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PRIOLA, or Priolus (Benjamin), an emi Men still affirm that it killeth at a distance, that nent Italian historian, born in Venice, in 1602, it poisoneth by the eye, and by priority of vision. and descended from the illustrious family of
Browne. Prioli, some of whom had been doges of Venice.
Whenever tempted to do or approve any thing He studied at Orthez, Montauban, and at last at
contrary to the duties we are enjoided, let us reflect
that we have a prior and superior obligation to the Leyden, under Heinsius and Vossius. He went
commands of Christ.
Rogers. to Paris to visit Grotius, and studied Aristotle
Though he oft renewed the fight, at Padua, under Cremonius and Licetus. He
And almost got priority of sight, became a confident of the duke of Rohan ; after He ne'er could overcome her quite. Swift. wards married and retired to Geneva; became This observation may assist in determining the intimate with the duke of Longueville, cardinal dispute concerning the priority of Homer and Hesiod. Chigi (afterwards Alexander VII.), and cardinal
Broome. F. Barberini, and became a Roman Catholic. Perfor, n. s. 2. Fr. prieur. The head of a The civil war breaking out in France, he joined Pri'oress, convent of monks, inferior in the malecontents, and his estate was confiscated. Pri'ory. dignity to an abbot: prioress, He then retired to Flanders, where he wrote his the feminine of this noun : priory is, the convent History of France, in Latin. He died at Lyons, or establishment over which a prior is placed : in 1667, aged sixty-five.
prior, says Ayliffe, is such a person, as, in some PRIOR (Matthew), an eminent English poet, churches, presides over others in the same born in London in 1664. His father dying churches. while he was very young, an uncle, a vintner,
Our abbies and our priories shall pay having given him some education at Westmin This expedition's charge. ster school, took him home to bring him up to his
Shakspeare. King John. own trade. However, at bis leisure hours, he pro
When you have vowed, you must not speak with secuted his study of the classics, and especially But in the presence of the prioress. Shakspeare. of his favorite Horace. This introduced him to
The reeve, miller, and cook, are distinguished from some polite company, who frequented his uncle's each other, as much as the mincing lady prioress and house; among whom the earl of Dorset took the broad speaking wife of Bath. Dryden. particular notice of him, and procured him to be Neither she, nor any other, besides the prior of sent to St. John's College in Cambridge, where, the convent, knew any thing of his name. in 1680, he took the degree of A. B. and after
Addison's Spectator. wards became fellow of that college. Upon the Priory, AliEx. These priories were cells of revolution, Mr. Prior was brought to court by the religious houses in England which belonged the earl of Dorset; and in 1690 he was made to foreign monasteries : for, when manors or tithes secretary to the earl of Berkeley, plenipotentiary were given to foreign convents, the monks, either at the Hague; as he was afterwards to the am to increase their own rule, or rather to have faithbassador and the plenipotentiaries at the treatyful stewards of their revenues, built a small conof Ryswick in 1697; and in 1698 to the earl of vent here for the reception of such a number as Portland, ambassador to the court of France. they thought proper, and constituted priors over He was in 1697 made secretary of state for them. Within these cells there was the same Ireland ; and in 1700 was appointed one of the distinction as in those priories which were cells lords commissioners of trade and plantations. subordinate to some great abbey; some of these In 1710 he was supposed to have had a share in were conventual, and, having priors of their own writing the Examiner. In 1711 he was made choosing, thereby became entire societies within one of the commissioners of the customs; and themselves, and received the revenues belonging was sent minister plenipotentiary to France, for to their several houses for their own use and the negociating a peace with that kingdom. benefit, paying only the ancient apport, acknowl Soon after the accession of George I. to the throne ledgment, or obvention, at first the surplusage, in 1714 he presented a memorial to the court of to the foreign house ; but others depended enFrance, requiring the demolition of the canal and tirely on the foreign houses, who appointed and new works at Mardyke. In 1715 he was re- removed their priors at pleasure. These trans. called; and upon his arrival being taken up by a mitted all their revenues to the foreign head warrant from the house of commons, and strictly houses ; for which reason their estates were geexamined by a committee of the privy council, nerally seized to carry on the wars between Robert Walpole, Esq., moved the house of com- England and France, and restored to them again mons for an impeachment against him; and Mr. on return of peace. These alien priories were Prior was ordered into close custody. In 1717 most of them founded by such as bad foreign he was excepted out of the act of grace; at the abbeys, founded by themselves or by some of close of that year, however, he was set at liberty. their family. The whole number is not exactly · The remainder of his days he spent in tran- ascertained ; the Monasticon has given a list of quillity; and died in 1721. His poems are well 100. Weever says 110. Some of these cells known and justly admired.
were made indigenous or denizon. The alien Prior, adj. ? Lat. prior. Former; being priories were first seized by Edward I. 1285 on
PrioR'ITY, n. s. I before something else ; ante- the breaking out of the war between France and rior; state of being antecedent.
England; and it appears from a roll that EdFollow, Cominus, we must follow you,
ward II. also seized them, though this is not Right worthy your priority, Shakspeare. mentioned by our historians: and to these the
From son to son of the lady, as they should be in act of restitution i Edw. III. seems to refer. In priority of birth.
Hayward. 1337 Edward III, confiscated their estates and
let out the priories themselves with all their The face of nature wc no more survey, lands and tenements, at his pleasure, for twenty All glares alike, without distinction gay. Pope. three years; at the end of which term, peace
Here, awful Newton, the dissolving clouds being concluded between the two nations, he Form, fronting on the sun, thy showery prism. restored their estates in 1361, as appears by his
Thomson. letters patent to that of Montacute, county of and calcined for about half an hour, and then brought
If oyster-shells were thrown into a common fire Somerset, printed at large in Rymer, vol. vi. p. 311, and translated in Weever's Funeral Monu- in a dark room, that many of them would exhibit
to a person who had previously been some minutes ments, p. 339. At other times he granted their beautiful irises of prismatic colours. Darwin. lands, or lay pensions out of them, to divers
A Prism is an oblong solid, contained under noblemen. They were also sequestered during Richard II.'s reign, and the head monasteries
more than four planes, whose bases are equal, abroad had the king's licence to sell their lands parallel, and alike situated. See Optics. to other religious houses liere, or to any particu
PRIS'ON, n. s. & v. a. Fr. prison. A strong
hold in which per lar persons who wanted to endow others. Ilenry
sons are confined; a IV. began his reign with showing some favor to
PrisonHouse, gaol: to confine or the alien priories, restoring all the conventual
Pris'ONMENT. ones, only reserving to himself in time of war
captivate : prisonwhat they paid in time of peace to the foreign is a kind of rural play, described in the extract:
house is synonymous with prison : prison-base abbeys. They were all dissolved by act 2, Henry V., and all their estates vested in the prisoner, one confined in a prison ; a captive:
prisonment, continement; captivity. crown, except some lands granted to the college of Fotheringay. The act of dissolution is not The spachies of the court play every Friday at printed in the statute books, but it is be found giocho di canni, which is no other than prisonbase entire in Rymer's Fædera, and in the Parliament upon horseback, hitting one another with darts, as
Sandys. Rolls, vol. iv. p. 22. In general, these lands the others do with their hands.
So oft as homeward I from her depart, were appropriated to religious uses. Henry VI. endowed his foundations at Eton and Cambridge
I go like one that, having lost the field,
Is prisoner led away with heavy heart. with the lands of the alien priories. Others
Spenser. were granted in fee to the prelates, nobility, or
He hath commission privale persons. 'Such as remained in the crown To hang Cordelia in the prison. Shakspeare. were granted by Henry VI., 1440, to archbishop
Universal plodding prisons up Chicheley, &c., and they became part of his and The nimble spirits in the arteries. Id. the royal foundations.
Cæsar's ill-erected tower, PRISAGE, n. s. From prise. See the ex To whose flint bosom my condemed lord tract.
Is doomed a prisoner.
Id. Richard II.
I am forbid to tell the secrets of my prisonhouse. Prisage, now called butlerage, is a custom whereby
Shakspeare. the prince challenges out of every bark loaden with wine, iwo tuns of wine at his price. Cowell.
May be he will not touch young Arthur's life,
But hold himself safe in his prisonment. Id. PRISCIANUS, an eminent grammarian, born There succeeded an absolute victory for the Engat Cæsarea, who taught at Constantinople with lish, the taking of the Spanish general d'Ocampo great reputation about the year 525. He com- prisoner, with the loss of few of the English. posed a work De Arte Grammatica, which was
Bacon. first printed by Aldus at Venice in 1476; and
Then did the king enlarge another, De Naturalibus Questionibus, which he The spleen he prisoned. Chapman's Iliad. dedicated to Chosroes king of Persia; besides A prisoner is an impatient patient, lingering under which he translated Dionysius's description of the rough hands of a cruele physitian ; his creditor the world into Latin verse.
knowes his disease, and hath power to cure him, PRISM, n. s.
French prisme ; Gr.
Essayes and Characters, 1638. PRISMAT'IC, adj. a piopa. See Sir I.
He that is tied with one slender string, such as PeismaTICALLY, adv. S Newton's definition
one resolute struggle would break, he is prisoner only below: the adjective and adverb correspond. at his own sloth, and who will pity his thraldom? Take notice of the pleasing variety of colours ex
Decay of Piety. hibited by the triangular glass, and demand what For those rebellious here their prison ordained. addition or decrement of either salt, sulphur, or
Milton. mercury befalls the glass, by being prismatically Culling their potent herbs and baleful drugs, figured ; and yet it is known that, without that They, as they sung, would take the prisoned soul, shape, it would not afford those colours as it does. And lap it in Elysium.
The tyrant Æolus, A prism of glass is a glass bounded with two equal With power imperial curbs the struggling winds, and parallel triangular ends, and three plain and And sounding tempests in dark prisons binds. well polished sides, which meet in three parallel
Dryden. lines, running from the three angles of one end to
He yielded on my word, the three angles of the other end. Nevoton. And, as my prisoner, 1 restore his sword. Id.
If the mass of the earth was cubick, prismatick, or A prisoner is troubled, that he cannot go whither any other angular figure, it would follow that one he would ; and he that is at large is troubled ihat too vast a part would be drowned, and another be he does not know whither to go. L'Estrange. dry.
Derham. He, that has his chains knocked off, and the False eloquence, like the prismatick glass, prison doors set open to him, is presently at liberty. Its gaudy colours spreads on every place ;
At his first coming to his little village, it was as case attracted my particular attention. I have disagreeable to him as a prison, and every day done this as inviting enquiry, as placing my seemed too tedious to be endured in so retired a
statements in a more tangible shape, and as furplace.
nishing a facility for the detection of errors. For A Prison, lord Coke observes, is only a place the honor of the writer of the severe censures on of safe custody, salva custodia, not a place of our past proceedings which this book contains, punishment. Any place where a person is con- such proofs of authenticity speak very forcibly; fined may be said to be a prison; and, when a but, for the honor of the British character, we process is issued against one, he must, when ar- have only to regret that they carry so high bis rested thereon, either be committed to prison, or pretensions to be believed. Of the reasoning in be bound in a recognizance with sureties, or else the introductory chapter, we do not hesitate to give bail according to the nature of the case, to say that it is in a high degree moral, acute, and appear at a certain day in court, there to make inanly. We are not of opinion that prisoners answer to what is alleged against him. Where should be indulged with Turkey carpets ; and we a person is taken and sent to prison in a civil agree in the positions of the committee of aldercase, he may be released by the plaintiff in the men, that debtors should not be placed within suit; but, if it be for treason or felony, he may the walls of a prison, with greater comparative not regularly be discharged, until he is indicted comforts than the families of the citizens whom of the fact and acquitted. See Law.
they have wronged, or perhaps ruined; neither Prison Discipline. This is a topic upon do we feel any of that contumacious compassion which every patriotic feeling of the Christian for prisoners because authority and the law have moralist will be exercised ; and bas been exer- made them such, which, we are persuaded, many cised in this country, very salutarily, we may do; but we cordially join with Mr. Buxton in add, for the last ten years. If no second Howard opinion, that, where imprisonment is the legal has arisen, investigations into the state of prisons consequence of debt, it should be only imprimore extensive than his have been successfully sonment, without any aggravations, or supercarried on in every part of Great Britain during added sufferings; for it is not to be disputed this period, and, in the Society for the Improve- that all beyond mere confinement is beyond the ment of Prison Discipline, an important centre law, which has nowhere authorised any infliction of communication has been established for the for this cause beyond the evil necessarily implied benefit of the civilised world. In the retrospect in the suspension of personal liberty. It is still of their proceedings much that is humiliating to more plainly evident, that persons under conour national pride will appear ; but as the expo- finement for imputed offences ought not to be sure of the evils in question has led to a very subjected to any rigors beyond what may be important diminution of them by legislative enact- necessary to secure their detention. Even on ments, and to the full understanding of the convicted delinquents, where safe custody is all chief causes of the rest, they may be adverted to that the law has in contemplation, any annexawith considerable satisfaction.
tion of unnecessary hardship carries the punishMr. Buxton's Enquiry whether Crime and ment beyond the law; and, where imprisonment Misery are produced or prevented by our present is part or the whole of the punishment, all that System of Prison Discipline, and his personal is inflicted of suffering or privation, heyond what exertions in this cause both in and out of parlia- the sentence has defined, or the common regulament, were the first great means of arousing the tions of the prison require, is excess and abuse, late attention of the benevolent to the subject. so much the more to be dreaded, because it There is a singular honesty in the fabrication of takes place where the eye of the public does not his book; and it is one of those rare cases in often pierce. which no victory has been gained over the can It is quite evident that as little as possible of dor and veracity of the writer, by the strong judicial punishment should be submitted to the persuasions of a mind under the fullest convic- discretion or disposition of the gaoler, however tion and most glowing impressions upon the sub- necessary it may be to invest bim with some de ject of his publication. For the truth of the gree of coercive authority to preserve the order facts, as they stand in his statements, Mr. Bux. and peace of the prison. A system of general ton declares himself to require no indulgence: rules only may and ought to be maintained, in
Nothing is stated,' says he, (with the excep- which at least ordinary humanity suffers nothing tion of the account of the Philadelphia gaol), suppliciary beyond the sentence of the court, in which has not come within my own observation, which respect should be had, as far as justice and which has not been confirmed by the con towards all will allow, to the common presumable current testimony of the gentlemen who have differences of sentiment arising froin previous been my companions. The description of the habits, and in which all mischiefs that may affect Borough Compter, Tothill Fields, the Peniten- the prisoner consequentially and permanently, tiary, the gaols at St. Alban's, at Bury, at Ghent, after the law is satisfied, may, as far as possible, and at Bristol, have been read to their respective be prevented. gaolers; and that of Guildford was handed to a No language can better state the rights of a magistrate of the county of Surrey, with a re- prisoner accused even of serious crimes than the quest that he would point out any mistakes.' following :-- You have uo right to abridge bim Mr. Buxton adds, ' I have generally mentioned of pure air, wholesome and sufficient food, and the·days on which I visited the gaols, the per- opportunities of exercise. You have no right to sons with whom I went, and, where I could do it debar him from the craft on which his with propriety, the names of any prisoners whose pends, if it can be exercised in prison. You
have no right to subject him to suffering from walls. Good policy requires that, if possible, cold, by want of bed-clothing by night, or firing you dismiss him improved. by day; and the reason is plain, -you have . For the improvement of the unconvicted pritaken him from his home, and have deprived soner you should labor, as a recompense for his him of the means of providing himself with the confinement before trial that thus you may necessaries or comforts of life, and therefore you convert the suspicion of crime into its prevenare bound to furnish him with moderate indeed, tion in future-That thus you may addict him to but suitable accommodation.
such habits, and instil such principles, and imYou have for the same reason no right to part such instruction, as may repair the damage ruin bis habits by compelling him to he idle, you have done him; and that he, being amerced his morals by compelling him to mix with a pro- of one period of his life, may be enabled to miscuous assemblage of hardened and convicted spend the remainder more respectably. criminals, o his health by forcing him at night • For the improvement of the debtor you into a damp unventilated cell, with such crowds should labor, because the grand causes of debt of companions as very speedily render the air are sickness, idleness, or intemperance :—you foul and putrid, or make him sleep in close con- must, therefore, provide against its recurrence tact with the victims of contagious and loath- by those measures which may secure the health, some disease, or amidst the noxious effluvia of the industry, and the sobriety of your prisoners. dirt and corruption. In short, attention to his The convicted criminal is also entitled to your feelings mental and bodily, a supply of every care. Our law is not, in its true spirit, whatnecessary, abstraction from evil society, the con ever it may be in its modern enactments, a servation of his health and industrious habits, system of bloody vengeance; it does not say, so are the clear, evident, undeniable riglits of an un- much evil is repaired by so much misery inflicted. convicted prisoner. He should be brought to A merciful and enlightened jurisprudence, like his trial as speedily as possible; for every hour the Author of all that is merciful and wise, does of unnecessary delay, in furnishing him with the not rejoice in the death of a sinner; but rather opportunity of proving his innocence, is, or at that he should turn from his wickedness, and least may be, an hour of unjust imprisonment. live. Punishments are inflicted that crime may
* At his trial, either he is acquitted,-in which be prevented, and crime is prevented by the recase the least you can do is to replace him in formation of the criminal. This may be accomthe situation you found him, to pay his expenses plished. The prisoner, being separated from his bome, and to furnish him with sufficient to sup- former associates, ceases to think as they think ; port him till he has had an opportunity of look- he has time for recollection and repentance; and ing out for work: or he is convicted, and then seclusion will humble the most haughty, and it is for the law to appoint the punishment which often. reform the most abandoned. is to follow his offence. That punishment must • It is then necessary that he sleep alone, and be inflicted; but you must carefully guard that it that he be alone during a great portion of the be not aggravated, and that circumstances of day. severity are not found in his treatment which are * But, as idleness is one great cause of sin, in. not found in his sentence. Now no judge ever dustry is one great means of reformation. Mea condemned a man to be half starved with cold sures must therefore be taken for his constan by cay, or half suffocated with heat by night. employment, and for making that employment Who ever heard of a criminal being sentenced agreeable, by allowing him to share largely in its to catch the rheumatism, or the typhus fever? profits. Corruption of morals and contamination of . The use of stimulating liquors is often the mind, are not the remedies which the law in its cause, and always the concomitant of crime. wisdom has thought proper to adopt. We These, therefore, must be forbidden. The want should remember, to use the words of a former of education is found to be a great source of writer on the subject,' that disease, cold, famine, crime; for this, therefore, a provision must be nakedness, a contagious and polluted air, are not made. The neglect of religious duties is the lawful punishments in the hands of the civil ma- grand cause of crime. Ministers of religion gistrate'; nor bas he a right to poison or starve must, therefore, be induced to give their active his fellow creature, though the greatest of cri- and zealous labors to the prisoners daily, reading minals.' The convicted delinquent then has his prayers in public, and giving private instruction. rights. All measures and practices in prison, The assiduous services of such meu will not be which may injure him in any way, are illegal, fruitless. Mr. Robinson of Leicester declared because they are not specified in his sentence :- that no part of his ministry had been so signally
, he is therefore ertitled to a wholesome atmo- successful as that in the gaols; and the Ladies' sphere, decent clothing and bedding, and a diet Committee of Newgate have many proofs that sufficient to support him.
reformation may be accomplished, even amongst • But besides the rights of the individual, the most dissolute and abandoned.'-Buxton, p. there are duties to the community :-Parum est 11—15. improbos coercere pænâ, nisi probos efficias Mr. Buxton maintains, that, as our prison disciplina. One of the most important of these discipline stood in 1815, the prisoner, immeduties is, that you should not send forth the man aiately on his commitment, was made to expericommitted to your tuition in any respect a worse ence the violation of all these rights. In lanman, a less industrious, a less sober, or a less guage still hut too applicable in various parts of competent man, than when he entered your the country, ' You give bim,' says he '(the priVol. XVII.
soner) leisure, and for the employment of that * 7. That gratings should be fitted up in the leisure you give him tutors in every branch of apartments where the visitors of felons are adiniquity. You have taken no pious pains to turn mitted; and so constructed as not to admit of hini from the error of his ways, and to save his any dangerous instrument being passed through. soul alive. You have not cherished the latent 8. Apartments for the reception of friends of seeds of virtue; you have not profited by the the debtors should be constructed. opportunity of awakening remorse for his past 69. The chapel should be so constructed that misconduct. His Saviour's awful name becomes, one class of prisoners should not be seen by indeed, familiar to his lips, because he learns to another class. use it to give zest to his conversation, and vigor With respect to the classification of prito his execrations ; but all that Saviour's office, soners, according to their several degrees of ofhis tenderness, and compassion, and mercy to the fence :returning sinner, are topics of which he learns no ( 10. That those before trial should never be more than the beasts that perish.'
mixed with those convicted; and that the reThat the reader may have before him a sort of spective classes should be arranged as nearly az specimen of some inodern British prisons, we possible in the following order :will exhibit a few particulars of the former con 1. Capital felons. dition of the Borough Compter. Of thirteen 2. Simple felony, and first offence. persons confined on criminal charges, there were 3. Criminals under sentence of death, five cases of fever. In a room, seven feet by 4. Misdeameanors and persons wanting nine, three persons had slept the night before his sureties. first visit, one of whom was ill with fever, with 5. Misdemeanors of the grossest kind. which the other two were infected, and so found 6. Children. on his second visit. Till lately no surgeon or With respect to the internal regulations of apothecary; no infirmary; no separation of a the prison :sick criminal, however infectious his disorder. ' 11. That all prisoners on coming in should The apartments of the male debtors on the same be examined by the surgeon, and should be imfloor with the female prisoners, and separated mediately washed, and their clothes purified; and only by doors seven feet asunder, which are proper apparel should be provided for their use always open in the day time, and in hot wea in the mean time, ther at night. One yard only for male and female • 12. That the prisoners should be required to debtors ; no cooking utensils—no soap-no wash themselves, at least once every day, at work or employment provided-no school. We places appropriated for that purpose; and that are not to wonder at the gaoler's declaration that, clean towels of open network be supplied for in an experience of nine years, he had never their use, twice a week. known an instance of reformation. In Guild * 13. That no beer should be admitted ; nor ford gaol at this period, there was no infirmary wine, nor other strong liquors, except to the in-no chapel-no work-no classification. firmaries, by direction of the surgeon, or to the
So far back as 1815 we find from Mr. Buxton debtors. No debtor to be allowed to have to that a committee of aldermen of London was himself more than one pint of wine, or one quart appointed to visit several gaols in England, and of strong beer per day. directed to compare the allowances, and the rules 14. The friends of criminals to be admitted and orders, then existing in the prisons of the between the hours of nine in the morning, and metropolis, with those of Gloucester, and else- two in the afternoon; and not to be allowed to where, and to draw out such new system of al converse with the prisoners, but in the presence lowances, and such new code of laws, as should of the keeper or turnkey, except solicitors for the appear to them to be salutary, and adapted to purpose of preparing defences. the prisons in question. That such of our readers 115. The visitors of debtors to be admitted as have not yet acquired any knowledge of this only at stated hours, into the rooms allotted for subject may have their attention drawn towards their reception, and not into the interior of the it, we offer to their notice the following improve- gaol, unless by order of a magistrate. ments which their reports suggested,
'16. Not any description of prisoners should 1. That the gaol should be divided into day- be permitted to enter into the sleeping-rooms rooms, and distinct yards, having arcades in each. during the day.
" 2. That warm and cold baths should be pro '17. The transports, and those sentenced to vided, as also ovens, for fumigating clothes. hard labor or solitary confinement, to be kept in
• 3. Circular apertures of open iron work, for constant work suitable to their ability and the purpose of a thorough ventilation, should be strength; such prisoners not be excused from made.
work, unless on account of total inability, ill • 4. Such shutters and windows shall be con- health, or other sufficient cause certified by the structed as shall exclude the possibility of the surgeon. prisoners' looking into any other apartment or * 18. Prisoners to be discharged in the mornyard.
ing, and, if they have acquired any trade in the 65. That day cells for labor should be distinct prison, proper tools to be given to them. from the sleeping cells, as also exclusive cells 19. That gaming of every kind should be for refractory prisoners.
strictly prohibited. ' 6. King's evidence should be precluded from • With respect to the allowances of food :a possibility of communication with the other 20. That one pound and a half of bread, at prisoners.
least one day old, should be allowed to each pri