be explained upon the basis of different and conditions of the re-arrangement of atoms, which re-ar- atomicities of the elemental molecule; but, however exrangements we generally denominale chemical reactions. plained, like atoms are able in many cases to build up strucThe laws of crystallography, on the other hand, primarily tures sometimes as variant in physical characters as are the relate to the element of form. While the first series of laws diamond and ordinary charcoal, having chemical dispositions concerns the arrangements of atoms, the second takes cog- as different as common phosphorus and red phosphorus. nizance of the arrangements of molecules: while the one Similar suggestions apply to the subject of isomerism. Now, considers the influence of the chemical force of affinity, the to this, crystallography presents an analogue in the diother is concerned with the physical force of crystalliza- morphism so often to be seen in minerals; one and the same tion.

substance showing itself in nature in two (sometimes more) A consideration and comparison of the most important crystalline forms, i.e., belonging to distinct crystalline syslaws of the two series will develop, I think, a most interesting tems; take, as illustration, calcite (rhombohedral) and arraparallelism and correspondence. Thus, the first great law gonite (orthorbombic). Here again diversity of form is set of chemistry is that of definite proportions, in which is stated over against diversity of physical and chemical characters. the principle of the fixed and unchanging composition of A fifth analogy (the last that I shall venture) bases upon

BY JOHN W. CALDWELL.

- con

ure.

the bypothecation of actual molecular structural form down the more violent inclines, instead of, as in this case, figuration, according to Wunderlich's proposed term to ex

passing straight over the frontal moraine at the foot of the press stereo-chemical relations. The subject of molecular

glacier. In this higher region, therefore, all the evidence configuration is comparatively new; still we are becoming points to an avalanche of ice, which, starting at an altitude of

nearly 10,000 feet, and descending at an incline of 70 per cent familiarized with diagrams and models intended to represent

for 5,000 feet, was pulverized by its fall, a large portion of it such relations. Many of us may bave been at first indis

being melted by the beat generated in its rapid passage and conposed to accept these views as anything more than visionary tact with matters relatively warm. It rushed into the ravine by and fantastic; but the more we have pondered them, the the side of the glacier of Bionnassy and joined the waters of the more bave we been impressed with their significance and torrent wbich issues therefrom, and, further aided by the stream beauty. Shape, form, and volume must be attributed to of Bon Nant, it became sufficiently liquid to travel down the molecule as well as to mass; the only trouble has been in

lower portions of the valley at the slighter incline of 10 per cent, regard to the former, the apparent audacity and hopelessness

and yet retained sufficient consistency to destroy everything in its

passage. That this torrent was not composed merely of mud and of any attempt to penetrate matter to such depths. The new

water is proved, he says, by the fact that it did not always maintain and most refined sense furnished to us by the use of polar

the same beight when confined to the narrower ravine, and that ized light, makes us aware of isomers identical in every re- the remains on the sides of the rock show it to bave been a viscous spect, save their response to this delicate physical agent. substance rather than fluid. Optical isomers have given rise, under the crucial investiga

- At a meeting of the London Chamber of Commerce on July tions of such men as van t’Hoff, LeBel, Wunderlich, and

25, as we learn from Nature, Mr. J. Ferguson read a paper on V. Meyer, to the hypotheses of the asymmetric carbon atom,

"The Production and Consumption of Tea, Coffee, Cacao (Cocoa), and the tetrahedral arrangement of the valence-bond, and

Cinchona, Cocoa-Nuts and Oil, and Cinnamon, with reference to the saturating atoms or radicals. The simple and symmetri- Tropical Agriculture in Ceylon.” He referred to the position of cal tetrahedron of methane must be accepted as the perfect Ceylon, its forcing climate, its command of free cheap labor, and analogue of a crystal of the same geometric form; and the its immunity from the burricanes which periodically devastated optical isomers resulting from the different arrangements of

Mauritius, from the cyclones of the Bay of Bengal, and from the the same atoms or residues around an asymmetric carbon

volcanic disturbances affecting Java and the Eastern Archipelago. atom, may, in like manner, be taken as the analogues of

The plantations of Ceylon afforded, he said, the best training in

the world for young men in the cultivation and preparation of enantiomorphous crystals, as of quartz, right-handed and

tropical products, and in the management of free colored labor. left-handed; the pairs in each case being perfectly equivalent,

The cultivation of cane-sugar, although tried at considerable outbut not superposable.

lay on several plantations forty and fifty years ago, proved a failChemical Laboratory, Tulane University, New Orleans, La.

More recently experiments by European planters with tobacco had not been a success, notwithstanding that the natives

grew a good deal of a coarse quality for their own use. Although NOTES AND NEWS.

cotton growing bad not been successful, the island had proved a THE cause of the terrible disaster at St. Gervais is now being

most congenial home for many useful palms, more particularly investigated by several men of science. There can be no doubt

the coconut (spelt without the a to distinguish it and its products that it originated in the small glacier called the Tête Rousse,

from cocoa the beans of the shrub Theobroma cacao) and palwbich is nearly 10,000 feet above sea-level. According to a cor

myra, as also the areca and kitul or jaggery palms. Within the respondent of the London Times, who writes from Lucerne, Pro

past few years Ceylon had come to the front as one of the great fessor Duparc is of opinion that the babitual drainage of this

tea-producing countries in the world, India and China being the glacier bad for some reason or other became either totally blocked

other two, with Java at a respectable distance. Mr. Ferguson or obstructed; the water gradually accumulated in its natural

said one of the chief objects of his paper was to demonstrate which concavity or bed; and the ever-increasing volume had exercised

of the products of the island it was safe to recommend for extended such an enormous pressure as to force a passage and carry away

cultivation in new lands, and wbich were already in danger of a portion of the face of the glacier with it. The mass of ice and

being over-produced, and he had arrived at the conclusion that water rushed down the rocks wbich dominate the glacier of Bion.

coffee, cacao, and rubber-yielding trees were the products to plant, nassay, not in a single stream but in several, and then reunited

while tea, cinnamon, cardamoms, cinchona bark, pepper, and even into one enormous torrent at the foot of the Bionpassay glacier.

palms (for their oil) did not offer encouragement to extended culA different theory is held by Professor Forel, of which the corres

tivation. Statistics relating to the total production and consumppondent of the Times gives the following account: Professor Forel

tion were given in an appendix. does not see how a quantity of water sufficient to force away so

A third edition, largely rewritten, of “The Microscope and large a portion of the glacier could possibly accumulate in so

Histology,” by Simon Henry Gage, associate professor of physismall a body as the Tête Rousse, which has a total superficies of

ology in Cornell University, has been issued by Andrews & Church, less than one hundred acres. It slopes freely on three sides; it is,

Ithaca, N. Y. This volume contains much useful information, in fact, one of the most abrupt of the whole chain of Mont Blanc;

systematically arranged, and will, no doubt, be appreciated by and, in a glacier of this description, with an altitude of nearly

those who are learning to use the microscope and desire to famil10,000 feet, there are none of the conditions of a great accumula

iarize themselves with the most approved microscopical methods. tion of water. In his opinion, therefore, we must look for the

Chapter I. relates to “The Microscope and its Parts; ” Chapter main cause of the disaster in the natural movement and breaking

II. to “The Interpretation of Appearances," which will be of up of the glacier. He estimates the volume of ice which fell at

special value to beginners; Chapter III. gives detailed informabetween one and two million cubic metres. The mass, first in

tion with reference to “ Magnification, Micrometry, and Drawfalling and then rushing down the rapid slope, became transformed,

ing;" Chapter IV. treats of “ The Micro-Spectroscope and Microfor the most part, into what he calls a lava of ice and water. The

Polariscope;" Chapter V. of “Slides, Cover-glasses, Mounting, ravine, he says, through which this avalanche rushed shows no

Labelling,” etc. traces of any great evacuation of water; in the upper portions of its transit there is no mud and no accumulation of sand, but, B. Westermann & Co. will publish in September the third on the other hand, there are great blocks of glacier ice strewn volume of Conway and Crouse's translation of Karl Brugmann's everywhere, and at several points be found portions of pow- "Comparative Grammar of the Indo-Germanic Languages.” The dered ice mixed with earth. Then, again, if this had been sim- fourth and concluding volume, with a full index, will be issued ply a torrent of water falling, it would have found its way next year.

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These are brave words, and they tell us a great deal about For Advertising Rates apply to Henry F. TAYLOR, 13 Astor Place, New the meaning and purpose of ethnology, but are wholly misYork.

applied with regard to the term etbnography in its correct

sense, either in French or English. They illustrate the need CURRENT NOTES ON ANTHROPOLOGY. – XII. of a correct nomenclature in this science. (Edited by D. G. Brinton, M.D., LL.D.)

The Primitive History of Mankind.
Ligurians, Iberians, and Siculi.

A volume on this subject which is at once scientific and PROFESSOR G. SERGI occupies the chair of anthropology in

popular is a decided benefit to the study of anthropology;

and such a one we have in Dr. Moritz Hoerpes's “Die the University at Rome, and Professor G. Niccolucci that in the University of Naples; but these two scientists of Urgeschichte des Menschen nach dem heutigen Stande der eminence are far from agreeing as to the ethnic position of

Wissenschaft” (Vienna, H. Hartleben, 1892). It is clearly the Ligurians, or as to the shape of their skulls. Professor

printed and abundantly illustrated, and its scope may be Niccolucci described some alleged Ligurian crania, which

guessed from its size — 672 large octavo pages. It takes in seemed to show them to have been a round-headed people,

the whole of what is now called the “pre-history" of Europe, and hence, the Professor inferred, of “Turanian ” origin. beginning with the alleged remains of tertiary man and exBut Professor Sergi insists that the said skulls were only

tending down to the time when history proper takes up the those of modern Modenese, and neither ancient nor Ligurian.

tbread of the development of the human race in that contiHis own authentic series of Ligurian skulls proves them, on

nent. Several chapters of an introductory character exthe contrary, to have been long-headed, with narrow noses,

plain the nature and objects of pre-history, and examine orthognathic, and with no similarity to Turanians; but with

into what we may understand by the earliest conditions of

culture in the human race. a very close likeness to the ancient Iberian type, such as the brothers Siret exhumed from the neolithic deposits of south

Dr. Hoernes is not a mere book-maker, as is so often the ern Spain. What is more, in two series of neolithic skulls

case with authors of popular scientific works, but is a promifrom southern Sicily he proves that identically the same

nent member of the Anthropological Society of Vienna, and peculiarities recur; so that the ancient Siculi and Secani who

a practical laborer in the vineyard of archæology. He has held that region before the Greeks came, he believes to be

a rigbt, therefore, to press some of its wine wberewith to branches of one stock, and both of them out-posts of that

treat the general public. May they quaff deeply and become same Ligurian people who in proto-historic times occupied

intoxicated with the attractions of this new science, full of most of the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, from the Straits promises and full of mysteries ! of Gibraltar to the tip-end of the Italian peninsula. For

Early Development of the Art-Faculty. him, Siculi, Sicani, Ligures, Iberi, as ancient ethnic names, all refer to branches of the same stock; and the cave men of The development of the art-faculty is as much an ethnic Mentone and the Arene Candide in Italy, and of Cro Magnon as it is a personal trait. As we find among our own in France, alike furnish us with specimens of the Ligurian quaintances some singularly gifted in this respect, and cranial form. His interesting essay is in the Bulletino di others, of equal or greater general ability, quite devoid of it, Paletnologia Italiana, December, 1891.

so it has been with nations and tribes in all periods of cul

ture. In lower stages of development it is more ethnic than The Meaning of Ethnography.

personal, the individual then being less free. In the first number of a new journal, Bibliothèque de For these reasons the scepticism which has met the disl'Alliance Scientifique, Tome I., Fasc. I., appears what we covery of free-hand drawings on horns and bones dating should call a "symposium " on the meaning and the objects from palæolithic times is not well founded. Those from the of Ethnography. The writers are Jules Oppert, Claude Ber- caves of La Madeleine in France representing the mammotb

ac

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