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is called its glaze. The yellow or queen's-ware is made of the same materials as the flint-ware; but the proportion in which the materials are mixed is not the same, nor is the ware glazed in the same way. The flint-ware is generally made of four measures of liquid flint, and of eighteen of liquid clay. The yellow ware has a greater proportion of clay in it. In some manufactories they mix twenty, and in others twenty-four, measures of clay, with four of flint. These proportions, if estimated by the weight of the materials, would probably give for the flint-ware about 3 cwt. of clay to 1 cwt. of flint, and for the yellow ware somewhat more clay. The proportion, however, for both sorts of ware depends very much upon the nature of the clay, which is very variable even in the same pit. Hence a previous trial must be made of the quality of the clay, by burning a kiln of the ware. If there be teo much flint mixed with the clay, the ware, when exposed to the air after burning, is apt to crack; and, if there be too little, the ware will not receive the proper glaze from the circulation of the salt vapor. This glaze, even when it is most perfect, is in appearance less beautiful than the glaze on the i. Ware. The yellow glaze is made by mixing together in water, till it becomes as thick as cream, 112 lbs. of white lead, 24 lbs. of ground flint, and 6 lbs. of ground flint-glass. Some manufactories leave out the glass, and mix only 80 lbs. of white lead with 20 lbs. of ground flint; and others, doubtless, observe different rules, of which it is very difficult to obtain an account. The ware.before it is glazed is baked in the fire. By this means it acquires the property of strongly imbibing moisture. . It is therefore dipped in the liquid glaze, and suddenly taken out: the glaze is imbibed into its pores, and the ware presently becomes dry. It is then exposed a second time to the fire, by which means the glaze it has imbibed is melted, and a thin glassy coat is formed upon its surface. The color of this coat is more or less yellow, according as a greater or less proportion of lead has been used. The lead is principally instrumental in producing the glaze, as well as in giving it the yellow color; for lead, of all the substances hitherto known, has the greatest power of promoting the vitrification ef the substances with which it is mixed. The flint serves to give a consistence to the lead during the time of its vitrification, and to hinder it from becoming too fluid, and running down the sides of the ware, and thereby leaving them unglazed. The yellowish color which lead gives when vitrified with flints, may be wholly changed by very small additions of other mineral substances. Thus, to give one instance, the beautiful black glaze, which is fixed on one sort of the ware made at Nottingham, is composed of twenty-one parts by weight of white lead, of five of powdered flints, and of three of manganese. The queen'sware at present is much whiter than formerly. The coarse stoneware made at Bristol consists of tobacco-pipe clay and sand, and is glazed by the vapor of salt, like Staffordshire flint-ware; but it is far inferior to it in beauty. POTTLE, n.s. From pot. A liquid mea
sure containing four pints. Sometimes used for
POUCH, n.s. Fr. poche. Sax. bora. A small bag; a pocket. . In January husband that poucheth the grotes, Will break up his lay, or be sowing of otes. Tusser. Tester I'll have in pouch, when thou shalt lack. Shakspeare. The spot of the vessel, where the disease begins, gives way to the force of the blood pushing outwards, as to form a pouch or cyst. Sharp's Surgery. The common heron hath long legs for wading, a long neck to reach prey, and a wide extensive throat to pouch it. Derham. From a girdle about his waist, a bag or pouch divided into two cells. Gulliver's Travels.
Pouch, Fr. giberne, a case of black stout leather with a flap over it, which is generally ornamented by a brass crown, &c., for the battalionmen; a fuse for the grenadiers; and a bugle-horn for the light infantry. The o hangs from a cross belt, over the left shoulder, and is worn in that manner, by the infantry, for the purpose of carrying their ammunition. The pouches in use among the cavalry are smaller, which the French call demie giberne.
POUCHARD (Julian), a learned French critic, was born near Domfront, in Normandy, and educated at Mans, and at Paris, where he rendered assistance to M. Thevenot, in his edition of the Ancient Mathematicians. After this he was engaged some years in arranging the MSS. of the royal library. In 1701 he became an associate of the Academy of Inscriptions, to whose memoirs he contributed some valuable papers on the learning of the Egyptians. He next became editor of the Journal des Sgavans; and in 1704 was appointed professor of Greek, but died the year following, aged forty-nine. Besides the above works, he wrote a Universal History from the Creation to the Death of Cleo
tra. "FöUGHREEpsie, a township of the United States, the capital of Dutchess county, New York, situated on the east bank of the Hudson, about a mile east of the river, contains a courthouse, jail, bank, academy, five houses of public worship; and had, in 1812, 422 dwellinghouses, and forty-nine stores, shops, &c. Many of the old houses are mostly of stone, but those recently erected are of brick and wood. Poughkeepsie is a flourishing town, in one of the most wealthy and best agricultural counties in the state, and has an extensive trade. Here are three printing-offices, from each of which is issued a weekly newspaper. Seventy-five miles north of New York. Population 4670.
POV"ERTY, n.s. Fr. pauvreté; Lat. paupertas. Indigence; necessity; want of riches.
My men are the poorest,
But poverty could never draw them from me. Shakspeare.
There is in all excellencies in composition a kind of poverty, or a casualty of jeopardy. Bacon. Such madness, as for fear of death to die, Is to be poor for fear of poverty. Denham. These by their strict examples taught, How much more splendid virtue was than gold; Yet scarce their swelling thirst of fame could hide, And boasted poverty with too much pride. Prior. There is such a state as absolute poverty, when a man is destitute not only of the conveniences, but the simple necessaries of life, being disabled from acquiring them, and depending entirely on charity. Rogers. Poverty BAY, a bay on the east coast of New Zealand, in the South Pacific Ocean, called by the natives Taoneroa, or Long Sand, discovered by Cook in the year 1769. This bay, in the form of a horse-shoe, is known by an island lying close under the north-east point. It obtained its name from the inhospitable behaviour of the natives.
Dryden. The cock knew the fox to be a common enemy of all poultry. L’Estrange.
One would have all things little, hence has tried Turkey poults, fresh from the egg, in batter fried. King. Soldiers robbed a farmer of his poultry, and i. him wait at table, without giving him a morsel. Swift. Poulthy comprehends all birds brought up in yards, as cocks, hens, capons, ducks, turkeys, &c. Under this class we may, therefore, reckon the common cock, the peacock, the turkey, the pintada or Guinea hen, &c. They all bear a strong similitude to each other, being equally granivorous, fleshy, and delicate to the palate. Many of the wild species of birds, when cooped up or caged, pine away, grow gloomy, and some refuse all sustenance whatever; none except those of the poultry kind grow fat, who seem to lose all remembrance of their former liberty, satisfied with indolence and plenty. POULTICE, n.s. Fr. pulte; Lat. pultis. A cataplasm; a soft or mollifying application. Poultice relaxeth the pores, and maketh the humour apt to exhale. Bacon's Natural History. Poultices allayed pains, but drew down the humours, making the passages wider, and apter to receive them. Temple. If your little finger be sore, and you think a poultice made of our vitals will give it ease, speak, and it shall be done. Swift. POUNCE, n.s. & v. ** Italian ponzone. Pouxced', adj. Skinner. Spanish Pots'cETbox, n.s. § punzen; Lat. punctus. The claw or talon of a bird of prey; a powder thrown through a perforated box; to pierce
or perforate; pour or sprinkle through perforations: pouncet-box, a small perforated box.
As haggard hawk, presuming to contend With hardy fowl, about his able might,
His weary pounces, all in vain doth spend To truss the prey too heavy for his flight.
Spenser. He was perfumed like a milliner, And, 'twixt his finger and his thumb, he held A pouncetbor, which ever and anon He gave his nose. Shakspeare. Henry IV. Barbarous people, that go naked, do not only paint, but pounce and raise their skin, that the painting may not be taken forth, and make it into works. Bacon's Natural History. It may be tried by incorporating copper-dust, by pouncing into the quicksilver. Bacon. The new dissembled eagle, now endued With beak and pounces, Hercules pursued. Dryden. 'Twas a mean prey for a bird of his pounces. Atterbury. From a craggy cliff, + The royal eagle draws his vigorous young Strong pounced. mson's Spring.
POUND, n.s. & v.a.
Pound'AGE, n.s. (whence in some
Pou ND'ER, n.s. places they use the word pun); Goth. Swed. and Dan. pund; Belg. pond; Lat. and Ital. pond; Lat. pondo. A certain weight, certain sum of money (money being first weighed); to beat or grind by a weight or pestle: poundage is, a certain sum deducted from or paid upon a pound of money: a pounder is a heavy large pear; also a person or thing denominated from a certain number of pounds: as, a ten pounder, a gun that carries a bullet of ten pounds weight; or in ludicrous language a man with ten pounds a year; in like manner, a note or bill has been called a twenty pounder or ten pounder, from the sum it bears.
Sax. bund, punian
Great Hannibal within the balance lay, And tell how many pounds his ashes weigh. Dryden. Alcinous' orchard various apples bears, Unlike are bergamots and pounder pairs. Id. - She describes How underground the rude Riphean race Mimick brisk cyder, with the brake's product wild Sloes pounded. Philips. He that said that he had rather have a grain of fortune than a pound of wisdom, as to the things of this life, spoke nothing but the voice of wisdom. South's Sermons. Lifted pestles brandished in the air, Loud strokes with pounding spice the fabrick rend, And aromatick clouds in spires ascend. Garth. Opaque white powder of glass, seen through a microscope, exhibits fragments pellucid and colour
If they will not believe those signs, take of the water of the river, and pour it upon the dry land. - Erodus iv. 9. A Samaritan bound up his wounds, pouring in oil and wine, and brought him to an inn. Luke 10. London doth pour out her citizens ; The mayor and all his brethren in best sort, With the plebeians swarming. Shakspeare. Henry ". As thick as hail, Came post on post; and every one did bear Thy praises in his kingdom's great defence, And poured them down before him. Id. Macbeth. The devotion of the heart is the tongue of the soul; actuated and heated with love, it pours itself forth in supplications and prayers. Duppa. Your fury then boiled upward to a fome; But, since this message came, you sink and settle, As if cold water had been poured upon you. Dryden. If we had groats or sixpences current bylaw, that wanted one-third of the silver by the standard, who can imagine that our neighbours would not pour in quantities of such money upon us, to the great loss of the kingdom Locke. If the rude throng pour on with furious pace, And hap to break thee from a friend's embrace, Stop short. Gay. All his fleecy flock Before him march, and pour into the rock, Not one or male or female stayed behind. Is it for thee the linnet pours his throat? Loves of his own and raptures swell the note. Id. A ghastly band of giants, All pouring down the mountains, crowd the shore. Id. POUSSE, n.s. The old word for pease; corrupted, as may seem, from pulse.—Spenser. But who shall judge the wager won or lost.” —That shall yonder herd groom and none other, Which over i. pousse hitherward doth post. Spenser.
POUSSIN (Nicholas), an eminent French painter, born in 1594, at Andel, in Normandy.
He was instructed for a few months by one Ferdinand Elle, a portrait painter, and spent a month with L'Allemant; after which he went to Italy to study the antique and bas relief, but neglected coloring. He was invited back to Paris by Louis XIII, who assigned him a pension with lodgings in the Thuilleries. Piqued by some insults from the faction of Vouet's school, he returned to Rome, where he died in 1665. He had during the whole of his life a perpetual demand for easel-pieces, for which he obtained large prices, Poussis, or DughET (Gaspar). This painter, whose real name was Dughet, was born in Paris in 1660. He went to Rome to see his sister, who was married to Nicholas Poussin; under whose instruction he became one of the best landscape painters that ever appeared. While he continued at Rome he assumed the name of his brother-in-law and benefactor, by which only he is now known. He died in 1662. POUT, n. s. From pouth. A kind of fish; a cod-fish; also a kind of bird, or heath fowl. Of wild birds, Cornwall hath quail, wood-dove, heath-cock, and pout. Carew's Survey of Cornwall.
Pout, v. n. Sax. botan: Fr. bouter. To look sullen; push out the lips.
Like a misbehaved and sullen wench, Thou pout'st upon thy fortune and thy love. Shakspeare. Satyrus was made up betwixt man and goat, with a human head, hooked nose, and pouting ; I would advise my gentle readers, as they consult the good of their faces, to forbear frowning upon loyalists, and pouting at the government. - Addison's Freeholder. The nurse remained pouting, nor would she touch a bit during the whole dinner. Arbuthnot and Pope. The ends of the wounds must come over one another, with a compress to press the lips equally down, which would otherwise become crude, and pout out with great lips. Wiseman. POW’DER, n.s., v. a., v. n. French pouPow'DER-Box, dre; Ital. pulPow'DER-chest, were ; Lat. pulPow'DER-hoRN, vis. Dust; any Pow'DER-Mill, body commiPow'DER-Room, nuted ; partiPow'DERING-TUB, cularly powder Pow'DERY, adj. J prepared for the hair, and gunpowder: to powder is to reduce to dust; to sprinkle as with dust: the compounds are explained by the extracts.
The calf which they had made, he burnt in the fire, and ground it to powder. Exodus xxxii. 20. If you embowel me to-day, I'll give you leave to powder Ine and eat me to-morrow. Shakspeare. To the Spital go, And from the powdering-tub of infamy Fetch forth the lazar kite Doll Tearsheet. Id. Salting of oysters, and powdering of meat, keepeth them from putrefaction. Bacon's Nat. History. The seditious, being furnished with artillery powder and shot, battered Bishopsgate. Hayward. Powder thy radiant hair, Which if without such ashes thou would'st wear, Thou who, to all which come to look upon, Wert meant for Phoebus, would'st be Phaeton. Donne. When the hair is sweet through pride or lust, The poorder doth forget the dust. Herbert. Immoderate feeding upon powdered beef, pickled meats, anchovy, and debauching with brandy, do inflame and acuate the blood. Harvey on Consumption. My hair I never powder, but my chief Invention is to get me powdered beef. Cleaveland. In the galaxy, that milky way Which nightly, as a circling zone, thou seest Pordered with stars. Milton's Paradise Lost. The flame invades the powder-rooms, and then Their guns shoot bullets, and their vessels men. - Waller. When we view those large bodies of oxen, what can we better conceit them to be, than so many living and walking powdering-tubs, and that they have animam salis? More. Whilst two companions were disputing it at sword's point, down comes a kite powdering upon them and gobbets up both. L'Estrange. As to the taking of a town, there were few conuerors could signalise themselves that way, before . invention of powder and fortifications. Addison. A brown powdery spar, which holds iron, is found amongst the iron ore. Woodward on Fossils. The powdered footman Beneath his flapping hat secures his *. ay. There stands the toilette, The patch, the powder-bor, pulville, resume, d. Upon the blowing up of a powdermill, the windows of adjacent houses are bent and blown outwards, by the elastick force of the air within exerting itself. Arbuthnot. Our humbler province is to tend the fair, To save the powder from too rude a gale. Pope. You may stick your candle in a bottle or a powder-horn. Swift. Powder Chests, in the marine, wooden triangular chests, filled with gunpowder, nails, and old iron, to set on fire when a vessel is boarded by an enemy. These cases are usually from twelve to eighteen inches in length, and about eight or ten in breadth, having their outer or upper part terminating in an edge. They are nailed to several places of the quarter-deck and bulkhead of the waist, having atrain of powder which communicates with the inner apartments of the ship, so as to be fired at pleasure to annoy the enemy. They are particularly used in merchantships which are furnished with close-quarters to oppose the boarders.
Powders, FULMINATING, in chemistry, are
compositions which explode upon the application either of certain degrees | heat, trituration, or concussion. Under this title, therefore, are included several very distinct chemical combinations, the principal of which are those of azote, with the metals and alkalis. The common fulminating powder is thus made :-Triturate in a warm mortar three parts, by weight of nitre, two of carbonate of potass, and one of flowers of sulphur. A few grains of this laid upon a knife, and held over the candle, first fuse, and then explode with a loud report. A drachm of it put into a shovel, and held over the fire, makes a noise as loud as a cannon, and indents the shovel as if it had received a violent blow. If the mass be removed from the fire as soon as Vol. XVIII.
it is fused, and kept in a dry, well closed phial, it may at any time be exploded by a spark, and will burn like gunpowder, but more rapidly and with a greater report; but this effect will not be produced by unmelted powder. Whilst the powder is in fusion, but not sufficiently heated to produce the blue flame, a particle of ignited charcoal thrown upon it will immediately occasion a very loud explosion. The fulminating property of this powder is acquired by fusion, or when the potass and sulphur form sulphuret of potass. It may therefore be prepared by mixing sulphuret of potass with nitre, instead of adding the sulphur and alkali separate. If a solution of gold be precipitated by ammonia, the product will be fulminating gold. This precipitate, when separated by filtration, and washed, must be dried without heat, as it is liable to explode with no great increase of temperature; and it must not be put into a bottle closed with a glass stopper, as the friction of this would expose the operator to the same danger. Less than a grain of this, held over the flame of a candle, explodes with a very sharp and loud noise. Fulminating silver may be made by precipitating a solution of nitrate of silver by lime-water, drying the precipitate by exposure to the air for two or three days, and pouring on it liquid ammonia. When it is thus converted into a black powder, the liquid must be poured off, and the powder left to dry in the air. . It detonates with the gentlest heat, or even with the slightest friction, so that it must not be removed from the vessel in which it is made. If a drop of water fall upon it, the percussion will cause it to explode. It was discovered by Berthollet. Brugnatelli made a fulminating silver by powdering a hundred grains of nitre of silver, putting the powder into a beer-glass, and pouring on it, first an ounce of alcohol, then as much concentrated nitrous acid. The mixture grows hot, boils, and an ether is visibly formed, that changes into gas. By degrees the liquor becomes milky and opaque, and is filled with small white clouds. When all the gray powder has taken this form, and the liquor has acquired a consistency, distilled water must be added immediately to suspend the ebullition, and prevent the matter from being redissolved, and becoming a mere solution of silver. The white precipitate is then to be collected on a filter, and dried. The force of this powder greatly exceeds that of fulminating mercury. It detonates in a tremendous manner, on being scarcely touched with a glass tube, the extremity of which has been dipped in concentrated sul i. acid. A single grain, placed on a lighted coal, makes a deafening report. The same thing happens if it be placed on a bit of paper on an electric pile, and a spark drawn from it. M. Chenevix has invented a fulminating silver not so dangerous as that just mentioned. It explodes only by a slight friction in contact with combustible bodies. It is thus prepared:—Diffuse a quantity of alumina through water, and let a current of oxygenated muriatic acid gas pass through it for some time. Then digest some phosphate of silver on the solution of the oxygenated muriate of alumina, and * it
slowly. The product obtained will be a hyperoxygenated muriate of silver, a single grain of which, in contact with two or three of sulphur, will explode violently with the slightest friction. Fulminating mercury was discovered by Mr. Howard. A hundred grains are to be dissolved with heat in an ounce and a half by measure of nitric acid. The solution, when cold, is to be poured on two ounce measures of alcohol, and heat applied till an effervescence is excited. As soon as the precipitate is thrown down, it must be collected on a filter, that the acid may not react on it, and washed and dried by a very gentle heat. It detonates with a very little heat or friction. Of some experiments on the powers of this powder, the inventor gives the following account:— “Desirous of comparing the strength of the mercurial compound with that of gunpowder,’ says Mr. Howard, ‘I made the following experiment in the presence of my friend Mr. Abernethy:— Finding that the powder could be fired by flint and steel, without a disagreeable noise, a common gunpowder proof, capable of containing eleven grains of fine gunpowder, was filled with it, and fired in the usual way: the report was sharp, but not loud. The person who held the instrument in his hand felt no recoil : but the explosion laid open the upper part of the barrel, nearly from the touch-hole to the muzzle, and struck off the hand of the register, the surface of which was evenly indented to the depth of 0.1 of an inch, as if it had received the impression of a punch. “The instrument used in this experiment being familiarly known, it is therefore scarcely necessary to describe it; suffice it to say that it was of brass, mounted with a spring register, the moveable hand of which closed up the muzzle, to receive and graduate the violence of the explosion. The barrel was half an inch in calibre, and nearly half an inch thick, except where a spring of the lock impaired half its thickness. “A gun belonging to Mr. Keir, an ingenious artist of Camden Town, was next charged with seventeen grains of the mercurial powder, and a leaden bullet. A block of wood was placed at about eight yards from the muzzle to receive the ball, and the gun was fired by a fuse. No recoil seemed to have taken place, as the barrel was not moved from its position, although it was in no ways confined. The report was feeble: the bullet, Mr. Keir conceived, from the impression made on the wood, had been projected with about half the force it would have been by an ordinary charge, or sixty-eight grains of the best gunpowder. We therefore re-charged the gun with thirty-four grains of the mercurial powder; and, as the great strength of the piece removed any apprehension of danger, Mr. Keir fired it from his shoulder, aiming at the same block of wood. The report was like the first, sharp, but not louder than might have been expected from a charge of gunpowder. Fortunately Mr. Keir was not hurt; but the gun was burst in an extraordinary manner. The breech was what is called a patent one, of the best forged iron, consisting of a chamber 0.4 of an inch thick all round, and 0.4 of an inch in calibre; it was torn open and flawed in many directions, and the gold touch-hole driven out. The barrel into
which the breech was screwed was 0-5 of an inch thick; it was split by a single crack three inches long, but this did not appear to me to be the immediate effect of the explosion. I think the screw of the breech, being suddenly enlarged, acted as a wedge upon the barrel. The balled missed the block of wood, and struck against a wall, which had already been the receptacle of so many bullets that we could not satisfy ourselves about the impression made by this last. “As it was pretty plain that no gun could confine a quantity of the mercurial powder sufficient ...]." a bullet with a greater force than an ordinary charge of gunpowder, I determined to try its comparative strength in another way. I procured two blocks of wood, very nearly of the same size and strength, and bored them with the same instrument to the same depth. The one was charged with half an ounce of the best Dartford gunpowder, and the other with half an ounce of the mercurial powder; both were alike buried in sand, and fired by a train communicating with the powders by a small touch-hole. The block containing the gunpowder was simply split into three pieces; that charged with the mercurial powder was burst in every direction, and the parts immediately contiguous to the o were absolutely pounded, yet the whole ung together, whereas the block split by the gunpowder had its parts fairly separated. The *...]"surrounding the gunpowder was undoubtedly most disturbed; in short, the mercurial powder appeared to have a great superiority. During a lecture in the laboratory of Yale College, about 100 or 150 grains of fulminating mercury lay on a stool, and were covered with a glass receiver of about five or six quarts capacity. A small quantity of the same powder, at the distance of a few feet, was merely flashed by a coal of fire, but without explosion. In a manner not easily understood, the whole powder under the glass receiver instantly exploded with a dreadful report; but, what was particularly remarkable, the glass was merely lifted up a little, and was shattered by its fall, while the stool, made of fir plank, an inch and a half thick, on which the powder lay, had a hole blown quite through it, almost as large as the palm of the hand. The whole effect of the explosion was confined to the stool, every thing around having remained uninjured. An effect almost equally singular took place lately in the same laboratory, with some fulminating silver upon the point of a knife, which was about to be put upon a plate of copper, connected with one pole of a galvanic battery in active operation. The other pole was not touched by the experimenter, but, probably by the influence conveyed through the floor of the room, the powder exploded the moment the knife touched the plate of copper. The knife blade was broken in two, and one-half of it thrown to a distance among the audience. Three parts of chlorate of potassa, and one of sulphur, triturated in a metal mortar, cause numerous successive detonations, like the cracks of a whip, the reports of a pistol, or the fire o' musketry, according to the rapidity and force of