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rocket an empty cartridge, and introduce into it or nine inches in length, and an inch in diamethe rope which is to carry it; placing the head ter: the former, on which the cartridge is rolled of the rocket towards that side on which you in- up, may be nine lines in thickness, and the rod tend it to move: if you then set fire to the for loading the cartridge must as usual be somerocket, adjusted in this manner, it will run along what less. For loading the cartridge there is no the rope without stopping, till the matter it con- need for a piercer with a nipple tains is entirely exhausted. If you are desirous The composition may be made in two ways; that the rocket should move in a retrograde di- for if it be required that the rocket, while burnrection; first fill one-half of it with the compo- ing on the water, should appear as bright as a sition, and cover it with a small round piece of candle, it must be composed of three materials wood, to serve as a partition between it and that mixed together, viz. three ounces of pulverised put into the other half; then make a hole below and sifted gunpowder, one pound of saltpetre, this partition, so as to correspond with a small and eight ounces of sulphur. But, if you are canal filled with bruised powder, and terminating desirous that it should appear on the water with at the other end of the rocket: by these means a beautiful tail, the composition must consist of the fire, when it ceases in the first half of the eight ounces of gunpowder pulverised and sifted, rocket, will be communicated through the hole one pound of saltpetre, eight ounces of pounded into the small canal, which will convey it to the and sifted sulphur, and two ounces of charcoal. other end ; and, this end being then kindled, the When the composition bas been prepared acrocket will move backwards, and return to the cording to these proportions, and the rocket has place from which it set out.
been filled in the manner above described, apply Two rockets of equal size, bound together by a saucisson to the end of it; and having covered means of a piece of strong pack-thread, and dis- the rocket with wax, black pitch, resin, or any posed in such a manner that the head of the other substance capable of preventing the paper one shall be opposite to the neck of the other, from being spoiled in the water, attach to it a that when thc fire has consumed the composition small rod of white willow, about two feet in in the one it may be communicated to that in length, that the rocket may conveniently float. the other, and oblige both of them to move in a If it be required that these rockets should retrograde direction, may also be adjusted to the plunge down, and again rise up, a certain quanrope by means of a piece of hollow reed. But, tity of pulverised gunpowder, without any mixto prevent the fire of the former from being com- ture, must be introduced into them, at certain municated to the second too soon, they ought to distances, such, for example, as two, three, or be covered with oil-cloth, or to be wrapped up four lines, according to the size of the cart
ridge. Remark.-Rockets of this kind are generally Remarks.—1. Small rockets of this kind may be employed for setting fire to various other pieces made without changing the mould or composiwhen large fire-works are exhibited; and to tion, in several different ways, which, for the sake render them more agreeable, they are made of brevity, we are obliged to omit. Such of our in the form of different animals, such as ser. readers as are desirous of further information on pents, dragons, &c.; on which account they are this subject may consult those authors who have called flying dragons. These dragons are very written expressly on pyrotechny. amusing; especially when filled with various 2. It is possible also to make a rocket which, compositions, such as golden rain, long hair, after it has burnt some time on the water, shall &c. They might be made to discharge serpents throw out sparks and stars; and these after they from their mouths, which wouid produce a very catch fire shall ascend into the air. This may pleasing effect, and give them a greater resem- be done by dividing the rocket into two parts, blance to a dragon.
by means of a round piece of wood, having a hole Rockets which fly along a rope, and turn round in the middle. The upper part must be filled at the same time.- Nothing is easier than to give with the usual composition of rockets, and the to a rocket of this kind a rotatory motion around lower with stars, which must be mixed with the rope along which it advances; it will be suf- grained and pulverised gunpowder, &c. ficient for this purpose to tie it to another rocket, 3. A rocket which takes fire in the water, placed in a transversal direction. But the aper- and, after burning there half the time of its duture of the latter, instead of being at the bottom, ration, mounts into the air with great velocity, ought to be in the side, near one of the ends. may be constructed in the following mander :If both rockets be fired at the same time, the Take a flying rocket, furnished with its rod, and latter will make the other revolve around the by means of a little glue attach it to a waterrope, while it advances along it.
rocket, but only at the middle, in such a manner, Of rockets which burn in the water.-Tnough that the latter shall have its neck uppermost, fire and water are two things of a very opposite and the other its neck downward. Adjust to their nature, the rockets above described, when set on extremity a small tube, to communicate the fire fire, will burn and produce their effect even in from one end to the other, and cover both with the water ; but as they are then below the water a coating of pitch, wax, &c., that they may not the pleasure of seeing them is lost : for this rea- be damaged by the water. Then attach to the son, when it is required to cause rockets to burn Aying rocket, after it has been thus cemented to as they float on the water, it will be necessary the aquatic one, a rod of the kind described in to make some change in the proportions of the the second article; and suspend a piece of packmoulds, and materials of which they are com- thread to support a musket bullet made fast to posed. In regard to the mould, it may be eight the rod by means of a needle or bit of iron wire
When these arrangements have been made, set piece of pack-thread, by the ends ihat do not fire to the part after the rocket is in the water; catch fire; and if the pack-thread be suffe ed 10 and, when the composition is consumed, the fire hang down two or three inches, between every will communicate through the small tube to the two, this arrangement will produce a variety of other rocket : the latter will thea rise and leave agreeable and amusing figures. the other, which will not be able to follow it, on A rocket which ascends in the form of a screw. account of the weight adhering to it.
-A straight rod, as experience shows, makes a
rocket ascend perpendicularly, and in a straight SECT. V.-BY MEANS OF ROCKETS TO
line: it may be compared to the rudder of a ship, SENT SEVERAL FIGURES IN THE AIR.
or the tail of a bird, the effect of which is to If several small rockets be placed upon a lar se make the vessel or bird turn towards that side one, their rods being fixed around the large car to which it is inclined ; if a bent rod therefore tridge which is usually attached to the head of be attached to a rocket, its first effect will be to the rocket, to contain what it is destined to carry make the rocket incline towards that side to up into the air; and these small rockets be set which it is bent; but, its centre of gravity bringon fire while the large one is ascending, they ing it afterwards into a vertical situation, the rewill represent in a very agreeable manner a tree, sult of these two opposite etforts will be that the the trunk of which will be the large rocket, and rocket will ascend in a zig-zag or spiral form. In the branches the small ones. If these small this case indeed, as it displaces a greater volume rockets take fire when the large one is half burned of air and describes a longer line, it will not in the air, they will represent a comet; and when ascend so high as if it had been impelled in a the large one is entirely inverted, so that its head straight direction; but, on account of the singubegins to point downwards, in order to fall, they larity of this motion, it will produce an agreeable will represent a kind of fiery fountain. If effect. For the military Congreve rocket, see several serpents be attached to the rocket with a Rocket.
PYRRHA, the daughter of Epimetheus and PYRRHUS I., or Neoptolemus, the first kirg Pandora, and wife of Deucalion, king of Thes- of Epirus, the son of Achilles and Deidamia. saly, in whose reign the flood happened. See See Epirus. He was killed by Orestes in the DEUCALION. She was the mother of Amphyc- temple of Delphi. tion, Helen, and Protogenes, by Deucalion. Pyrruus II., king of Epirus, the son of Ovid, Met. i.
Æacides and Phthia, and a lineal descendant of PYRRHICHA, in antiquity, a kind of exer- Pyrrhus I.; celebrated for his war with the cise on a horseback, or a feigned combat, for the Romans. He conquered Antigonus, and reigned exercise of the cavalry.. It was thus called some time in Macedonia, but
was at last killed from its inventor Pyrrhus of Cydonia, who first at Argos, A. A. C. 272. See Rome. taught the Cretans to march in measure and PYRÖRHONISM, n. s. (From Pyrrho, the cadence to battle, and to observe the time of the founder of the sceptics.] Scepticism; universal Pyrrhic foot. Others derive the name from doubt. Pyrrhus the son of Achilles, who instituted this
As some ignoractly affect to be more knowing, so exercise at the obsequies of his father. Aristotle others vainly affect to be more ignorant than they says that it was Achilles himself who invented are ; who, to show they have greater insight and peit. The Romans also called it ludus Trojanus, netration than other men, insist upon the absolute unthe Trojan game; and Aulus Gellius, decursus. certainty of science ; will dispute évén first principles ; It is represented on medals by two cavaliers in grant nothing as certain, and so run it into downright front running with lancets, and the word decur- pyrrhonism ; the too common effect of abstracted desio in the exergue.
bates excessively refined.
Mason. PYRRHIC, in the Greek and Latin poetry, PYRUS, the pear-tree, a genus of the pena foot consisting of two syllables, both short; as tagynia order and icosandria class of plants; deus. Among the ancients this foot is also natural order thirty-sixth, pomaceæ : CAL. quincalled periambus; by others hegemona. quefid; petals five; fruit an apple, inferior,
PYRRHO, a Greek philosopher, born at Elis quinquelocular, and polyspermous. To this in Peloponnesus, who flourished about 300 genus Linné has joined the apple and quince. B. C. He was the disciple of Anaxarchus, 1. P. communis, the common pear-tree, rises whom he accompanied as far as India, where he with an upright large trunk, branching thirty or conversed with the Brahmins and Gymnoso- forty feet high; in some widely around, in others phists. He had made painting his profession more erectly, and forming a conical head, oval, before he studied philosophy. He established a lanceolated, serrated leaves, and corymbous sect whose fundamental principle was, that there clusters of white flowers from the sides of the is nothing true or false, right or wrong, honest branches, succeeded by large fruit extended at or dishonest, just or unjust; or that there is no the base. Under this species are comprehended standard of any thing beyond law or custom, and almost endless varieties, all bearing the above that uncertainty and doubt belong to every thing. description. They bear their flowers and fruit From this continual seeking after truth and upon spurs, arising from the sides of the never finding it, the sect obtained the name of branches from two or three years old and upSceptics or Pyrrhonians from the founder. wards; the same branches and spurs continuing Pyrrho died about the ninetieth year of his age; fruitful for a great number of years. The sumhis memory was honored with a statue at iner pears ripen in different sorts from the Athens, and a monument in his own country. beginning of July until the middle or end of
September, and are generally fit to eat from the be too much crowded with wood, which is of in tree, or at least do not keep a week or two consequence to all fruit trees. These sorts may before they rot. The autumn pears come to also be propagated by budding or grafting upon perfection in October, November, and Decem- stocks raised by cuttings; so that the best sorts ber; some ripening nearly on the tree in Octo- may be cultivated in this way in greater plenty ber and November, others requiring to lie some than by any other method. time in the fruitery, while some will keep two 4. P. malus, the common apple-tree, grows months; but all the winter pears, though they twenty or thirty feet high, having oval serrated attain their full growth on the tree by the end of leaves and sessile umbels of whitish red flowers, October and in November, yet they do not ac- succeeded by large, roundish, and oblong fruit, quire perfection for eating till from the end of concave at the base. The varieties of this November to April and May. Those of each species are amazingly great with respect to the class have different properties; some being differences of the fruit. Botanists say, that the melting, others breaking, some mealy, and some wilding, or crab-apple of the woods and hedges hard and anstere, fit only for kitchen uses. As is the original kind, and from the seeds of which many of the finest sorts were first'obtained from the cultivated apple was first obtained. The France, they are still continued in most cata- varieties of this last no doubt are multiplied to logues by French names. All the varieties of some hundreds in different places, having been the pear-tree are hardy, and will succeed in any all first accidentally obtained from the seed or common soil of a garden or orchard. They are kernels of the fruit, and the approved sorts conpropagated by grafting and budding upon any tinued and increased by grafting upon crabs or kind of pear stocks; also occasionally upon any kind of apple stocks; but, although the numquince stocks, and sometimes upon white thorn ber of varieties is very considerable, there are stocks; but pear stocks are greatly preferable to not above forty or fifty sorts retained in the all others for general use.
nurseryman's catalogue. These varieties arrive 2. P. coronaria, the sweet scented crab of at full growth in successive order from July to Virginia, grows twelve or fifteen feet high, having the end of October, improve in perfection after angular serrated leaves, pedunculated umbels being gathered, and several of the winter kinds, of whitish red, sweet-scented flowers, succeeded in particular, keep good for many months, even by small round crabs, remarkably sour and till the arrival of apples next summer. Among austere. There is one variety, called the evergreen these various kinds of apples some are used for Virginian crab-tree.
the dessert, some for the kitchen, and some for 3. P. cydonia, the quince, formerly ranked by cyder making. All kinds of apples are probotanists as a distinct genus, but classed by pagated in the same manner as the pears, using Linné and his followers as a species of pyrus. apple stocks instead of pear stocks. They will It was formerly divided into three species, which succeed in any common soil of a garden or must now' rank as varieties; viz.
orchard, and in any free situation, excepl in a i. P. cydonia lusitanica, the Portugal quince, low and very moist soil, in which they are apt to with obverse oval leaves, woolly on their under canker, and very soon go off. In a friable loam side :
they are generally very successful. ii. P. cydonia maliforma, with oval leaves, PYTHAGORAS, a celebrated philosopher of wholly on their under side, and lengthened at antiquity, respecting the time and place of whose their base : and
birth critics are much divided. Dr. Bentley iii. P. cydonia oblonga, with an oblong fruit determines the date of his birth to be the fourth lengthened at the base. There are some other year of the forty-third Olympiad ; Lloyd places varieties of this fruit, propagated in fruit gar- it about the third year of the forty-eighth; and dens, and in the nurseries for sale; one of which Dodwell fixes it in the fourth year of the fiftyis a soft eatable fruit, another very astringent, second. It is generally believed that he was and a third with a very small fruit, cottony all born in the island of Samos, and that he over, which is scarcely worth keeping. These flourished about A. A. C. 500. His father Mr. Miller supposed to be the seminal varia- Mnesarchus, who is said by some to have been a tions, but the three others to be distinct species. lapidary, and by others a merchant of Tyre, The Portugal quince is the most valuable; its appears to have been a man of some distinction, pulp turns to a fine purple when stewed or and to have bestowed upon his son the best baked, and becomes much softer and less austere education. Of his childhood and early educathan the others; it is therefore much fitter for tion we know nothing, except that he was first making marmalade. These trees are all easily instructed in his own country by Creophilus, and propagated, either by layers, suckers, or cuttings, afterwards in Scyros by Pherecydes. Poetry which must be planted in a moist soil. Those and music, eloquence and astronomy, became raised from suckers are seldom so well rooted as his studies ; and in gymnastic exercises he often those which are obtained from cuttings or layers, bore the palm for strength and dexterity. He and are subject to produce suckers again in first distinguished himself in Greece at the greater plenty; which is not so proper for fruit Olmpic games, and soon after he commenced bearing trees. These trees require very little his travels. He visited Egypt, where, through pruning; the chief thing to be observed is, to the interest of Polycrates, tyrant of Samos, he keep their stems clear from suckers, and cut off obtained the patronage of king Amasis, by whose such branches as cross each other; likewise all influence, with his own assiduity and perseupright luxuriant shoots from the middle of the verance, he gained the confidence of the priests; tree should be taken off, that the head may not from whom he learned their sacred mysteries,
theology, and system of symbolical learning. it was even deemed a crime to dispute his word; In Egypt, too, he became acquainted with geo- and their arguments were considered as infallibly metry, and the solar system; and made himself convincing, if they could enforce thenı by adding master of all the learning for which it was so that the master said so. To give more weight to famed among the nations of antiquity. It is his exhortations, Pythagoras retired into a subsaid that he afterwards visited Persia and Chal- terraneous cave, where his mother sent him indea, where from the Magi he learnt divination, telligence of every thing which happened during the interpreting of dreams, and astronomy. his absence. After several months, he re-appeared He likewise travelled into India, conversed on the earth with a grim and ghastly countenance, with the Gymnosophists, and acquired from and declared in the assembly of the people that them a knowledge of the philosophy and litera- he was returned from Hades; which gave rise to ture of the east; and such was his ardor in the many other fabulous reports. At length his pursuit of science, that in quest of it, says singular doctrines, and perhaps his strenuously Cicero, he crossed many seas, and travelled on 'asserting the rights of the people against their foot through many barbarous nations. After he tyrannical governors, raised a powerful party had spent many years in acquiring information against him; which soon obliged him to fly for on every subject, he returned to Samos, and his life. His friends fled to Řhegium; and he attempted to institute a school for the instruction himself, after being refused protection by the of his countrymen. Failing of success, he re- Locrians, fled to Metapontum, where he took paired to Delos, where he pretended to receive refuge in the temple of the Muses, and where it moral dogmas from the priestess of Apollo. He is said he died of hunger about A.A.C. 497. also visited Crete, where he was initiated into The time, place, and manner of his death, howthe most sacred mysteries of Greece. He went ever, are all very uncertain. After his death his likewise to Sparta and Elis, and again assisted at followers paid the same respect to him as was the Olympic games ; where, in the public assem- paid to the gods; they erected statues in honor bly, he was saluted with the title of sophist, or of him, converted his house at Crotona into a wise man, which he declined. He returned to temple of Ceres, appealed to him as a deity, Samos, enriched with mythological learning and and swore by his name. Pythagoras married mysterious rites, and again instituted a school. Theano of Crotona, or of Crete, by whom he His mysterious symbols and oracular precepts had two sons, Telagues and Mnesarchus, who, made this attempt more successful than the after his death, took the management of his former; but, meeting with some opposition, he school. He also had a daughter called Damo. retired to Magna Græcia, and settled at Crotona. Whether he left any writings behind him is disHere he founded the Italic sect; and his mental puted. The golden verses, which Hierocles accomplishments, the fame of his travels, and illustrated with a commentary, have been ashis Olympic crown, soon procured him numerous cribed to Epicharmus or Empedocles, and conpupils. His manly eloquence, and graceful de- tain a brief summary of his popular doctrines. livery, attracted the most dissolute, and produced from his mysterious secrecy, our information a remarkable change in the morals of the Cro- concerning his doctrine and philosophy is very tonians. His influence was increased by the uncertain. The purpose of philosophy, accordregularity of his own example, and its confor- ing to his system, is to raise the mind to the mity to his precepts. He punctually attended contemplation of immutable truth, and the the temples of the gods at an early hour; he knowledge of divine and spiritual objects. lived upon the most simple food ; clothed him- Mathematical science was with him the first self like the priests of Egypt; and, by his fre- step to wisdom, because it inures the mind to quent purifications and regular offerings, ap- contemplation, and takes a middle course bepeared superior in sanctity to the rest of mankind. tween corporeal and incorporeal beings. The He endeavoured to delight his scholars with whole science he divided into two parts, numverse and music, by playing on his harp, and bers and magnitude ; and each of these he subsinging the pæans of Thales. Bodily exercises divided into two others, the former into arithmetic also made a considerable part of his discipline. and music, and the latter into magnitude at rest At Crotona he had a public school for the gene- and in motion; the former comprehending geomecal benefit of the people, in which he taught try, and the latter astronomy. Arithmetic he them virtue, condemning vice, and instructing considered as the noblest science; and an acthem in the duties of social life. He also had a quaintance with numbers as the highest good. college in his own house, which he denominated He considered numbers as the principles of Kolvvßlov, in which there were two classes of every thing; and divided them into scientific students, viz. Etwtepiko, or auscultantes, and and intelligible. Of the Monad, Duad, Triad, EOWTEPLROL. The former were probationers, and Tetrad, and Decad, various explanations have were kept under a long examen. A silence of been given by various authors; but nothing cerfive years was imposed upon them; which, ac tain is known of them. Music followed numbers, cording to Clemens Alexandrinus was to inure and was useful in raising the mind above the them to the pure contemplation of the Deity. dominion of the passions. He invented the The latter were called genuini, perfecti, mathe- harmonical canon, or monochord; and the music matici; and, by way of eminence, Pythagoreans. of the spheres was a fanciful doctrine of PythaThey alone were admitted to the knowledge of goras. He reduced geometry to a regular science. the arcana of Pythagoric discipline, and the use A geometrical point, which he defines to be a of ciphers and hieroglyphics. The authority of monad, or unity with position, he says, corresPythagoras among his pupils was so great that ponds to unity'in arithmetic, a line to two, a
superficies to three, and a solid to four. God he PYTHEAS, an eminent philosopher, astronoconsidered as the universal mind, diffused through mer, and geographer, born in Massilia in the age all things, and the self-moving principle of all of Aristotle. He distinguished himself by his things (avropatopoS TWV navrwv), and of whom travels, as well as by his writings, all of which every human soul is a portion. Subordinate to are now lost, though some of them were extant the Deity there were, in the Pythagorean creed, so late as the fifth century. He entered the sea, three orders of intelligences, gods, demons, and then unknown, now called the Baltic, and sailed heroes, of different degrees of excellence and as far as Thule. He was the first who established dignity. These, together with the human soul, a distinction of climate by the length of days and were considered as emanations from the Deity, nights. the particles of subtle echer assuming a grosser PYTHEUS, a Lydian, famous for his riches, clothing the farther they receded from the foun- who is said to have entertained Xerxes, and all tain. God himself was represented under the his numerous army, when going to invade notion of monad, and the subordinate intelli-* Greece. gences as numbers derived from, and included PYTHIA, or PYTHONISSA, the priestess of in, unity. Man was considered as consisting of Apollo at Delphi, by whom he delivered oracles. an elementary nature, and a divine or rational She was so called from Pythius, a name of that soul. His soul, a self-moving principle, is com- god. The Pythia was at first required to be a posed of two parts; the rational, seated in the young girl; but in latter times she was a woman brain; and the irrational, including the passions, of fifty years of age. The first and most famous in the heart. In both these respects he partici- Pythia was Phemonöe. Oracles were at first depates with the brutes. The sensitive soul perishes; livered by her in hexameter verse. All the Pythe other assumes an ethereal vehicle, and passes thias were to be pure virgins, and all of them to the regions of the dead, till sent back to the delivered their oracles with great enthusiasm and earth to inhabit some other body brutal or hu- violent agitations. See Oracle and Delphi. man. See METEMPSYCHOSIS. It was this notion Pythian GAMES, in Grecian antiquity, sports which led Pythagoras and his followers to ab- instituted near Delphos in honor of Apollo, on stain from flesh, and to be so peculiarly merciful account of his slaying the serpent Python. See to animals of every description. This doctrine Apollo. These games, at their first institution, is thus beautifully represented by Ovid, who in- were celebrated only once in nine years; but troduces Pythagoras as saying,
afterwards every fifth year, from the number of
the Parnassian nymphs who came to congratulate * Morte carent animæ : semperque priore relicta Apollo, and to make him presents on his victory. Sede, novis domibus habitant, vivuntque receptæ : The victor was crowned with garlands. Omnia mutantur; nihil interit ; errat et illinc, Huc venit, hinc illuc, et quoslibet occupet artus
PYTHON, in fabulous history, a monstrous Spiritus, èque feris humana in corpora transit,
serpent, produced by the earth after Deucalion's Inque feras noster: nec tempore deperit ullo,
deluge. "Juno, being exasperated at Latona, Utque novis fragilis signatur cera figuris,
who was beloved by Jupiter, commanded this Nec manet ut fuerat, nec formas servat easdem, serpent to destroy her; but, flying from the purSed tamen ipsa eadem est, animam sic semper eandem, suit of the monster, she escaped to Delos, where Esse, sed in varias doceo migrare figuras.'
she was delivered of Diana and Apollo; the lat
ter of whom destroyed Python with his arrows, What then is death, but ancient matter drest
in memory of which victory the Pythian games In some new figure, and a varied vest?
were instituted. See APOLLO. Thus all things are but altered, nothing dies; And here and there the' unbodied spirit flies,
PYX, n.s. Lat. pyris; Gr. avgus, a box, By time, or force, or sickness dispossessed,
The box in which the Romanists keep the host. And lodges where it lights, in man or beast;
Pyris is a small metal case for containing the con. Or hunts without, till ready limbs it find,
secrated species in the Catholic church. Anciently And actuates those according to their kind; it was made in the form of a dove, and suspended From tenement to tenement is tost,
over the altar.
Dr. A. Rees. The soul is still the same, the figure only lost: And, as the softened wax new seals receives,
Pyx. Lat. pyris, from Gr. húfu. In archaiThis face assumes, and that impression leaves;
ology, a name given to the little casket in which Now called by one, now by another name,
the ancients often deposited their jewels and The form is only changed, the wax is still the same; terials, and highly embellished; its shape was a
other ornaments. It was frequently of rich maSo death, thus called, can but the form deface, The' immortal soul fies out in empty space,
long square, and it is often found represented on To seek her fortune in some other place.'