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since not only the various acids, oxides, and said cloth into contact with another, will answer salts I have enumerated, may be employed, but very well. also various mixtures of them, and in various Lastly, After having, as before directed, rinsed proportions ; but I prefer and generally use the or washed the cloths in clean water, I free them following process :
from all remains of the different agents or subFirst, I take one gallon of good vinegar, or stances employed, by the ordinary means of rectified pyrolignous acid, which I thicken with washing, branding, or soaping, as practised by starch or flour in the way practised by calico calico printers; and if those parts of the cloth printers, in preparing the mordants or colors for that are intended to be made white should still printing. Whilst boiling hot I add to it five retain any red, or other tinge or stain injurious pounds of crystallised tartaric acid, and incor- to the effect, in order to render the white comporate the whole very well by stirring.
plete I clear it by the usual process of exposure Or, I take one gallon of strong concentrated to the air, or by passing the cloth through hot lime juice or lemon juice, or one gallon of water, water, to which I have added as much of the soin which I have dissolved two pounds and a lution of oxymuriate of lime as will remove the half of crystallised citric acid, which I thicken said stains or tinge, without material injury to with starch or flour in the manner directed above, those parts from which the red dye is not intendand to which, whilst hot, I add two pounds of ed to be removed. supersulphate of potassa, and incorporate the I then proceed, if other colors are to be applied whole very well by stirring. I prefer starch to to finish the cloths, by the ordinary and well any other thickening, though others may be used known methods of calico printers; but these not with more or less advantage.
being necessarily connected with, nor forming Secondly, the paste so prepared I print, any part of the peculiar process or invention stamp, pencil, or otherwise apply to the cloth herein intended to be described, I purposely previously dyed turkey red, in the mode and make no mention of here. with the precautions generally used in the print The above particulars and examples are given ing or stamping of linens or cottons.
for the more full explanation of the said invenThirdly, I prepare a solution of oxymuriate of tion, and the manner in which the same is to be lime, either by dissolving the dry oxymuriate performed. But the invention, whereof I claim of lime (commonly called bleaching powder, or the sole and exclusive use, consists in printing, bleaching salts) in water, or by passing the oxy- stamping, pencilling, or otherwise applying to muriatic acid gas into a vat, vessel, or cistern, those parts of the cloth which are intended to be in which, by agitation or otherwise, I keep sus- either wholly, or in a greater or less degree, depended such quantity of quicklime as will more prived of their red color, an acid, oxide, neutral than saturate fully and completely the said oxy- salt, acid salt, or metallic salt, such as is herein muriatic acid gas. In either way, I obtain a before for that purpose directed, and immersing solution of oxymuriate of lime, with excess of the whole cloth'in such mixture or combination lime. That which I use and prefer is of the spe- of oxymuriatic acid and water, with some of the cific gravity 1050, and I seldom employ it lower alkaline salts or earths, as is herein directed for than 1030 (water being considered as 1000). The that purpose. vat, vessel, or cistern, which contains the solu Mr. Thomson's patent for 1815 is specified tion of oxymuriate of lime, in which I immerse as follows :- The ordinary practice of calico the cloths, may be of any size or form best printers is to apply, with the block or pencil, adapted to the purpose or situation. I use and what are termed after-colors, to certain spaces, prefer vessels of stone of from six to eight feet originally left in their patterns, and intended to deep, six to seven feet long, and three and a half receive the said after-colors; or to certain spaces to four feet broad ; but larger or smaller vessels on the cloth, from which parts of the original will answer very well.
pattern have been discharged, in order to admit, Fourthly, When the cloths are ready for im- by a subsequent operation, the application of the mersion, which they are as soon as the paste is said after-colors. Now the object of my invendry, I hook them on a frame, such as is used in tion is, by one application of the block, cylinder, dyeing indigo or China blues, commonly called roller, plate, pencil, or other mode, to remove a dipping frame, on which the cloth should be so parts of the original pattern or color from the disposed that no two folds can touch each other. cloth, and at the same time to deposit a metallic I then plunge the frame with the cloth so attached oxide, or earthy base, which shall of itself be a into the vat containing the solution of oxymuriate color, or shall serve as a mordant to some color of lime, and keep it gently in motion during the to be produced, as hereinafter described. time of immersion, which should not be prolonged First, mix or combine with the acid called more than ten minutes, and which rarely need oxymuriatic acid (or dephlogisticated acid of sea exceed five minutes. The object being either salt) and water, the alkaline salts of potash or wholly or partially to remove the Turkey red dye soda, or, which is still better, calcareous earth from certain parts or places, as soon as that is or quicklime, in such proportion as will weaken done the cloth should be withdrawn from the so or suspend the power of the said acid, so that it lution of the oxymuriate of lime, and plunged shall not in such mixed or combined state, of itor rinsed in clean water. I practise and approve self, and without any further operation, be able the aforesaid plan of immersion ; but any other to remove, or materially to improve the colors, plan or plans by which the cloth can be exposed within the moderate space of time taken up in a greater or less time to the action of the oxymu- the performance of the process. riate of lime, without bringing one part of the Secondly, Print, stamp, pencil, or otherwise
apply to those parts of the cloth which are in- of lime (commonly called bleaching powder, or tended to be deprived of one color and to receive bleaching salts) in water, or by passing the oxyanother, a solution of some earthy or metallic muriatic gas into a vat, vessel, or cistern, in salt; the acid of which, having a greater affinity which, by agitation or otherwise, I keep suspendor attraction for the alkaline salt or earth with ed such a quantity of quicklime as will more which the oxymuriate acid is mixed or combined than saturate fully and completely the said oxythan that acid itself possesses, will disengage it, muriatic gas. In either way I obtain a solution and the metallic or earthy base of which, being of oxymuriate of lime, with excess of lime. That deposited in the cloth, will either of itself be a which I use and prefer is of the specific gravity color, or serve as a mordant to some other color, 1050, and I seldom employ it lower than 1030 to be produced as hereinafter described. (water being considered as 1000). The vat, ves
Thirdly, After the metallic or earthy solution sel, or cistern, which contains the solution of aforesaid has been printed, stamped, pencilled, oxymuriate of lime in which I immerse the cloth, or otherwise applied to the cloth, as before di- may be of any size or form best adapted to the rected, and is sufficiently dry, immerse the cloth purpose or situation. I use and prefer vessels in the solution of oxymuriatic acid, combinedo of stone, of from six to eight feet deep, six to with the alkaline salt of potash or soda, or, which seven feet long, and three and a half to four feet I greatly prefer, with calcareous earth or lime, broad; but larger or smaller vessels will answer when the acid of the metallic or earthy solution very well. which has been applied to parts of the cloth will Thirdly, When the cloth is ready for immerimmediately seize upon and combine with the sidn, which it is as soon as the paste is dry, I alkaline salt or earth with which the oxymuriatic hook it on a frame, such as is used in dyeing inacid has been mixed or combined, and disen- digo or China blues, commonly called a dipping gage that acid which will almost instantaneously frame, on which the cloth should be so disposed deprive of their color those parts of the cloth to that no two folds can touch each other. I then which the said earthy or metallic salt has been plunge the frame, with the cloth so attached, applied.
into the vat containing the solution of oxymuriate Fourthly, Wash or otherwise remove the said of lime, and keep it gently in motion during the acids or salts by the usual processes, and when time of immersion, which rarely need exceed five the earthy or metallic base, deposited in the cloth, minutes. The object being to remove the red is intended to receive another color, proceed to dye from certain parts or places, as soon as that raise it by the usual operations of dyeing, as will is done the cloth should be withdrawn from the be further illustrated in the examples hereafter solution of the oxymuriate of lime, and plunged given of particular applications of this invention. into, or rinsed in cold water. I practise and The earthy solutions which I apply to the parts approve the aforesaid plan of immersion; but intended to be deprived of their color, and to re- any other plan, or plans, by wbich the cloth can ceive another, are the solutions of alumina, or be exposed a greater or less time to the action of earth of alum in acids; such, for example, as the the oxymuriate of lime, without bringing one sulphate of alumina, or common alum, the ace- part of the said cloth into contact with another, tate of alumina, or the nitrate or muriate of will answer very well. alumina, The metallic solutions which I em Lastly, After having, as before directed, rinsed ploy are, the sulphate of iron or copperas ; the or washed the cloth in clean water, I free it from nitrate, or muriate, or acetate of iron; the mu- all superfluous remains of the different substances riate of tin, or nitro-muriate of tin ; the sulphate employed, by the ordinary means of washing, of copper or blue vitriol, or the nitrate, muriate, dunging, and cleaning, as practised by calico or acetate of copper. Allacids that form soluble printers; after which I dye the cloth and raise compounds with the before-named metals, or the the yellow in the usual way, with quercitron bark, earth of alum, may be employed; but those only or any other yellow dye. which form the most soluble compounds, such, If, instead of yellow, it is proposed to have a for example, as those enumerated above, can be buff pattern or figure, I add to the aluminous employed with advantage. For the more full mordant, prepared and thickened as above, oneand complete understanding of the principle laid fourth or one-sixth, or some intermediate propordown in the preceding part of this specification, tion, of a solution of nitrate of iron, and proceed I subjoin the following practical illustration of to print and immerse in oxymuriate of lime as in its application to various kinds of work. If I the former case. desire to have a yellow figure or stripe on the The red dye will be removed as before, and its cloth, upon which a madder-red ground or pát- place be occupied by a buff. If the buff be tern has been printed, after having, by the ordi- raised in quercitron bark, an olive will be obnary processes of calico printing, produced the tained. By printing at separate times, and on red ground or pattern, I first print, stamp, pen- different parts of the cloth, each of the abovecil, or otherwise apply to those parts intended to mentioned mordants, both yellow and olive be yellow, a strong.aluminous mordant, composed figures on a red ground may be obtained. Siof three pounds of sugar of lead, and six pounds milar effects, with trifling variations, take place, of alum, dissolved in a gallon of water, and when, instead of red grounds, purple or chocothickened with a due proportion of calcined late grounds are employed; but it must be obstarch, in the manner usually practised by calico served, that these colors being produced from printers.
mordants, consisting wholly, or in part, of soluSecondly, I prepare a solution of oxymuriate tions of iron, and the oxide of that metal not of lime, either by dissolving the dry oxymuriate being removeable by the process detailed in this
specification, the after colors produced will be length of the engravings on the plate to be printmodified more or less by the said oxide of iron. ed from; if twice it must have eight teeth, if The foregoing examples are given for the more three times twelve teeth ; or in that proportion. full explanation of the said invention, and the The haif of every fourth tooth must be taken manner in which the same is' to be performed; away to let the tooth of the segment on I pass; but the invention, whereof I claim the sole and that it may strike fairly on the pitch line of the exclusive use, consists in printing, stamping, next tooth. The small roller M may be used or pencilling, or otherwise applying to cloth, pre- not as occasion may require, as it is only to ease viously printed and dyed, or dyed any other co- , the motion of the blanket which passes over the lor than turkey red, any of the earthy or metallic roller N, which is to tighten the blanket by solutions herein before for that purpose directed, means of the screws and sockets 0. At the opand immersing the whole cloth in such mixture Posite end of the spindle G is well fitted a large or combination of oxymuriatic acid and water, wheel P, which is turned by the pinion Q on the with some of the alkaline salts or earths, as is spindle of the fly-wheel R, and supported by the herein directed for that purpose, so as to remove frame S, of iron or wood. This spindle may be the color or pattern from the part so printed, turned by band or by any other power given. stamped, pencilled, or receiving such application, The wheel and pinion may be varied to any and,' by the same process, ix on such parts power, by altering the sizes of them in the usual either a new color or a mordant for a new color. way. The plates may be cleaned by a scraper
In our treatise on the manufacture of cotton it or doctor. was found necessary to describe the admirable Fig. 3 is a transverse section of the machine, printing apparatus employed at the Bandana showing a different mode of using it. The frame works in Glasgow, and we now propose to fur- AA is the same as in fig. 1 and 2, with the adnish our readers with an account of Mr. Mauds- dition of two arms and brackets T, T, which suplay's press for a nearly similar purpose. Figs. 1. port a frame of iron or wood, on which are fixed and 2, plate PrintING, Calico, represent an end one, two, or more, copper plates. To print seand front view of the machine. A, A, are frames veral colors they move to stops, and are regulatof cast-iron, wood, or other strong materials. ed as in figs. 1 and 2. The cylinder E is made B, B, are swinging frames of iron or wood ; the hollow, for the purpose of admitting steam, upper surfaces of which are made flat, to receive which will beat it to any temperature, to dry the eugraved copper plates, fastened on and regulat- color as quick as printed. The manner of letting ed by screws at aa. The screws at bb are to in the steam is described in fig. 5. The lifting slop and regulate the swinging frames against frame B acts the same as in figs. 1 and 2. Fig. pieces which project on the insides of the frames 4 is a lifting frame, which has a cylinder similar A, A, at dd. °C, C, are slings or connecting rods to F, and may be used in the place of B, which of iron or other metal which have round holes at makes it a hot-press for various purposes, by D, in the bottom end, to receive the ends of the letting steam into the bottom as well as the top strong bolt D, which is connected to the frame cylinder; and in case the color should dry in BB. The upper part of the connecting rods C the plates, owing to the heat, cold water may be are forked, to pass the pivots of wheels, &c., on made to pass through the cylinder, which will the ends of the frames A, A, and are screwed in always keep it cool. Fig. 5 is a longitudinal the usual way, have two metal nuts to each, to section of the cylinder, eccentric wheel, &c., keep down and regulate the cross pieces of iron with the manner of admitting steam by a small or other metal e, which fit on and into the ec- pipe at f, which may be connected with the centric wheels or cranks E. These are made of boiler of a steam-engine, or a small boiler on iron or other metal, for the purpose of lifting the purpose, which will serve one, two, or more swingiog frame B, by means of the connecting presses, each having stop-cocks at convenient rods C, C, and pressing the copper plates forcibly places. g is a pipe in the bottom of the cylinder against the under part of the cylinder or press- to let out the condensed water. head F, which is better seen in figs. 3 or 5. Figs. 6 and 7 represent a side view of the upThrough the eccentric wheels, &c., are made per part of the machine, with the roller L placed square or other formed holes, which are well fitt- above the cylinder, by which means the blanket ed on the spindle G, close on the outsides or in- is closer, and may if required receive more beat sides of the frames A, A; on the outsides of which from the cylinder. The roller is moved by the are fitted the toothed wheel H, which works into same wheels as in figs. 1 and 2, only differently and turns the wheel Í, which is twice the dia- placed. meter of H, and has on the rim a piece of metal We must not close our account of the theory of the proper curve with three whole teeth and and practice of calico printing without adverting one half tooth, which in their revolution fall into to the great use we have made of Dr. Ure's edition the teeth of the wheel R, fixed on the axis of the of Berthollet's Elements of the Art of Dyeing, roller L; which wheel will be regulated as to its which is decidedly the best work on the subject number of teeth by the circumference of the rol- that has yet appeared. ler L, which must be twice or three times the