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Vol. XX]


[July.-DECEMBER, 1892


Rhoads, S. N., hybridism in colaptes, 325.

Sparrow, English, 79.
Rice culture from a hygienic point of view, 57. Species, introduction of foreign, 304.
Ridgway, R., birds that sing at night, 343.
Spencer, B., ceracodus, 4.

Vandalism among antiquities of Yucatan, 365.
Ridgway's fumming Birds, 178.
Spidors' food, 314.

Van Deman, H. E., sense of direction, 291.
Riley, c. v., broods of elm-leaf beetle, 16.
Spon's Tables for Eogineers, 362.

Vans, ancient, 232.
Rivista di patologia vegetale, 4K.

Stanley, H. M., torpado whirls, 124; feeling, 203; Variability of specific characters, 7.
Rockwell, A. D., nervous diseases, 373.

markings of Mars, 235.

Vasey's grasses of the Pacific Slope, 361.
Romanes's Darwin and after Darwin, 109.
Star 1830 Groombridge, 236.

Veeder, M. A., auroras and thunder storms, 221,
Roofing tile., 115.
Starry realms, 11.

Verity's Electricity up to Date, 335.
Rothrock, J. T., our waste land, 327.
Stars, real motions of, 192.

Vine, G. R., cretaceous polyzoa, 327.
Rowlee, W. W., germination of seeds, 189.
Stature from length of long bones, 206.

Virchow's Crania Ethnica Americana, 278.
Ruffner, W. H., English parrow, 165.
Stelpen, K. von den, Carib tongue, 115.

Vocabularies, comparative, 147.
Russell's Electric Light Cables, 333.
Steinmetz, C. P., magnetic circuit, 258.

Volltion in childhood, 286.
Russian surveys, 61.

Stephens, F., pocket mouse, 331.
Russians, primitive, 244.
Slovenson, A., jealousy in infants, 218.

Stevenson, S. Y., arcbæology, 1880-1892, 267.
Stine, W. M, aurora, 178.

Wadsworth, M. E., azoic archæan in northern Mich-
Stokes, A. C., reticulated protoplasm, 161; blood-cor- igan, 355.
St. Gervais disaster, 89.

puscles, 330; protoplasm, 374.

Warring, C. B., Mars, 177.
Salamander, a, 366.

Stone, G. H., electric phenomena on Mountains, 318. Washburn, F. L., coddllug-moth in Oregon, 291.
Salt in sed-water, 258.
Strode, J. B., heredity, 190.

Wasp study, 220.
Sampson, F. A., English sparrow, 80.
Strong, E. A., science teachers, 185.

Water, chemical purification of, 34.
Sanborn, J. W., feeding horses, 4; spiders' food, 344. Sumero-Akkadian question, 75.

Weed, C. M., birds at Hanover, 86.
Saturnildæ. 246.
Swallow, C. W., raro birds, 352.

Weeds, American, 38; 11st of, 61.
Saville, M. H., vandalism among antiquities, 365. Swan, R. M., Zimbabwe, 6.

Weed's Spraying Crops, 69.
Scents, 233.
Swift, L., aururæ of, 1892. 323.

Weights and measures, confusion In, 358; in Eng.
Schäfer's Essentials of Histology, 39.
Swift, black-throated rock, 235.

land, 298.
Schaufuss, C. F., Clerus formicarius L., 256.
Syme's Modication of Organisms, 81.

Welsmann's Essays on Heredity, 109.
Schlegel, G., Fu-Sang, 148.

Well, breathing, 337.
School, Summer, of Brooklyn Institute, 157; science

Wheat rust and smut, 93; in Indiana, 159.
in blgh, 1; proposed changes in studies in, 341.


White, D., Gay Head, 332.
Schumann, V., light of small wave length, 216.

Whiteley's Chemical Calculations, 138.
Science in high schools, 1; in schools, 142; teachers

Whiting, H. L., Mississippi River, 314.
from Michigan normal school, 185.
Taussig's Tariff History, 173.

Whiton, A. M., ink stains, 346.
Scientific Roll, 319.

Taylor, I., origin of Aryaus, 151; European origin of Willard, J. T., a breathing well, 337.
Sclavic skulls, 285.

Aryans, 221; letter Y, 300.

Williams, J. B , rattlesnake, 345.
Scott's Chemical Theory, 321.
Telephone, long-distance, 229.

Williams, W.M., salt in sed-water, 258.
Scripture, E. W., localization in a child, 361; ballistic Telosc pe, large southern, 193.

Williamson, A. W., motions of stars, 192.
galvanometer, 361.
Temperature at Greenwich, 5.

Williams's Geological Map of Baltimore, 355.
Seeds, facilitated germination of, 189.

Thomas, C., Maya hieroglyphics, 44; Palenque williams's History of Modern Education, 125.
Seeley, F. A., Turkish time-pieces, 316.

tablet, 80.

Williams's Sys'ems of Ethics, 335.
Seler, E., Palenque tablet, 38; Maya chronology, 80; Thompson, A. H., the face, 7.

Williston, S. W., nomenclature, 263.
Maya graphic system, 121.

Thomson, G. M., biological notes from New Zea. Wilson, E. F., Indian numerals, 9.
Sense of direction, 113, 207, 248, 262, 291, 318, 358. land, 323.

Wilson, Sir D., left-bandedness, 60.
Sexton's Deafness and Discharge of the Ear, 109. Thomson's Outlines of Zoology, 222.

Wilson's The Lost Atlantis, 265.
Shufeldt, R. W., Beddard's Animal Coloration, 11; Thorne's Diphtheria, 68.

Windt'y Siberia as It Is, 81.
apteryx, 66; National Museum publications, 106; In. Thrasher or Thresher, 333.

Woman's work for wages, 190,
dlan tyyes of beauty, 115; vernacular name of the Tillman's Lessons in Heat, 139.

Wood, De V., science of smelling, 215.
genus harporhynchus, 333.
Toads, blood from eyes of, 243.

Wood, H. C., action of drugs on respiratory move-
Shutt, F. T., agricultural chemistry, 191.
Todas, the, 5.

ments, 3.6.
Skeel, F. D., Japanese clocks, 365.
Tompkins's Woodworker's Manual, 377.

Wood, H. R., glaciation in Montana, 162
Skulls, shape of Sclavic, 285.
Tooth culture, 55.

Woodpeckers, American, 325.
Slade, D. D., osteological notes, 46.
Topinard, Prof., Celts and Kymri, 115.

Wood's Light, 135.
Slater, J. W., scents, 233.
Tornado-whirls in cloude, 124.

Woodworth, C, W., laboratory of plant diseases, 368.
Slater, w., diet of birds, 221.
Tourney, J. W., cliff-dwellers in Arizona, 269.

Wooster, W. H., snake-bite, 255.
Slavic archæology, 216.
Townsend, C. H. T., nomenclature, 164.

Work, H., Sense of direction, 207.,
Sleep, preliminary note on, 277.
Tree-line in Europe, 19.

Wright, G. F., man and the glacial period, 275; gia-
Smelling, science of, 215.
Trouessart, E. L., American horse, 188.

cial theories, 360.
Smith, C. C., solid glycerine, 263.
Truwbridge, W. P., 102.

Wright, J. McN., a wasp study, 220.
Smith. J. B., elm-loaf beetle, 92.
Tucker, W. G., purification of water, 34.

Wright's Man and the Glacial Period, 249.
Smith and Kellar's Experiments in General Chom- Tupaia javanensis, 5.

Wright's Nature Readers, 67.
istry, 292.

Turner, C. H., grape leaves, 39.
Smith's Geology of Alabama, 377.
Turtles, reflex action in, 368.

Smithsonian Institution Report, 165.

Twins among Indians, 192.
Spake eats snake, 107; Congo, 159; bite, 255; watching

Y, pedigree of letter, 300.
&, 338,


Year-book of scientific societies, 54.
Snell, M. S., oriental subjects, 359.

Yeasts in North American Review, 249.
Soil moisture, 31.

Yellow fover among Negroes, 33.
Soils, chemistry of, 29.

Uhler, P. R., Gay Head, 176; 373.
Solutions, 352.
Uodorwood, L. M., nomenclature, 116.

Southwick, E. B , local homlptera, 52.
University extension monographs, 39.

Zimbabwo ruins, 6.

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value as effort, practical definiteness should be given to

scholastic education. To this end, I believe, that selection NATURAL SCIENCE IN THE HIGH SCHOOL COURSE.

of those practical or professional activities, which alone have been deemed most effective in conserving, importing, and

transmitting the civilization of any age, should be singled THERE is needed no argument to demonstrate the necessity

out for school work. In this elective sense, and in this sense of training in science. It will be assumed that such training alone, every age has taught what it knew and taught all it is recognized as essential, and that its attainment can in no


In former days the physical sciences were not taught manner now be dropped from the curricula of the high

because they were not known; they are taught now because schools. It is proposed, therefore, to briefly discuss the theme

they are known. A proper interpretation of the historic under (1) Comparative Educational Value, (2) Practical

facts, therefore, assigns to the physical sciences, in their pheCharacter of the Information Gained, (3) The Tendencies

nomenal and empirical aspects, a place in the foreground. of the Culture of the Day, and (4) Relations to University

As a means of purely mental training I am disposed to Requirements.

accord the first place to physical science. There is involved

more than a suggestion of mathematics, more than mere Comparative Educational Value.

ability to frame correct sentences, more than memoriter exIt appears to be a difficult matter to discuss this feature ofercises respecting isolated facts. Physical science means, if the proposed theme without the bias that comes either from it mean aught, extended application of mathematical data one's own training or one's taste. Something must be con- and methods, statement of facts in other than sentential receded from either standpoint; but concession is difficult and lations, the discovery whether for the first time it matters especially so when demanded on the basis of culture value. not- of underlying laws. This is culture of the very broadRather, then, than on individual opinion must estimation est nature; this means ability to generalize; this constitutes of comparative value be based on culture results. But what the first stage in a successful intellectual career. I do not constitutes culture? Is it ability to master in ordinary array believe that one who is abundantly able to develop Sturm's numerous facts, devise and defend delightful theories, dis- Theorem, trace all the wanderings of the heroes of the play extended and intimate acquaintance with art, history, Odyssey or the Æneid, outline the journeys of Paul in Asia or song? Is it held to consist in deep research into lifeless Minor, or discover meanings in the "Taming of the Shrew," tongues, effete philosophies, degenerate religions ? Shall it of which its great author never dreamed, can compete in inrest in useful citizenship, productive thought, inventive tellectual vigor with the lad able to determine the constitugenius, polished rhetoric, political leadership? These one tion of a compound substance, decide correctly the affinities and all enter into the various conceptions of culture, and of a noxious, stranger plant, or to read facts older than the these all demand a hearing. Shall they be heard ? And pyramid of Cheops in a scratched pebble found at the school. how?

house door. The one reads fictions long bereft of true eduI take it that the prime factor in any educational system cational value; the other deals with the facts of our daily lies in its power to discipline. The numerous facts which lives. The one lives and thinks with an ancient, stranger the young person gains during the brief period of four years people; the other breathes an atmosphere of intellectual acin the best high schools represent but a very small portion tivity and intellectual endeavor. The one deals with symof the sum that marks human attainment. Not the facts, bols — with words as various in significance as are different nor their class alone, give the chief feature that is valuable the minds that use them; the other with laws, unchanging, in school life. The collation of facts from observation, their necessary, logical. The one taught by novelists, dramatists, orderly and systematic arrangement, their intelligent dis- and poets whose function it is to create imaginary worlds, cussion, their applicability to the circumstances of the indi- dwells in an ideal world constructed to suit himself; the vidual by way of amelioration, their power to draw out and other lives in the midst of things of practical accomplishdirect the best side of the mind, this is discipline. But is not ment. It seems to me, therefore, that this difference in the this also applied science? Of such discipline the self is the mental aptitudes of students trained side by side, one trained end. It is not culture for a vocation, for professional train- in science, the other in a literature in which even the masing, nor is it culture for an end. It is discipline as a terpieces of scientific writing find no place, will stand equally means.

well for the probable values of their influence in after years It will be conceded, I presume, that all kinds of culture in determining the current of events. have not an equally important bearing on every line of ac- I would have, then, a still more extended pursuit of physitivity in life; there is, or should be, occasion for discrimina- cal science in the high school. By this it is not meant that tion and choice. Culture, or, if one please, discipline, ought the additional work be in the line of new subjects, but that to conform to this natural principle of selection. As a mat- the time now devoted to belles lettres and ancient languages ter of fact and of experience it is found that a student usually be curtailed; that the time thus gained be given, not to new accomplishes but little till a definite and settled purpose subjects, but to the more extended prosecution of the few. presides over his movements, or over his intellectual tenden- The point sought to be enforced is that two or three subjects cies.

The energies of youth are limited, naturally. To save in science, involving observation, technic, and reflection, as from waste time, which has to a young man quite as much botany or physics, zoology or chemistry, be prosecuted for


as a means.


very much longer periods. The business of the high school pursuit of physical science, has not an immeasurable advanis to train, to develop, to direct, not to give encyclopædic tage? He has, at command, a literature limited only by the information nor to render the student an intellectual automa- bounds imposed upon physical research, methods as variant ton. Its great aim is to awaken thought, not as an end but as the students who have trod the paths before him are differ

Divorce such awakening from the rhetoric of ent, opportunities for usefulness co-extensive with the physipure philosophy, from the generalities of literature, from cal needs or comforts of the highest civilization. the dicta of questionable schemes. Join it to the exact It seems to us that the time given to physical science in methods involved in scientific research - whether original the ordinary high school curriculum is far too short to reach or in the lines laid down by another matters little; wed it to the highest practical advantages Usually such curricula demonstration of natural law whether before known is encompass the whole round of scientific endeavor. A few unimportant; weld it indissolubly to those mental processes weeks to this, somebody's “fourteen weeks” to that, and a which involve the most intelligent ratiocination, and the term to a third subject — these often without logical sequence high school curriculum has attained its maximum educa- - and the boy or girl goes forth trained in science. Did I tional value. But this assumes increased attention to and say trained ? Forsooth, the first principles bave not been prosecution of pure science, and in this, we believe, lies the mastered, the technic is entirely unknown. Add to this tbe best and greatest educational power.

positive, and, it will be granted, unfortunate fact that science Practical Character of the Information Gained.

subjects are taught by persons themselves untaught in Ten years ago, the English pbysicist, Professor Sylvanus P.

either the matter or spirit of science, still less the method, Thompson, wrote the following: “And ought we, then, to be

and the cause of comparative failure is at hand. We say surprised if, in pursuance of the system we have deliberately comparative failure, and use the term advisedly. We use it, marked out for the rising generation, we keep our future

because never less than a year is devoted to algebra, often artisans, till they are fifteen or sixteen, employed at no other

more, usually an equal period to geometry, and the lion's work than sitting at a desk to follow, pen in hand, the liter

share of the time is given to language work. All the disci. ary course of studies of our educational code, we discover plinary power possible is thus given to these subjects, and that, on arriving at that age, they have lost the taste for those who teach them recognize that time, and time alone, manual work, and prefer to starve on a threadbare pittance

is productive of fruitful results. One, who in the face of as clerks or bookkeepers rather than gain a livelihood by the

such educational fadism, would dare suggest two years of less exacting and more remunerative labor of their hands ?”

botany or of zoology, three or four years of chemistry or True it is that this remark was volunteered in defense of a

of physics, would surely, like Paul, be thought "beside himproposed scheme for technical training - a scheme, the ne

self." And yet this is exactly the position we seek to decessity of which is self-evident even in this country, as is

fend. It will be conceded, we imagine, that science has witnessed by the establishment of numerous manual training disciplinary value, that its prosecution develops a most deschools. But this does not dull its edge nor blunt its point.

sirable pbase of mental life, that in its exacting and painsThe ordinary training in the high school is not suited to the taking methods it stands without a peer; it will also be granted demands of practical living.

that among those who have traversed its inviting fields, It is idle, perhaps, to volunteer the remark that this is a

thought and written on what they have seen and felt, there wonderfully practical age and this great West a model of are very many who have enriched, immeasurably, the literapractical life. The conditions that make the environment

ture of their several lands; in short, it must be granted, it here are not met by the ordinary scholasticism of the mother

seems to us, that no phase of human thought exists which East. We can scarce do less, then, than recognize that the

can be valuable for training in the high school that does not high school stands as the expression of the educational needs

find an equally valuable counterpart in the sphere of science. of a community. Those needs are limited or determined by

The multitude of ways in which such knowledge and trainthe multitudinous business interests involved, and, though ing may enter into every-day life, in every social condithese be legion, sound economic theory and sound educational

tion, renders the argument of practical utility unanswerascience alike demand their recognition in the various scbemes

ble. of study. Such recognition has not always been accorded,

The radical feature in science training lies in the assumpand the small percentage of high school graduates stands

tion that even elementary education should “supply that somewhat in the attitude of menace to their perpetuity.

exact and solid study of some portion of inductive knowlThe boy or girl who is skilled in the necessary technic of

edge,” which Dr. Whewell long ago pointed out as a want the physical or chemical laboratory has become a most use

in educational method. Through it education “escapes ful member of the community. There are no secrets that

from the thralldom and illusion which reign in the world of are unsearchable, no mysteries intangible, no hopeless intel

mere words." The student's own examination and in vestilectual dabbling possible in the laboratory. Principles, sys

gation of phenomena, bis own conception of their relations tem, painstaking manipulation rule therein, and they are

and values, his own inferences concerning the laws he supnecessary. To the one versed only in the arts of literature,

poses to underlie the surface of things, these all constitute the relations and significance of coulombs and atomic weights,

the practical side of his education. In this sense, it seems of farads and valence, of amperes and reagents, are neither

to us, physical science possesses a paramount value, and attractive nor necessary. But, if disciplinary value alone

should be placed accordingly in a wisely adjusted scheme be sought, who shall say that intellectual training may not

for study. come as truly to him who intelligently uses a galvanometer

The Tendencies of the Culture of the Day. or a burette as to him who traces his mother tongue to its Educational systems and schemes reflect, it will be conancient stock ? Aod if both are to be measured by manual ceded, the culture tendencies prevalent during their inauguskill, by ability to devise and to execute, to draught and to

It cannot, however, be assumed that their arrangerealize, who shall say that the student inducted into that ment bas always been best, or that it has always truer field of investigation and deduction, implied in the proper fallen into the wisest and safest hands. The fault


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