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casion, how many things to be done in their just from oblivion and corruption grew in use, not with, season, after once a ground is in order, Evelyn. out precise direction from God himself. Hooker, The birds heedless while they strain
Doth it follow that all things in the church, from Their tuneful throats, the towering heavy lead the greatest to the least, are unboly, which the Lord O'ertakes their speed; they leave their little lives hath not himself precisely instituted ?
Id. Above the clouds, precipitant to earth. Philips. You'll not bear a letter for me; you stand upon
Gold endures a vehement fire long without any your honour ; why, thou unconfinable baseness, it is change, and, after it has been divided by corrosive as much as I can do to keep the term of mine honour liquors into invisible parts, yet may presently be pre- precise.
Shakspeare. cipitated, so as to appear again in its own form.
His foes are so enrooted with his friends: Id. la vain would speed avoid, or strength oppose. Though love use reason for his precisian, he admits Prior. him not for his counsellor.
Id. That could never happen from any other cause The state hath given you licence to stay on land than the hurry, precipitation, and rapid motion of the six weeks, and let it not trouble you if your occawater, returning at the end of the deluge towards sions ask farther time ; for the law in this point is not the sea.
Васот. Mr. Gay died of a mortification of the bowels; it I will distinguish the cases ; though give me leave, was the most precipitate case I ever knew, having in the handling of them, not to sever them with too cut him off in three days. Arbuthnot. much preciseness.
Id. As the escar separated, I rubbed the super These men, for all the world, like our precisians EsCrescence with the vitriol stone, or sprinkled it be, with precipitate.
Wiseman. Who for some cross or saint they in the window see Should he return, that troop so blithe and bold, Will pluck down all the church. Drayton. Precipitant in fear, would wing their flight,
Where more of these orders than one shall be set And curse their cumbrous pride's unwieldy weight. in several stories, there must be an exquisite care to
Pope. place the columns precisely one over another. Not so bold Arnall ; with a weight of skull
Wotton's Architecture. Furous he sinks, precipitately dull.
In human actions there are no degrees and precise
Id. Dunciad. natural limits described, but a latitude is indulged. Hurried on by the precipitancy of youth, I took
Taylor. this opportunity to send a letter to the secretary.
Let us descend from this top
Swift. Of speculation ; for the hour precise A rashness and precipitance of judgment, and has Exacts our parting. Milton's Parudise Lost. tiness to believe something on one side or the other, The rule, to find the age of the moon, cannot shew plunges us into many errors. Watts's Logick.
precisely an exact account of the moon, because of We are complicated machines ; and though we the inequality of the motions of the sun and of the have one main spring, that gives motion to the whole,
Holder. we have an infinity of little wheels, which, in their He that thinks of being in general, thinks never turns, retard, precipitate, and sometimes stop, the of any particular species of being : unless he can motion.
Chesterfield. think of it with and without precision at the same PRECIPITATION, in chemistry, the process of
Locke, decomposition by which any body separates
The raillery of the wits in king Charles the Sefrom others in a solution and falls to the bottom: cond's reign, upon every thing which they called
precise, was carried to so great an extravagance that thus, if to an acid and an oxide a third body as
it almost put all Christianity out of countenance. an alkali be added, then the alkali having a
Addison. greater affinity to the acid than the metallic
Measuring the diameter of the fifth dark circle, oxide has, combines with it, and the oxide in I found it the fifth part of an inch precisely. consequence precipitates, or appears in a sepa
Newton's Opticks. rate state at the bottom. The substance thus The reasonings must be precise, though the pracsinking is called the precipitate, and that, by the tice may admit of great latitude. Arbuthnot. addition of which this effect is produced is called I was unable to treat this part more in detail, the precipitant. Sir Humphry Davy found that without sacrificing perspicuity to ornament, without whenever one metal precipitates another from its wandering from the precision or breaking the chain acid solution, the body that falls down is usually
Pope. free both from acid and oxygen; and that the collective idea is this, that a compound idea unites
The precise difference between a compound and whole of the oxygen and the acid, is transferred things of a different kind, but a collective, things of from one metal to the other.
the same kind.
Watts. PRECISE, adj. Fr. precis ; Lat. pre A profane person calls a man of piety a precisian. Precise'ly, adv. cisus. Exact;
Id. strict; PRECISE'Ness, n. s. nice; having definite li Precisive abstraction is when we consider those Preci'siAN,
mits; formal : precisely things apart which cannot really exist apart; as Preci'ston,
when we consider mode, without considering its suband preciseness correPreci’sive, adj. spond with this, and pre
stance or subject.
What is the world? a term which men have got cision is synonymous with the latter : a precisian To signify not one in ten knows what. is one who limits or restrains with exactness or
A term which with no more precision passes, rigor : precisive, exactly limited.
To point out herds of men than heads of asses ! In his track my wary feet have stept,
In common use no more it means, we find, His undeclined ways precisely kept. Sandys. Than many fools in same opinions joined. Means more durable to preserve the laws of God
PRECLUDE, v.a. Lat. præcludo. To shut Jove's lightnings, the precursors out or hinder by anticipation.
of dreadful thunder claps, more momentary
Were not. This much will obviate and preclude the objec
Id. Tempest. tions of our adversaries, that we do not determine consideration of its precursors, viz. å rude winter,
This contagion might have been presaged upon the final cause of the systematical parts of the world, and a close, sulphurous and fiery air. Harvey. merely as they have respect to the exigencies or con
Thomas Burnet played the precursor to the coming veniences of life.
Pope. If you once allow them such an acceptation of chance, you have precluded yourself from any more
PREDA’CEOUS, adj. Lat. præda. Livreasoning against them.
-ing by prey; plun I fear there will be no way left to tell you, that I
Sdering entirely esteem you ; none but that which no bills The king called his parliament, where he exaggecan preclude, and no king can prevent. Pope. rated the malice and the cruel predatory war made by
Bacon. PRECOʻCIOUS, adj. ? Fr. precose ; Latin As those are endowed with poison, because they PRECOC'ITY. Spræcosis. Ripe before
are predaceous : so these need it not, because their the time: too early ripeness.
food is near at hand, and may be obtained without I may say of the younglings of our time, that pre contest
Derham. cocity of understanding supplieth age and stature. Sarmat'a, laid by predal rapine low,
Mourned the hard yoke, and sought relief in vain. Some impute the cause of his fall to a precocity of
Boyse. spirit and valour in him ; and that therefore some PREDECEASED, adj. Pre and deceased. infectious southern air did blast him. Howel. Dead before. Many precocious trees, and such as have their
Will you mock at an ancient tradition, begun upon spring in the winter, may be found in most parts. an honourable respect, and worn as a memorable
trophy of predeceased valour?
Shakspeare. And every body but his mother deemed
PREDECESSOR, n. s. Him almost man; but she flew in a rage
Fr. predecesseur ; And bit her lips (for else she might have screamed) Lat. pre and decedo. One that was in any state said so, for to be precocious
or place before another; an ancestor. Was in her eyes a thing the most atrocious. Byron. In these pastoral pastimes a great many days PRECONCEIT, n. S. Pre and conceit. An
were spent to follow their flying predecessors.
Sidney. opinion previously formed.
There is cause why we should be slow and unA thing in reason impossible, which notwithstand willing to change, without very urgent necessity, the ing through their misfashioned preconceit appeared ancient ordinances, rites, and approved customs of unto them no less certain than if nature had written our venerable predecessors.
Hooker. it in the very foreheads of all the creatures.
If I seem partial to my predecessor in the laurel, Hooker.
the friends of antiquity are not few. Dryden. In a dead plain the way seemeth the longer be
The present pope, who is well acquainted with the cause the eye hath preconceited it shorter than the
secret history, and the weakness of his predecessor, truth; and the frustration of that maketh it seem so. seems resolved to bring the project to its perfection. Bacon.
Addison. Custom with most men prevails more than truth; The more beauteous Chloe sat to thee, according to the notions and preconceptions which it Good Howard, emulous of Apelles' art; hath formed in our minds, we shape the discourse of But happy thou from Cupid's arrow free, reason itself.
And flames that pierced thy predecessor's heart. Fondness of preconceived opinions is not like to
Prior. render your reports suspect, nor for want of care,
PREDESTINATE, v. a. & v defective.
destiner; The reason why men are so weak in governing is, because most things fall out accidentally, and come
PREDESTINA'TION, not into any compliance with their preconceived
and destiends, but they are forced to comply subsequently.
PREDES'TINE, v. a.
по. ТоарSouth. point beforehand : in ludicrous language, to hold PRECONTRACT, n. s. Pre and contract. predestination: predestinarian, one who holds As a verb, accented on the last syllable. A con
that doctrine ; see below. Predestinator is used tract previous to another.
out of all analogy by Cowley as synonymous He is your husband on a precontract ;
with predestinarian : to predestine is to decree
beforehand. To bring you thus together, 'tis no sin.
Whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate Some are such as a man cannot make his wife, to be conformed to the image of his son. Romans. though he himself be unmarried, because they are Having predestinated us unto the adoption of chilalready precontracted to some other; or else are in dren by Jesus Christ to himself.
Ephesians i. 5. too near a degree of affinity or consanguinity,
Some gentleman or other shall 'scape a predestinate Ayliffe. scratcht face.
Shakspeare. PRE'CURSE, n. S. Lat.
Predestinatim we can difference no otherwise from
providence and prescience, than this, that prescience running.
only foreseeth, providence foreseeth and careth for, The like precurse of fierce events,
and hath respect to all creatures, and predestination As harbingers preceding still the fates,
is only of men ; and yet not of all to 'men belongAnd prologue to the omen coming on
ing, but of their salvation properly in the common Have heaven and earth together demonstrated. use of divines; or perdition, as some have used it.
Raleigh's History of the World
Why does the predestinarian so adventurously climb opposed by the celebrated St. Augustine, bishop into heaven, to ransack the celestial archives, read of Hippo, who first asserted the leading tenets God's hidden decrees, when with less labour he may of the Predestinarians. The dispute was carried secure an authentick transcript within himself? on with great zeal. Zosimus, bishop of Rome,
Decay of Piety. Me, mine example let the Stoicks use,
decided at first in favor of Pelagius, but afterTheir sad and cruel doctrine to maintain ;
wards altered his opinion. The council of Let all predestinators me produce,
Ephesus approved of St. Augustine's doctrine, Who struggle with eternal fate in vain. Cowley.
and condemned that of his opponents. These Nor can they justly accuse
opinions soon after assumed various modifications. Their maker, or their making, or their fate;
A party called predestinarians carried AugusAs if predestination overruled
tine's doctrine farther than he had done, and Their will, disposed by absolute decree,
said that God had decreed the sins as well as Or high fore-knowledge.
punishment of the wicked. Another party moMilton's Paradise Lost. derated Pelagius's doctrine, and were called His ruff crest he rears,
SEMI-PelagianS. (See that article.) But the And pricks up his predestinating ears. doctrine of St. Augustine, who wrote several
Dryden. treatises on the subject, became general. He Ye careful angels, whom eternal fate
was the oracle of the school-men. They only Ordains on earth and human acts to wait,
disputed about the true sense of his writings. Who turn with secret power this restless ball,
The whole of the earliest reformers maintained And bid predestined empires rise and fall. Prior.
these opinions of Augustine. Under Luther PREDESTINATION is, according to the Cal- they only assumed a more regular and systemavinistic writers, the decree of God, whereby hetic form than they had before exhibited. But, as hath from all eternity unchangeably appointed the Lutherans afterwards abandoned them, they whatsoever comes to pass; and hath more espe are now known by the name of Calvinistic doccially fore-ordained certain individuals of the trines, from John Calvin of Geneva. The opbuman race to everlasting happiness, and hath ponents of the doctrine of predestination among passed by the rest, or fore-ordained them to ever- the Protestants usually receive the appellation of lasting misery. The former of these are called Arminians or Remonstrants. They derive the the elect, and the latter the reprobate. This first of these appellations from James Arminius, doctrine is the subject of one of the most per- professor of theology at Leyden, and the second plexing controversies that have occurred among from the Arminians who remonstrated against mankind. But it is not peculiar to the Christian the synod of Dort. (See Arminius.) A counfaith. It has always been in some degree a po- ter remonstrance was presented, containing the pular opinion, and has been believed by many opinions of the Calvinists, which was approved speculative men. The ancient Stoics, Zeno and of by the synod. The substance of it was afterChrysippus, whom the Jewish Essenes seem to wards adopted in nearly the same expressions have followed, asserted the existence of a Deity into the Confession of Faith, compiled by the that, acting wisely, but necessarily, contrived the assembly of divines at Westminster in 1643; general system of the world; from which, by a which every clergyman of the church of Scotseries of causes, whatever is now done in it land subscribes previous to his admission. It unavoidably results. This series or concatena- runs thus :— God from all eternity did, by the tion of causes, they held to be necessary in most wise and holy counsel of his own will, every part; and that God himself is so much freely and unchangeably ordain whatsoever the servant of necessity, and of his own decrees, comes to pass : yet so, as thereby neither is God that he could not have made the smallest object the author of sin, nor is violence offered to the in the world otherwise than it now is, much less will of the creatures, nor is the liberty or conis he able to alter any thing. Seneca gives a tingency of second causes taken away, but rasimilar account of the doctrine of fate. See ther established. Although God knows whatsoNECESSITY. The Stoical fate differs, however, ever may or can come to pass upon all supposed from the Christian predestination in several conditions ; yet hath he not decreed any thing points. They regard the divine nature and will because he foresaw it as future, or that which as a necessary part of a chain of causes; whereas would come to pass upon such conditions. By all Christians consider the Deity as the Lord the decree of God, for the manifestation of his and Ruler of the universe, omnipotent and free, glory, some men and angels are predestinated appointing all things according to his pleasure. unto everlasting life, and others are fore-ordained Being doubtful of the immortality of the soul, to everlasting death. These angels and men, the Stoics could have no idea of the doctrine of thus predestinated and fore-ordained, are partielection and reprobation; nor did they ever cularly and unchangeably designed ; and their doubt their own freedom of will, or power of number is so certain and definite that it cannot doing good as well as evil, as the Christian pre- be either increased or diminished. Those of destinarians have done. Mahomet introduced mankind that are predestinated unto life, God, into his Koran the doctrine of an absolute pre- before the foundation of the world was laid, acdestination in the strongest terms. In 'the cording to his eternal and immutable purpose, Christian Church the controversy concerning pre- and the secret council and good pleasure of his destination first made its appearance about the be- will, hath chosen, in Christ, unto everlasting ginning of the fifth century, in consequence of the glory, out of his mere free grace and love, withheretical opinions advanced by Pelagius and Cæ- out any foresight of faith, good works, or perseverlestius. See Pelagians. These were zealously ance in either of them, or any other thing in the
creature, as conditions or causes moving him opinions of Jansenius to be condemned. These thereunto; and all to the praise of his glorious disputes have never been fully settled, and still grace. As God hath appointed the elect unto divide even the Roman Catholic church. Some glory, so hath he, by the eternal and most free of the ablest supporters of Predestination have purpose of his will, fore-ordained all the means appeared among the Jansenists, and particularly thereunto. Wherefore, they who are elected, among the gentlemen of Port-Royal. With rebeing fallen in Adam, are redeemed by Christ, gard to Great Britain, the earliest English reare effectually called unto faith in Christ, by his formers were in general Sublapsarians, although Spirit working in due season; are justified, some of them were Supralapsarians. But the adopted, sanctified, and kept, by his power rigid Predestinarșans have been gradually declinthrough faith unto salvation. Neither are any ing in number in that church, although they still other redeemed by Christ, effectually called, subscribe the thirty-nine articles. The celebrated justified, adopted, sanctified, and saved, but the Scottish Reformer, John Knox, having been elect only. The rest of mankind God was educated at Geneva, established in his own pleased, according to the unsearchable counsel country the doctrine of predestination in its of his own will, whereby he extended or with- strictest form : and it has probably been adhered holdeth mercy as he pleaseth, for the glory of to more strictly in Scotland than in any part of his sovereign power over his creatures, to pass Europe. Of late years, however, the dispute by, and to ordain them to dishonor and wrath concerning predestination has assumed a form for their sin, to the praise of his glorious jus- considerably different from that which it formerly tice.
possessed. Instead of being considered as a There are two kinds of modern Calvinists or point to be determined almost entirely by the Predestinarians, viz. the Supralapsarians, who Sacred Scriptures, it has, in the hands of a nummaintain that God did originally and expressly ber of able writers, in a great measure resolved decree the fall of Adam, as a foundation for the itself into a question of natural religion, under display of his justice and mercy; while those the head of the philosophical liberty or neceswho maintain that God only permitted the fall sity of the will. (See Metaphysics and Neof Adam are called Sublapsarians; their system CESSITY.) Readers who wish fur farther inforof decrees concerning election and reprobation mation on this subject may consult the writings being, as it were, subsequent to that event. But, of lord Kames, Jonathan Edwards, and Dr. as Dr. Priestley justly remarks, if we admit the Priestley, one of the most celebrated Necessitadivine prescience, there is not, in fact, any dif- rians of his age. To give even a sketch of the ference between the two schemes; and, accord- arguments on both sides would far exceed our ingly, that distinction is now seldom mentioned. bounds. Milton, an eminent philosopher and Nor was the church of Rome less agitated by divine, as well as the first of poets, when he the contest about predestination than the first wished to exhibit the fallen angels themselves as Protestants were. The council of Trent was perplexed by questions above their comprehenmuch perplexed how to settle the matter without sion, set them to dispute about predestination :giving offence to the Dominicans, who were
They reasoned high, of knowledge, will, and fate, much attached to the doctrine of Augustine, and Fixed fate, free-will, fore-knowledge absolute; possessed great influence in the council. After And found no end, in wand'ring mazes lost. much dispute, the great object came to be, how to contrive such a decree as might give offence mine. To doom or confine by previous decree.
PREDETER’MINE, v. a. Præ and deterto nobody, and decide nothing. Upon the whole,
We see in brutes certain sensible instincts antecehowever, they seem to have favored the Semi
dent to their imaginative faculty, whereby they are pelagian scheme. Among other things, it was determined that good works are of themselves predetermined to the convenience of the sensible life.
Hale. meritorious to eternal life; but it is added, by
This predetermination of God's own will is so far way of softening, that it is through the goodness from being the determining of ours, that it is disof God that he makes his own gifts to be merits tinctly the contrary; for supposing God to predeter
Catarin revived at that council an opi- mine that I shall act freely ; 'tis certain from thence, nion of some of the schoolmen, that God that my will is free in respect of God, and not prechose a small number of persons, such as the determined.
Hammond's Fundamentals. blessed virgin, the apostles, &c., whom he was
The truth of the catholic doctrine of all ages, in determined to save without any foresight of their points of predetermination and irresistibility, stands
Hammond. good works; and that he also wills that all the in opposition to the Calvinists. rest should be saved, providing for them all PREDIAL, adj. Lat. prædium. Consisting necessary means, but they are at liberty to use of farms. them or not. This is called in England the By the civil law, their predial estates are liable to Baxterian scheme. The Jesuits at first followed fiscal payments and taxes, as not being appropriated the opinion of Augustine; but afterwards for- for the service of divine worship, but for profane sook it. Molina, one of their order, was the
Ayliffe. author of what is called the middle scheme, or PRED’ICABLE, n. s. & adj. the doctrine of a grace sufficient for all men, but
cabile, A losubject to the freedom of the human will. Jan PRED'ICANT,
gical term, desenius, a doctor of Louvain, opposed the Jesuits PRED'ICATE, v.d., v. n. & n. s. noting one of with great vigor, and supported the doctrine of PREDICA’TION, n. s.
the five things Augustine. (See JANSENISTS.) But the Jesuits which can be affirmed : such as may be affirmed: had sufficient interest at Rome to procure the predicament is a class or arrangement of beings
or things : hence class case or condition of any Tunes and airs have in themselves some affinity" kind: predicant, one who affirms: to predicate, with the affections; so as it is no marvel if they to affirm any thing of another: to comprise an alter the spirits, considering that tunes have a pre
Bacon. affirmation; affirm in any way; or that which disposition to the motion of the spirits. is afirmed or denied of the subject: predication, predispose, and excite the earth and the seeds
Vegetable productions require heat of the sun, to affirmation.
Burnet. The offender's life lies in the mercy, f the duke only, 'gainst all other voice;
Unless nature be predisposed to friendship by its In which predicament I say thou stand'st.
own propensity, no arts of obligation shall be able Shakspeare.
to abate the secret hatred of same persons towards others.
South. I shew the line and the predicament,
External accidents are often the occasional cause Wherein you range under this subtile king. Id. God then is light in himself; so in relation to us :
of the king's evil; but they suppose a predisposition of the body.
Wiseman. and this predication of light serves to confirm our conformity to God in his behalf. Bp. Hali.
PREDOM'INATE, v. n. Fr. predominer; If there were nothing but bodies to be ranked by PREDOM'INANCE, N. S.
Lat. præ and dothem in the predicament of place, then that descrip PREDOM'inant, adj.
S minor. To pretion would be allowed by them as sufficient. vail; be ascendant; be supreme: predominance
Digby on Bodies.
is prevalence; superiority; ascendancy: predoIt were a presumption to think that any thing in minant, prevalent; ascendant. any created nature can bear any perfect resemblance
Miserable were the condition of that church, the of the incomprehensive perfection of the divine nature, very being itself not predicating univocally deliberations, wherein such an humour as this were
weighty affairs whereof should be ordered by those touching him and any created being. Hale.
Hooker. All propositions, wherein a part of the complex
We make guilty of our disasters, the sun, the idea, which any term stands for, is predicated of that moon, and the stars, as we if were knaves, thieves, tera, are only verbal ; v.g. to say that gold is a metal.
Shakspeare. Let us reason from them as well as we can ; they
Foul subordination is predominant, are only about identical predications and influence. Id.
And equity exiled your highness' land. These they call the five predicables; because every made against him, and were predominant in the
Those helps were overweighed by things that thing that is affirmed concerning.any being, must be
Bacon. nus, species, difference, some property, or acci
So much did love the executed lord dent,
Preponderate in this fair lady's heart. The predicate is that which is affirmed or denied of
Daniel. Id. Logick.
In human bodies there is an incessant warfare PREDICT', v.a. 2. Fr. predire ; Lat. pre- amongst the humours for predominancy, Howel. Predic’TION, n.s. dictus. To foretell; to Whether the sun, predominant in heaven,
PREDICTOR. foreshow: prediction is Rise on the earth; or earth rise on the sun. declaration or revelation of something future ;
Milton. prophecy: predictor is a foreteller.
An inflammation consists only of a sanguineous These predictions
affluxion, or else is denominable from other humours, Are to the world in general, as to Cæsar. according to the predominancy of melancholy, phlegm, Shakspeare.
or choler. The predictions of cold and long winters, hot and The true cause of the Pharisees' disbelief of dry summers, are good to be known. Bacon.
Christ's doctrine was, the predominance of their coHow soon hath thy prediction, seer blest !
vetousness and ambition over their will. South. Measured this transient world the race of time, The gods formed women's souls out of these prinTill time stand fixed. Milton's Paradise Lost. ciples which compose several kinds of animals; and
In Christ they all meet with an invincible evi- their good or bad disposition arises, according as dence, as if they were not predictions, but after-rela- such and such principles predominate in their consti
Addison. tions; and the penmen of them not prophets but tutions. evangelists.
South. The several rays in white light do retain their coHe is always inveighing against such unequal dis- lorific qualities, by which those of any sort, whentributions ; nor does he ever cease to predict publick ever they become more copious than the rest, do, by ruins, till his private are repaired.
their excess and predominance, cause their proper co
Newton. Government of the Tongue.
lour to appear. He, who prophesyed the best,
The rays, reflected least obliquely, may predomiApproves the judgment to the rest;
nate over the rest, so much as to cause a heap of such He'd rather choose that I should die, particles to appear very intensely of their colour. Than his prediction prove a lie.
Id. Opticks. Swift's Miscellanies. I could shew you several pieces, where the beauties Whether he has not been the cause of this poor of this kind are so predominant, that you could never man's death, as well as the predictor, may be dis- be able to read or understand them. Suift. puted.
Swifi. Where judgment is at a loss to determine the PREDIGESTION, n. s. Pre and digestion. the more allowably predominate.
choice of a lady who has several lovers, fancy may
Clarissa. Digestion too soon performed.
If ever he fell into a fit of the gout, or if any other Predigestion, or hasty digestion, fills the body cause withdrew him from public cares, principles difull of crudities and seeds of diseases.
rectly contrary were sure to predominate.
Burke. Character of Lord Chatham. PREDISPOSE', v.a. Pre and dispose. To It is the prevalence or predominance of any partiadapt previously to any certain purpose. cular passion which gives the turn or tincture to a