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FRACTICAL AND MENTAL,
A R IT H M ET I C,
ON A NEW PLAN;
IN WHICH MENTAL ARITHMETIC IS COMBINED WITH THE
* o Entered according to. Act of Congress, in the year 1885, ... : ::: . B; Gantzi, Honors & €o. In the Clerk's office of the District Court of Massachusetts. *
From the Jan. No. for 1828 of the Journal of Education.
“A careful examination of this valuable work will show that its author has compiled it, as all books for school use ought to be compiled, from the results of actual experiment and observation in the school-room. It is entirely a practical work, combining the merits of Colburn’s system with copious practico on the slate.
“Two circumstances enhance very much the value of this book. It is v comprehensive, containing twice the usual quantity of matter in works of this class; while, by judicious attention to arrangement and printing, it is rendered, perhaps, the cheapest book in this department of education. The brief system of Book-Keeping, attached to the Arithmetic, will be a valuable aid to more complete instruction in common schools, to which the work is, in other respects, so peculiarly adapted. -
“There are several very valuable peculiarities in this work, for which we cannot, in a notice, find sufficient space. We would recommend a careful examination of the book to all ... who are desirous of combining good theory with copious and rigid practice.” *
From the Report of the School-Committee of Providence.
“The books at present used in the schools are, in the opinion of your Committee, altogether above the range of thought of the pupils. Works of a narrative character would be better understood, would be more interesting, and would, of course, teach the pupil to read with more taste and judgment. The boy who pores, in utter disgust, over the book which he reads in schools, will hasten home to read with avidity his story-book. The true wisdom would then be, to introduce the story-book into school, and thus render his place of education the place of his amusement.
“Nevertheless, as this subject is one in which time and judgment are necessary for a selection, and as a change of this sort, through all the schools, would be productive of considerable additional expense, your Committee would recommend that no change, at present, be made in books, excepting only the Arithmetic. If a school, by way of experiment, be established on the monitorial plan, various school-books can be tried there, and, after a fair opportunity of testing the merits of several, those can be selected which seem best adapted to accomplish the purposes of education. Your Committee are, however, of opinion, that it would be expedient to introduce the system of Arithmetic published by Mr. Smith [subsequently adopted] into all the Public Grammar Schools; and, also, that all the scholars in arithmetic be taught by classes, and *ot individually, as is now the prevalent mode.”
The above Report was signed by the following named gentlemen:—
Rev. F. WAYLAND, Jr., D. D., Pres. Brown Univ., (Chairman.)
Dated April 24, 1828. t o
This work is recommended by the State Commissioners of Vermont to be adopted throughout that state. It is likewise introduced into the public and private schools of Hartford, Conn., by the concurrence both of committees and teachers, and in like manner in variou other places,
AD VERTISEMENT TO THE KEY
WhiCH ACCOMPANIES THIS ARITHMETIC.
“The utility, and even necessity, of a work of this description, will scarcely be questioned by those who have had any experience in teaching Arithmetic. Most young persons, after having been persuaded, again and again, to review a long arithmetical process, feel, or affect to feel, certain that they have performed it correctly, although the result, by the book, is erroneous. They then apply to their instructer; and, unless he points out their mistake, or performs the operation for them, they become discouraged, think it useless “to try’ longer, and the foundation for a habit of idleness is thus imperceptibly established. Now, in a large school, it is always inconvenient, and sometimes impossible, for the instructer to devote the time necessary to overlook or perform a very simple, much more a complex, question in Arithmetic. This is at once obviated by having at hand a Key, to which reference can be easily and speedily made. The time of the teacher will thus be saved, and the pupil will not have his ardor damped by being told that “his sum is wrong, without learning where or how.
“This work is not designed for, and can scarcely become, a help to laziness: its object is to lighten the burden of teachers, and facilitate the progress of scholars. To promote both of these important purposes it is now presented to the public.
WHEN a new work is offered to the public, especially on a subject abounding with treatises like this, the inquiry is very naturally made “Does this work contain any thing new * * “Are there not a hundre others as good as this?” To the first inquiry it is replied, that there are many things which are believed to be new ; and, as to the second, a candid public, after a careful examination of its contents, and not till then, it is hoped, must decide. Another inquiry may still be made: “Is this edition different from the preceding?” The answer is, Yes, in many respects. The present edition professes to be strictly on the Pestalozzian, or inductive, plan of teaching. This, however, is not claimed as a novelty. In this respect, it resembles many other systems. The novelty of this work will be found to consist in adhering more closely to the true spirit of the Pestalozzian plan; consequently, in differing from other systems, it differs less from the Pestalozzian. This similarity will now be shown.
1. The Pestalozzian professes to unite a complete system of Mental with Written Arithmetic. So does this.
2. That rejects no rules, but simply illustrates them by mental questions. So does this.
3. That commences with examples for children as simple as this, is as extensive, and ends with questions adapted to minds as mature.
Here it may be asked, “In what respect, then, is this different from . To this question it is answered, In the execution of our common plan.
The following are a few of the prominent characteristics of this work, in which it is thought to differ from all others.
1. The interrogative system is generally adopted throughout this work. 2. The common rules of Arithmetic are exhibited so as to cor respond with the occurrences in actual business. Under this head is reckoned the application of Ratio to practical purposes, Fellowship, &c. 3. There is a constant recapitulation of the subject attended to, styled “Questions on the foregoing.” 4. The mode of giving the §al results without points, then the aggregate of these results, with points, for an answer by which the relative value of the whole is determined, thus furnishing a complete test of the knowledge of the pupil. This A% *