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doubt of, or deny the truth of any thing, because it cannot be made out by such kind of proofs of which the nature of such a thing is not capable. They ought not to expect either sensible proof, or demonstration of such matters as are not capable of such
proofs, supposing them to be true. Wilkins. One soul in both, whereof good proof This day affords. Milton.
Opportunity I here have had To try thee, sift thee, and confess have found thee Proof against all temptation, as a rock Of adamant. Id. Paradise Regained. Some were so manifestly weak and proofless, that he must be a very courteous adversary, that can grant them. Boyle. Those intervening ideas, which serve to shew the agreement of any two others, are called proofs. Dryden. To me the cries of fighting fields are charms, Keen be thy sabre, and of proof my arms; I ask no other blessing of my stars. He past expression loved, Proof to disdain, and not to be removed. Guiltless of hate, and proof against desire ; That all things weighs, and nothing can admire. 1d. My paper gives a timorous writer an opportunity of putting his abilities to the proof. Addison. Deep in the snowy alps, a lump of ice By frost was hardened to a mighty price; Proof to the sun it now securely lies, And the warm dog-star's hottest rage defies. Id. When the mind is thoroughly tinctured, the man will be proof against all opposition. Collier. Here for ever must I stay, Sad proof how well a lover can obey. I’ve seen yon weary winter-sun Twice forty times return; And ev'ry time has added proofs, That man was made to mourn.
Proof, in law and logic, is that degree of evidence which carries conviction to the mind. It differs from demonstration, which is applicable only to those truths of which the contrary is inconceivable. It differs likewise from probability, which produces for the most part nothing more than opinion, while proof produces belief. Proof, in printing. See PRINTING. Proof, in spirituous liquors, is a little white lather which appears on the top of the liquor when poured into a glass. This lather, as it diminishes, forms itself into a circle called by the French the chaplet, and by the English the head or bubble. PRoof of ARTILLERY AND SMALL ARMs, is a trial whether they stand the quantity of powder allotted for that purpose. Government allows eleven bullets of lead in the pound for the proof of muskets, and twenty-nine in two pounds, for service; seventeen in the pound for the proof of carabines, and twenty for service; twenty-eight in the pound for the proof of pistols, and thirtyfour for service. When guns of a new metal, or of lighter construction, are proved, besides the common proof, they are fired 200 or 300 times, as quick as they can be, loaded with the common charge given in actual service. Proof of cannon is made to ascertain their being well cast, their having no cavities in their metal, and, in a word, their being fit to resist the effort of their charge of powder. In making this proof, the piece is laid
upon the ground, supported only by a piece of wood in the middle, of about five or six inches thick, to raise the muzzle a little; and then the piece is fired against a solid butt of earth. The tools used in the proof of cannon are these:– The searcher, an iron socket with branches, from four to eight in number, bending outwards a little, with small points at their ends: to this socket is fixed a wooden handle, from eight to twelve feet long, and one inch and a half in diameter. This searcher is introduced into the gun after each firing, and turned gently round to discover the cavities within ; if any are found they are marked on the outside with chalk; and then the searcher with one point is introduced: about which point a mixture of wax and tallow is put, to take the impression of the holes; and if they are found of one-fourth of an inch deep, or of any considerable length, the gun is rejected as unserviceable. The reliever is an iron ring fixed to a handle, by means of a socket, so as to be at right angles; it serves to disengage the first searcher, when any of its points are retained in a hole, and cannot otherwise be got out. A curious instrument for finding the principal defects in pieces of artillery was invented by lieutenant-general Desaguliers. This instrument discovers more particularly the defect of the piece not being truly bored; which is a very important one; for, when a gun is not properly bored, the most expert artillerist will not be able to make a good shot. Every species of ordnance undergoes different kinds of proof before it is received into his majesty's service. They are gauged as to their several dimensions, internal and external, as to the accuracy of the position of the bore, the chamber, the vent, the trunnions, &c. They are fired with a regular charge of powder and shot, and afterwards searched to discover irregularities or holes produced by the firing. . By means of engines, an endeavour is made to force water through them. They are examined internally, by means of light reflected from a mirror. PRoof of MoRTARs AND Howitzers is performed by placing them on the ground on wood or bullets, of an elevation of 70°. The mirror is the only instrument to discover their defects. To use it, the sun must shine; the breech must be placed towards the sun, and the glass ove: against the mouth of the piece; it illuminates the bore and chamber sufficiently to discover the flaws in it. PRoofs IN ENGRAvi Ng. Proofs of prints were formerly a few impressions taken off in different stages of the engraver's process, that he might ascertain how far his labors had been successful, and when they were complete. The excellence of such impressions, worked with care under the artist's eye, occasioning them to be sought after, and liberally paid for, it has been customary, among our modern printsellers, to take off a number under this name, from every plate of considerable value. On retouching a plate, it has been also usual, among the same conscientious fraternity, to cover the inscription, which was immediately added after the first proofs were obtained, with slips of paper, that a number of secondary proofs might also be created.
PROP, v. a. & n.s. Belg. proppe, proppen. To sustain; support; uphold : a stay; support; pillar. You take my house, when you do take the prop That doth sustain my house; you take my life, When you do take the means whereby I live. Shakspeare. Some plants creep along the ground, or wind about other trees or props, and cannot support themselves. Bacon. Again, if by the body's prop we stand, If on the body's life, her life depend, As Meleager's on the fatal brand, The body's good she only would intend. Davies. That he might on many props repose, He strengths his own, and who his part did take. Daniel. Like these, earth unsupported keeps its place, Though no fixt bottom props the weighty mass. Creech. Fairest unsupported flower From her best prop so far. Milton. The current of his vict'ries found no stop, Till Cromwell came, his party's chiefest prop. Waller. The props return Into thy house, that bore the burdened vines. Dryden. "Twas a considerable time before the great fragments that fell rested in a firm * ; for the props and stays, whereby they leaned one upon another, often failed. Burnet. Had it been possible to find out any real and firm soundation for Arianism to rest upon, it would never have been left to stand upon artificial props, or to subsist by subtlety and management. Waterland. Eternal snows the growing mass supply, Till the bright mountains prop th’ incumbent sky; As Atlas fixed each hoary pile appears. Pope. ROPAGATE, v. a. &n. s.) Lat. propago. Prop'AGABLE, adj. To continue by PROPAGA'tion, n.s. generation or PRoP'AGAtoR. production; to diffuse; extend; promote; transport; increase; to have offspring: propagable is, that may be propagated: propagation, the act of continuing or diffusing by successive production: propagator corresponding in sense. Men have souls rather by creation than propagation. Hooker. I have upon a high and pleasant hill Feigned fortune to be throned: the base o' the mount Is ranked with all deserts, all kind of natures, That labour on the bosom of this sphere To propagate their states. Shakspeare. Timon. Some have thought the propagating of religion by arms not only lawful, but meritorious. Decay of Piety. All that I eat, or drink, or shall beget, Is ated curse! Milton's Paradise Lost. propag No need that thou Should'st propagate, already infinite, And through all numbers absolute, though one. Milton. Is it an elder brother's duty so To propagate his family and name; You would not have yours die and buried with you? Otwau. Such creatures as are produced each by its peculiar seed constitute a distinct propagable sort of creatures. Boyle.
From hills and dales the cheerful cries rebound . For echo hunts along, and propagates the sound. Dryden. Old stakes of olive trees in plants revive; But nobler veins by propagation thrive. Id. Those who seek truth only, and desire to propagate nothing else, freely expose their principles to the test. Loc There is not in all nature any spontaneous generation, but all come by propagation, wherein chance hath not the least part. Ray. Socrates, the greatest propagator of morality, and a martyr for the unity of the Godhead, was so famous for this talent, that he gained the name of the Drole. Addison. Because dense bodies conserve their heat a long time, and the densest bodies conserve their heat the longest, the vibrations of their parts are of a lasting nature; and therefore may be propagated along solid fibres of uniform dense matter to a great distance, for conveying into the brain the impressions made upon all the organs of sense. Newton. There are other secondary ways of the propagation of it, as lying in the same bed. Wiseman. Superstitious notions, propagated in fancy, are hardly ever totally eradicated. Clarissa. The same disposition she endeavoured to diffuse among all those whom nature or fortune gave her any influence, and indeed succeeded too well in her design; but could not always propagate her effrontely with her cruelty. Johnson.
PROPEL', v. a. To drive forward. Avicen witnesses the blood to be frothy, that is propelled out of a vein of the breast. Harvey, This motion, in some human creatures, may be weak in respect to the viscidity of what is taken, so as not to be able to propel it. Arbuthnot on-Aliments. That overplus of motion would be too feeble and languid to propel so vast and ponderous a body, with that prodigious velocity. Bentley. PROPEND’, v. n. } Lat. propended, to PRoPEN'DENCY. n.s. 5 hang forwards. To incline to any part; be disposed in favor of any thing. Not used. My sprightly brethren, I propend to you, In resolution to keep Helen still. Shakspeare. An act above the animal actings, which are transient, and admit not of all that attention, and pro
pendency of actions. Hale. PROPENSE, o Lat. propensus. In
PRoPEN'sion, n.s. X clined; disposed; used
PRoPEN's iTY. $both of good and bad: propensity is tendency; particularly moral disposition; natural tendency.
Women, propense and inclinable to holiness, be edified in good things, rather than carried away as captives. Hooker. Some miscarriages might escape, rather through necessities of state, than any propensity of myself to injuriousness. King Charles. Bodies, that of themselves have no propensions to any determinate place, do nevertheless move constantly and perpetually one way. Digby. I have brought scandal In feeble hearts, propense enough before To waver, or fall off, and join with idols. Milton. The natural propension, and the inevitable occasions of complaint, accidents of fortune. Temple. It requires a critical nicety to find out the genius or the propensions of a child. L'Estrange.
Let there be but propensity, and bent of will to religion, and there will be sedulity and indefatigable industry. South. So forcible are our propensions to mutiny, that we equally take occasions from benefits or injuries. Government of the Tongue. He assists us with a measure of grace, sufficient to over-balance the corrupt propensity of the will. Rogers. This great attrition must produce a great propensity to the putrescent alkaline condition of the fluids. Arbuthnot. It is, however, not to be omitted, that he appears always propense towards the side of mercy. Johnson.
PROPER, adj. Fr. propre ; Lat. PRoP'ERLY, adv. proprius. Peculiar; PRoP'ERNEss, n. s. W. fit; adaptProp'ERTY, n.s. & v. a. Ded; belonging to an individual ; one's own; literal; mere; pure; pretty or beautiful; and, in a low sense, tall; stout; the adverb and noun substantive corresponding: property is, peculiar quality; disposition, or right; possession held in one's own right; any thing promised; an appendage; any thing peculiarly new or adapted: to property is, to seize or retain as a right; to invest with qualities or possessions; but neither sense is now in use.
Moses was a proper child. Hebrews xi. 23. Men of learning hold it for a slip in judgment, when offer is made to demonstrate that as proper to one thing, which reason findeth common unto many. Hook.cr. What special property or quality is that, which, being no where found but in sermons, maketh them effectual to save souls' Id. The bloody book of law You shall yourself read in the bitter letter, After your own sense; yea, though our proper son Stood in your action. Shakspeare. Othello. Proper deformity seems not in the fiend So horrid as in woman. Id. King Lear. At last she concluded with a sigh, thou wast the properest man in Italy. Shakspeare. Here I disclaim all my paternal care, Propinquity, and property of blood, A. as a stranger to my heart and me, Hold thee. ld. King Lear. I will draw a bill of properties, such as our play "wants. Shakspeare. His reared arm Crested the world; his voice was propertied As all the tuned spheres. Id. Antony and Cleopatra. I am too highborn to be propertied, To be a secondary at controul. Shakspeare. Our ts excel in grandity and gravity, smoothness and property, in quickness and briefness. Camden. Of nought no creature ever formed ought, For that is proper to the Almighty's hand. Davies. 'Tis conviction, not force, that must induce assent; and sure the logic of a conquering sword has no great property that way; silence it may, but convince it cannot. Decay of Piety. In our proper motion we ascend Up to our native seat. What dies but what has life And sin” the body properly hath neither. Id. If we might determine it, our proper conceptions would be all voted axioms. Glanville's Scepsis. Court the age With somewhat of your proper rage.
Now learn the diff'rence at your proper cost, Betwixt true valour and an empty boast.
In Athens all was pleasure, mirth, and play,
All proper to the spring, and sprightly May. . Id.
The purple garments raise the lawyer's fees, High pomp and state are useful properties. Id. A proper goodly fox was carrying to execution. L'Estrange. Outward objects, that are extrinsecal to the mind and its own operations, proceeding from powers intrinsecal and proper to itself, which become also objects of its contemplation, are the original of all knowledge. Locke. Property, whose original is from the right a man has to use any of the inferior creatures, for subsistence and comfort, is for the sole advantage of the proprietor, so that he may even destroy the very thing that he has property in. Id. They o themselves servants of Jehovah, their God, in a relation and respect peculiar and proper to themselves. Nelson. Those parts of nature, into which the chaos was divided, they signified by dark names, which we have expressed in their plain and proper terms. Burnet's Theory of the Earth. There is a sense in which the works of every man, good as well as bad, are properly his own. Rogers. In debility, from great loss of blood, wine, and all aliment that is easily assimilated or turned into blood, are proper; for blood is required to make blood. Arbuthnot. Greenfield was the name of the property man in that time, who furnished implements for the actors. Pope. The miseries of life are not properly owing to the unequal distribution of things. Swift. No wonder such men are true to a government, where liberty runs so high, where property is so well secured. Id. A proper name may become common, when given to several beings of the same kind; as Caesar. Watts. A secondary essential mode is any attribute of a thing, which is not of primary consideration, and is called a property. ld. PROPERTIUS (Sextus Aurelius), a celebrated Latin poet, born at Mevania, a city of Umbria. He went to Rome after the death of his father, a Roman knight, who had been put to death by order of Augustus, for having followed Antony's party. Propertius acquired great reputation by his abilities, and was o by Maecenas and Cornelius Gallus. He had also Ovid, Tibullus, and other literati of his time, for his friends. He died in Rome 19 B. C. His four books of elegies are printed with almost all the editions of Tibullus and Catullus ; the best is the separate edition by J. Brouckhusius at Amsterdam, 1702 and 1714, 4to.
is a prediction; declaration of something future: to prophesy, to foretel; prognosticate; foreshow; utter predictions; preach: prophetize, an obsolete synonyme: prophetess, the feminine of prophet: prophetic and prophetical, of the nature of prophecy; the adverb corresponding.
U hate him, for he doth not prophesy good, but evi. 1 Kings. The elders of the Jews builded, and prospered through the prophesuing of Haggai, Ezra vi. 14. He hearkens after prophecies and dreams. Shakspeare. Miserable England, I prophesy the fearful'st time to thee, That ever wretched age hath looked upon. Id. Methought thy very gait did prophesy A royal nobleness. ld. King Lear. His champions are the prophets and apostles. Shakspeare. He shall split thy very heart with sorrow, And say poor Marg’ret was a prophetess. . Id. He is so prophetically proud of an heroical cudgelling, that he raves in saying nothing. Some perfumes procure prophetical dreams. Bacon. The counsel of a wise and then prophetical friend was forgotten. Wotton. That it is consonant to the word of God, so in singing to answer, the practice of Miriam the prophetess, when she answered the men in her song, will approve. Peacham. o buildeth her faith and religion upon the sacred and canonical scriptures of the holy prophets and apostles, as upon her main and prime foundation. White. Nature else hath conference With profound sleep, and so doth warning send By prophetizing dreams. Daniel's Civil War. # great success among Jews and Gentiles, part of it historically true at the compiling of these articles, and part of it prophetucullu true then, and fulfilled afterward, was a most effectual argument to give authority to this faith. Hammond. O prophet of glad tidings! finisher
Of utmost hope Milton.
Poets may boast Their work shall with the world remain ; Both bound together, live or die, The verses and the pophesy Waller. Some famous prophetic pictures represent the fate of England by a mole, a creature blind and busy, smooth and deceitful, continually working under ground, but now and then to be discerned in the surface. Stilling fleet. He loved so fast, As if he feared each day would be her last; Too true a prophet to foresee the fate, That should so soon divide their happy state. Dryden. The more I know, the more my fears augment, And 'ears are oft prophetic of the event. Id. She sighed, and thus prophetically spoke. Jal. God, when he makes the prophet, does not unmake the man. Locke. No arguments made a stronger impression on these Pagan converts, than the predictions relating to our Saviour in , those old prophetic writings deposited among the hands of the greatest enemies to Christianity, and owned by them to have been extant many ages before his appearance. Addison. If my love at once were crowned, Fair prophetess, my grief would cease. Prior.
It was attested by the visible centering of all the old prophecies in the person of Christ, and by the completion of these prophecies since, which he himself uttered. Atterbury. Received by thee, I prophesu, my rhimes, Mixed with thy works, their life no bounds shall see. Tickel. Pleasure is deaf when told of future pain, And sounds prophetic are too rough to suit Ears long accustomed to the pleasing lute. Cowper. False prophetess! the day of change was come; Behind the shadow of eternity, He saw his visions set of earthly fame, For ever set. 'ollok. Prophecy. The prophecies in the Scriptures, upon which, if room permitted, we might enlarge, afford the most decisive evidence of the truth of Christianity, being in fact a kind of standing miracles, that have existed for ages, and still exist, in proof of the veracity of Scripture. We may specify, I. The prophecy of Noah (Gen. ix. 25, 26), respecting the degraded and enslaved state of the posterity of Ham ; fulfilled, first by the Jews in the slavery of the Canaanites; afterwards by the Greeks in the destruction of Tyre, and by the Romans in that of Carthage; and, in modern times, in the oppression of their posterity by the Saracens and Turks, and even to the present age by the slave trade. II. The prophecy of the innumerable posterity of Abraham; but more particularly of the wild, predatory, free, and independent state of his posterity by Ishmael (Gen. xvi. 10–12.), fulfilled in all ages, as well as in the present, by the unconquered state of the Arabs. III. The remarkable prophecy of Moses (Deut. xxviii. 64–66) and of Hosea (iii. 4) against the Jews, which have been so literally fulfilled for upwards of 1800 years past; notwithstanding which, while they have been scattered among all the nations on the globe, they continue still a distinct people, firmly and .rrevocably attached to their peculiar customs, though persecuted every where on that account. This is a phenomenon unparalleled in the history of mankind, and totally unaccountable upon the ordinary principles of human action; and therefore only accountable upon the principle of their being still preserved a distinct people, till the period when they shall fulfil the remaining part of Hosea's prediction (iii. 26). IV. To these remarkable prophecies, we might add those of Daniel, respecting the four universal monarchies; and those of St. Paul and St. John, which so clearly foretel the various fortunes of the Christian church; with its progress from the age of apostolic purity, to that state of universal corruption under which it sunk for about 1000 years, together with its gradual restoration to purity. But, for further information on all these subjects, we must refer the reader to bishop Newton's Dissertations on the Prophecies; bishop Chandler's Vindication of Christianity; bishop Hurd's Warburtonian Lecture; bishop Sherlock's Discourses on Prophecy, &c. See Theology. PROPHETs, among the Jews, were persons commissioned and inspired by God to declare his will and purposes to that people. Previous to the existence of that nation, there were other inspired prophets, particularly Enoch, Lamech,
and Noah. After the deluge, and before the giving of the law, we find Melchizedek, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Job, Elihu, and Moses. Under the law, we find several eminent prophets; particularly Joshua, Samuel, Gad, Nathan, Ahijah, Elijah, Elisha, Micaiah, and some others whose names are not recorded; and, among the canonical books of the Old Testament, are preserved the writings of sixteen prophets, who are commonly styled the greater and lesser. The GREATER Prophets, so called from the length and extent of their writings, are four, viz. Isaiah, JeremiAn, Ezekiel, and DANIEL. The LEsser Prophets, so named from the brevity of their prophecies, are twelve; viz. Hosea, Joel, Amos, OBAD1Ah, Jon Ali, Micah, Nahu M, Habakkuk, Zeph ANIAh, HAGGA1, Ze(HARIAH, and MALAchi. See these articles in their order. Prophets, Sons of the, in Scripture history, an appellation given to young men who were educated under a proper master, (who was commonly, if not always, an inspired prophet,) in the knowledge of religion and in sacred music, and thus were qualified to be public teachers. This seems to have been part of the business of the prophets on the Sabbath days and festivals. PROPHYLACTIC, adj. Gr. orpoovXarrizoc, of rpoovXadow. Preventive; preservative. Medicine is distributed into prophylactic, or the art of preserving health; and therapeutic, or the art of restoring health. Watts. PROPINQUITY, m. s. Lat. propinquitas. Nearness; proximity of station, kind, time, or blood. Here I disclaim all my paternal care, Propinquity, and property of blood, And, as a stranger to my heart and me, Hold thee. Shakspeare. King Lear. Thereby was declared the propinquity of their desolations, and that their tranquillity was of no longer duration, than those soon decayed fruits of summer. Browne. They draw the retina nearer to the crystalline humour, and by their relaxation suffer it to return to its natural distance according to the exigency of the object, in respect of distance or propinquiry. - Ray. Lat. propitio. To conciliate; gain; induce to
PROPITIATE, v. a. |
Propi'TiousNess, n.s. as may be induced to favor: propitiation is, the act or means of propitiation; atonement made: propitiator, he who makes it: propitiatory, having the power to conciliate; as a noun substantive, a mercy-seat, or throne of mercy: propitious, favorable; kind; gracious; partial : the adverb and noun substantive corresponding. He is the propitiation for the sins of the whole world. 1 John. To assuage the force of this new flame, And make thee more propitious in my need, I mean to sing the praises of thy name. Spenser. Let not my words offend thee, My Maker, be propitious, while I speak.' Milton.
So when a muse propitiously invites, Improve her favours, and indulge her flights. Roscommon. You, her priest, declare What off rings may propitiate the fair, Rich orient pearl, bright stones that ne'er decay, Or polished lines which longer last than they. Waller. Is not this more than giving God thanks for their virtues, when a propitiatory sacrifice is offered for their honour? Stillingfleet. All these joined with the propitiousness of climate to that sort of tree and the length of age it shall stand and grow, may produce an oak Temple. Vengeance shall pursue the inhuman coast, Till they propitiate thy offended ghost. Dryden. Would but thy sister Marcia be propitious To thy friend's vows. Addison's Cato. Ere Phoebus rose he had implored Propitious Heaven. Pope's Rape of the Lock. Let fierce Achilles, dreadful in his rage, The god propitiate, and the pest assuage. Pope. In allusion to the ancient worship, the apostle represents Christ as a propitiatory or mercy-seat, set forth by God for receiving the worship of men, and dispensing pardon to them. Macknight.
PRopitiation. Among the Jews there were both ordinary and public sacrifices, as holocausts, &c., offered by way of thanksgiving; and extraordinary ones, offered by particular persons guilty of any crime, by way of propitiation. The Roman Catholics believe the mass to be a sacrifice of propitiation for the living and the dead. The reformed churches allow of no propitiation but that one offered by Jesus Christ on the cross.
PRoPITIAtomy, any thing rendering God propitious; as propitiatory sacrifices, in contradistinction to eucharistical. Among the Jews the propitiatory was the cover or lid of the ark of the covenant; which was lined both within and without with plates of gold, insomuch that there was no wood to be seen. This propitiatory was a type or figure of Christ, whom St. Paul calls the propitiatory ordained from all ages.
PRO'PLASM, n. s. Gr. trpo and rxagua. Mould ; matrix.
Those shells serving as proplasms or moulds to the matter which so filled them, limited and determined its dimensions and figure. Woodward.
PROPO'NENT, n.s. Let. proponens. One that makes a proposal, or lays down a position.
For mysterious things of faith rely
PROPONTIS, or the Sea of Marmora, a part of the Mediterranean, dividing Europe from Asia; it has the Hellespont or canal of the Dardanelles on the south-west, whereby it communicates with the Archipelago, and the ancient Bosphorus of Thrace, or Straits of Constantinople, on an north-east, communicating with the Black or Euxine Sea. It has two castles; that on the side of Asia is on a cape, where formerly stood a temple of Jupiter; that of Europe is on the opposite cape, and had anciently a temple of Serapis. It is 120 miles long, and in some places upwards of forty miles broad. Lempriere says, “it is 175 miles long, and sixty-two broad;" and that “it received its name from its vicinity to Pontus."—Class. Dict.