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objection to that city. Ferdinand and the princes who adhered to the cause of the pope gave their consent to this proposal; but it was vehemently opposed by the protestants, both because the council was summoned by the authority of the pope only, and also because the place was within his jurisdiction, while they desired a free council, which should not be biassed by the dictates hor awed by the proximity of the pontiff. But this protestation produced no effect. Paul III. persisted in his purpose, and issued out his circular letters for the convocation of the council with the approbation of the emperor.
The emperor labored to persuade the protestants to consent to the meeting of the council of Trent; but, when he found them fixed in their opposition to this measure, he began to listen to the sanguinary measures of the pope, and resolved to terminate the disputes by force of arms. The elector of Saxony and Landgrave of Hesse, who were the chief supporters of the protestant cause, upon this took proper measures to prevent their being surprised and overwhelmed by a superior force. But, before the horrors of war commenced, the great reformer Luther died in peace at Eisleben, his native place, February 14th, 1546. He had travelled to Eisleben from Wittemburg in the midst of winter, to endeavour to effect a reconciliation between the counts of Mansfield. Soon after entering Eisleben, he suffered an access of extreme debility, a circumstance not unusual with him in engaging in a matter of deep interest. But this attack was more serious than on former occasions. He recovered, however, and seemed to enjoy the hospitality which his friends were anxious to show him. His time was passed in attention to his customary hours of daily prayer; in the transaction of the business which had called him to Eisleben; and in cheerful and good humored conversation. He partook twice of the Lord's Supper, and preached three or four times before the progressive advance of his malady led to the exhaustion of his frame; after passing nearly three weeks at Eisleben, his illness was productive of a fatal termination, Luther expired, surrounded by friends, and placing the fullest trust in Him to the promotion of whose cause he had zealously and constantly devoted his powers. To the eternal honor of Luther we may add, that after having refused the offers of the court of Rome; after having been so many years the father and almost the founder of a new church; after having been the friend, the adviser, the spiritual father of so many princes, who, through the Reformation, had been enriched with all the possessions of the clergy, of which he might if desirous have obtained a rich share, he lived and died in a state bordering on poverty, and left to his wife and children only the esteem due to his name. In the diet of Augsburg, which was soon after called, the emperor required the protestants to leave the decisions of these religious disputes to the wisdom of the council which now met at Trent. See TRENT.
A plague which broke out, or was said to do so, in the city of Trent, caused the greater part of the bishops to retire to Bologna; by which means the council was in effect dissolved, nor
could all the entreaties and remonstrances of the emperor prevail upon the pope to reassemble it without delay. In the year 1549 Paul III. died, and was succeeded by Julius III., who, at the repeated solicitations of the emperor, consented to the reassembling of a council at Trent. A diet was again held at Augsburg under the cannon of an imperial army, and Charles laid the ecclesiastical affairs before the princes of the empire. On the dissolution of this meeting, in 1551, the emperor Charles V., being defeated at Inspruck, concluded a treaty with Maurice, elector of Saxony.at Passau, which is considered by the o as the basis of their religious liberty. y this treaty it was provided that another diet should be called with a view to an amicable adjustment of all matters in dispute, and that until such adjustment the contending parties should enjoy the free and undisturbed exercise of their religion. Various circumstances delayed the promised meeting of the diet; at length, however, it met at Augsburg, where it was opened by Ferdinand in the name of the emperor, and terminated those deplorable calamities which had so long desolated the empire. After various debates the following resolutions were agreed to on the 25th of September 1555; that the protestants who followed the confession of Augsburg should be, for the future, considered as entirely free from the jurisdiction of the Roman pontiff, and from the authority and superintendance of the bishops; that they were left at perfect liberty to enact laws for themselves relatin to their religious sentiments, discipline, . worship; that all the inhabitants of the German empire should be allowed to judge for themselves in religious matters, and to join themselves to that church whose doctrine and worship they thought the most pure and consonant to the true ... of Christianity; and that all those who should injure or persecute any person under religious pretences, and on account of their opinions, should be declared and proceeded against as public enemies of the empire, invaders of its liberty, and disturbers of its peace. Thus was the Reformation established in several of the states of the German empire, where it continues to this day; nor have the efforts of the papacy been since able to suppress it, or even to prevent its growth. VII. Progress of the Reformation in England.—Turning from Germany the cradle of the Reformation, and from those holy men to whom under God we owe the first revival of truth and science on the continent, the pious and Christian mind will delight to contemplate the various causes which were preparing the way in England for a religious revolution not less remarkable nor less beneficial than that effected by Luther. The growing cruelty, oppression, and ignorance of the clergy had already excited the just hatred of the people to no small extent; but the enemies whom the wealth of the church tempted to assail it were far more dangerous than those who opposed its corrupt doctrines and superstitious practices. When, however, its wealth had once become an object of cupidity to the government, the enemies whom its corruption had provoked, and its cruelties incensed, were ready to league with any allies against it, and reform and spoliation went hand in hand. The accession of Henry VIII. to the throne of England promised to the world a reign of splendor, popularity, and peace. With every advantage of person, he united a high degree of bodily and mental accomplishment; his understanding was quick and vigorous; and his learning such as might have raised him to distinction, had he been born in humble life. Among the passions of Henry must be reckoned that which he had for the writings of St. Thomas Aquinas. His veneration for this vigorous champion . of the Roman orthodoxy was carried so far that, Luther having contradicted St. Thomas with acumen, Henry thought himself bound to enter the lists and defend his master. He, therefore, wrote a Treatise, or Assertion of the Seven Sacraments, against Luther, who admitted with all the reformed churches of no more than two. The latter treated his new adversary as his equal, and ridiculed him; but the pope, who perhaps really laughed at the book as much as Luther did, appeared so much delighted with his literary efforts in his favor, that he bestowed on Henry the title of “defender of the faith." Little did the world imagine that Henry was so soon to become one of the most potent enemies of the papacy; and that the Reformation under his auspices would be introduced into England. A speech of the court fool upon that occasion has been preserved: “O, good Harry, let thou and I defend one another, and let the faith alone to defend itself.' Henry had now been married eighteen years to Catherine of Arragon, who had been brought over from Spain to marry his eldest brother, prince Arthur, who died some months after his cohabitation with her. Henry had three children by this lady, one of whom was still living, while she herself was esteemed for her virtue and the gentleness of her disposition. It happened at length, that among the maids of honor that then waited on the queen, his attention was attracted by Anna Bullen, the daughter of a gentleman of distinction, though not of the nobility. The king, who never restrained one passion which he desired to gratify, saw and loved her; but, after several efforts to induce her to comply with his criminal passion, he found that without marriage he could have no hopes of succeeding. This obstacle, therefore, he undertook to remove; his own queen was now become hateful to him, and, in order to procure a divorce, he pretended his conscience rebuked him for having so longed lived in incest with his present queen, formerly his brother's wife. In this perplexity, therefore, he applied to Clement VII., who owed him obligations, and from whom he expected a ready compliance, to dissolve the bull of the former
ope, who had given him permission to marry
atherine, and to declare it was contrary to all laws both divine and human. Clement was now in the utmost perplexity. Queen Catherine was aunt to the emperor, who had lately made him a prisoner, and whose resentment he dreaded to rekindle, by thus injuring so near a relation; besides he could not, in honor, declare
the hull of the former pope illicit, for this would be entirely destroying the papal infallibility. On the other hand, Henry was his protector and friend, the dominions of England were the chief source of his finances; and the king of France, some time before, had got a bill of divorce in somewhat similar circumstances. In this exigence he thought the best method was to spin out the affair by negociation; whilst it depended, he was sure of two great friends, but, when it should be decided, of one great foe: and thus he argued, temporised, promised, recanted, and disputed, hoping that the king's passion would never hold out during the tedious course of an ecclesiastical controversy, or that the not improbable death of the queen, or some other of those accidents to which human affairs are subject, might extricate him from his embarrassment. During the negociations, on which Henry's happiness seemed to depend, he expected, in his favorite Wolsey, a warm defender, and a steady adherent; but Wolsey seemed to be in almost as great a dilemma as the pope himself. On the one hand he was to please his master, the king, from whom he had received a thousand marks of favor; on the other hand he could not disoblige the pope, whose servant he more immediately was, and who had power to punish his disobedience. The king's resentment was consequently excited against the cardinal, who died soon after, in all the pangs of repentance and remorse. Henry, by the advice of Cranmer, had the legality of his present marriage canvassed in the different universities of Europe. Almost all the colleges of Italy and France declared his o marriage against all law, divine and uman; and that, therefore, it was not, at first, in the power of the pope to grant a dispensation. Among the places where it was most warmly opposed were Cambridge and Oxford; but, at last, they also concurred in the same opinion. Thus fortified, the king was resolved to oppose even the pope himself, for his passion could by no means brook the delays and subterfuges of the holy see; being therefore supported by his clergy, and authorised by the universities; having seen the pope formerly degraded by a lay monarch, and Luther's doctrine followed by thousands; and yet still further instigated by the king of France, he, without further dispensation, annulled his marriage with queen Catherine; and Cranmer, now become an archbishop, pronounced the decree. The pope now thought himself obliged to hold no measures with the king; and, therefore, published a sentence declaring queen Catherine alone to be Henry's lawful wife, and requiring him to take her again, with a denunciation of censures in case of refusal. Henry, enraged that the pope should dare to thwart his passion, declared himself at once head of the church of England, and prohibited all intercourse with Rome; the tribute of Peter-pence, and the interference of the pope in the collation to benefices. The people came into the king's proposal with joy, and took an oath, called the oath of supremacy; all the credit of the pope, that had subsisted for ages, was now at once overthrown, and few, except those who held to the religious houses, seemed dissatisfied. In this manner began the Reformation of England, and by such surprising methods providence brought about its designs. Henry was very sensible that the parliament was, even from motives of interest, entirely devoted to him, and therefore he was resolved to make use of the opportunity, and render himself absolute. Being empowered to act as he thought proper, he went vigorously to work in the supression of monasteries, colleges, and religious buses. To reconcile the people to these proceedings, Henry took care to have the counterfeit reliques exposed, the scandalous lives of the friars and nuns made W. and all their debaucheries detected. hatever had served to engage the people in superstition, was publicly burnt; but what grieved the people most to see, were the bones of Thomas Becket, the saint of Canterbury, burnt in public, and his rich shrine, in which there was a diamond of great value, confiscated among the common plunder. But, though the king had entirely separated himself from Rome, yet he was by no méans willing to be a follower of Luther. The invocation of saints was not yet abolished by him, but only restrained; he ordered the Bible to be translated into the vulgar tongue, but not put into the hands of the laity. The publication of Tindal's Translation of the Bible was at this time, in its effects upon this nation, the most important volume that ever issued from the press. Under the patronage of Humphrey Monmouth, a wealthy and benevolent citizen, Tindal travelled into Germany, where he conferred with Luther and others of the great protestant divines, and then settling at Antwerp, as the best place for printing his book and securing its transmission to England, completed the New Testament. Tindal had perceived, he said, that it was impossible to establish the people in any truth, except the Scriptures were plainly laid before them in their mother tongue, that they might see the rocess, order, and meaning of the text. The manists understood perfectly well how little the practice of their church was supported by Scripture; and that, if the ark of the covenant was admitted, Dagon must fall. No sooner therefore was it discovered that copies of this translation were industriously dispersed in England than it was prohibited, as being corrupted with articles of heretical pravity, and opinions erroneous, pernicious, pestilent, and scandalous; tending to seduce persons of simple and unwary dispositions; but a spirit had now been roused which no persecution could suppress; the book was therefore eagerly sought for and widely dispersed. It was a capital crime to believe in the pope's supremacy, and yet equally heinous to be of the reformed religion, as practised in Germany. Henry's opinions in religion were delivered in a law, which, from its horrid consequences, was termed the bloody statute, by which it was ordained that whoever, by word or writing, denied transubstantiation, that whoever maintained that the communion in both kinds was necessary, or that it was lawful for priests to marry,
or that vows of chastity could innocently be broken, or that private masses were unprofitable, or that, auricular confession was unnecessary, should be burnt or hanged as the court should determine. The kingdom, at that time, was in some measure divided between the followers of Luther and the adherents to the pope; this statute, with Henry's former decrees, in some measure excluded both, and therefore opened a wide field for persecution. Children were now compelled to accuse their parents and parents their children, wives their husbands and husbands their wives, unless they would share the same fate. The poor wretches, who saved their lives by abjuration, were, under the name of perpetual penance, condemned to perpetual bondage, being distributed to monasteries beyond the precincts of which they were never to pass, and where by their labor they were to indemnify the convent for their share of such food as was regularly bestowed as charity at the gate. The mark of the branding iron they were never to conceal;
they were to bear a faggot at stated periods, and
once at the burning of a heretic; for which every one who contributed a faggot was rewarded with forty days indulgence. Among the martyrs of those days, Thomas Bilney is one whose name will ever be held in deserved reverence. He had been brought up from a child at Cambridge, where, laying aside the profession of both laws, he entered upon what was then the dangerous study of divinity; and being troubled in mind repaired to priests, who enjoined him masses, fasting, watching, and the purchase of indulgences, till his scanty purse and feeble constitution were both well nigh exhausted. At this time hearing the New Testament, which Erasmus had just published, praised for its Latinity, he bought it for that inducement only; and opened it upon a text, which finding his heart open, rooted itself there: ‘This is a faithful saying and worthy of all, acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, of whom I am chief.' The comfort which these words conveyed was confirmed by the frequent perusal of a book, which now became sweeter than honey, or the honeycomb; and he began to preach, as he had learnt, that men should seek for righteousness by faith. It was not long before he was accused before Cuthbert Tonstal, then bishop of London, a man of integrity and moderation, though compelled to bear a part in proceedings which were utterly abhorrent to his natural disposition. The main accusations against him were, that he asserted Christ was our only mediator, not the Virgin Mary, nor the saints; that pilgrimages were useless; and that offerings to images were idolatry. Of these doctrines he was found guilty; the sheriff, to whose custody he was delivered, happened to be one of his friends, and therefore treated him with every kindness which could be afforded during his imprisonment. The night before he was to suffer some friends who visited him found him at supper eating heartily, and with a cheerful countenance; and one of them saying he was glad to see him refresh himself thus so shortly before he was to undergo so painful a death, he replied, ‘I follow the example of those, who, having a ruinous house to dwell in, hold it up by props as long as they may :' another observed that his pains would be short, and the spirit of God would support him in them, and reward him afterwards with everlasting rest. Bilney, upon this, put his finger into the candle, which was burning before him more than once. “I feel,' said he, “by experience, and have long known by philosophy, that fire is naturally hot; yet I am persuaded by God's holy word, and by the experience of some saints of God therein recorded, that in the flames they may feel no heat, and in the fire no consumption. And I constantly believe that, however the stubble of this my body shall be wasted by it, yet my soul and spirit shall be purged thereby—a pain for the time, whereon followeth joy unspeakable;' and then he repeated the words of Scripture: “Fear not, for I have redeemed thee, and called thee by thy
name; thou art mine own; when thou goest.
through the water, I will be with thee, and the strong floods shall not overflow thee. When thou walkest in the fire, thou shall not be consumed, and the flame shall not burn thee; for I am the Lord thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour.' This text he applied to himself and those who were present, some of whom, receiving the words as a legacy of a blessed martyr, had them fairly written on tables, or in books, and derived comfort from them till their dying day. On the following morning he was led to execution, one of his friends exhorting him at the prison door, with few and secret words, to take his death patiently and constantly. Bilney answered, “When the mariner is tossed upon the troubled sea, he beareth his perils better, in hope that he shall yet reach his harbour; so, whatever storms I shall feel, my ship will soon be in its quiet haven; thereof, I doubt not, by the grace of God, and I entreat you, help me with your prayers, to the same effect.’ The place of execution was a low valley, solo with rising ground, without the bishop's gate. Having put off the layman's gown, in which after his degradation he had been clad, he knelt upon the sledge, and prayed with
deep and quiet devotion, ending with the 143d
Psalm, in which he thrice repeated the verse, * Enter not into judgment with thy servant, O Lord, for in thy sight shall no man living be }..." He then put off his jacket and doubet, and remained in his hose and shirt, and so was chained to the stake. The dry reeds were kindled ; and in a few minutes Bilney, triumphing over death, rendered up his soul, in the fulness of faith, and entered into his reward. Those who adhered to the pope, or those who followed Luther, were now equally the objects of royal vengeance and ecclesiastical persecution. In the houses of parliament, parties were nearly equally divided; there were on both sides men of great learning, ability, and address. After long consultation and debate certain articles were at length set forth in the king's name as head of the church of England; it being in the preamble stated, “among the chief cares appertaining to his princely office, diligently to Provide that unity and concord in religious opi
nions should increase and go forward; and all occasion of dissent and discord, touching the same, be repressed and utterly extinguished.” The articles were such as could satisfy neither party, both having struggled to introduce their own opinions, and each with considerable success, though on the whole to the manifest advantage of the reformers. The Bible and the three creeds were made the standards of faith, no mention being made of tradition, nor of the decrees of the church. Three sacraments— those of baptism, penance, and the altar—were said to be necessary to salvation—four being thus pretermitted; but the corporal presence
, was declared, and the necessity of auricular
confession. Images were allowed as useful, but they were not to be worshipped; and saints might laudably be addressed as intercessors, though it was asserted that Christ is our only sufficient mediator. The existing rites and ceremonies were to be retained as good and laudable; not as having power to remit sin, but as useful in stirring and lifting up our minds unto God, by whom only our sins can be forgiven. Lastly, prayers for the dead were advised as good and charitable; though the question of purgatory was said to be uncertain by Scripture, and the abuses which under that belief had arisen were to be put away. Thomas Cromwell, raised by the king's caprice from a blacksmith's son to be a royal favorite, and Cranmer, now become archbishop of Canterbury, with all their might assisted the Reformation. The pope had long threatened to issue a bull of deposition, but had hitherto delayed it because of the displeasure which he knew it would occasion to other sovereign princes. The manner in which Becket had been uncanonised put an end to this suspension; and the bull was now fulminated, requiring the king and his accomplices to appear at Rome, and there give an account of their actions on pain of excommunication and rebellion, otherwise the pope deprived him of his crown, and them of their estates, and both of Christian burial. He interdicted the kingdom; absolved his subjects and their vassals from all oaths and obligations to them ; and offered his dominions to the king of Scotland, if he would go and take them. But the throne of England was no longer to be shaken by such thunders. Even the Romish bishops joined in the declaration which Henry set forth, that Christ had forbidden his apostles or their successors to take to themselves the power of the sword, or the authority of kings; and if the bishop of Rome, or any other bishop, assumed any such power, he was a tyrant and usurper of other men's rights, and a subverter of the kingdom of Christ. At length so many hundred persons were thrown into prison upon the six articles, that Henry himself thought it better to grant a general pardon, than to proceed against them all; and this bloody act slept till his determination to put away Anne of Cleves, and marry Catherine Howard, drew on the fall of Cromwell, whom the duke of Norfolk, uncle to the bride
heretics those reformers who went, beyond the limits which he had laid down, put to death as traitors those Romanists who refused to acknowledge his supremacy. The alterations in the reign of Henry were rather separations from the pope than a reformation of religious abuses: in the reign of his successor, Edward VI., the errors of Rome, in reality, began to be reformed. It was left to people's choice to go to confession, which had hitherto been deemed an indispensable duty, or to neglect that practice. It was ordered that all images should be taken out of churches; priests were allowed to marry; the old mass was abolished; and a new liturgy drawn up, which retrenched several abuses in the service of the church, and which is the same with that now used, excepting a few alterations. Gardiner and Bonner, refusing their consent to these momentous changes, were deprived of their sees and imprisoned; but no rigor was used towards them, nor did the protestants in any instance abuse their o by retaliating upon the papists for the persecution which they had endured. Immediately upon the death of the young king, two competitors put up for the crown; Mary relying upon the justness of her pretensions, and the lady Jane Grey supported by the duke of Northumberland, her father-inlaw. Mary was strongly bigoted to the popish superstitions. Her zeal had rendered her cruel, and she was not only blindly attached to her religious opinions, but even to the popish clergy who maintained them. On the other hand, Jane Grey was attached to the reformers; though yet but sixteen, her judgment had obtained such a degree of perfection as few enjoy in their more advanced age. Queen Mary, however, obtained possession of her rightful throne without the loss of a single life; so completely did the nation acknowledge her claim, whilst an after insurrection rashly planned, and worse conducted, served only to hasten the destruction of the lady Jane and her husband. Mary began by giving orders for the suppression of all married bishops and priests; the mass was directed to be restored; the pope's authority was re-established with some restrictions; the laws against heretics were renewed; and the church and its privileges put on the same foundation in which they were before the alteration of Henry VIII. This was kindling up the fires of persecution anew ; at the head of these measures were Gardiner bishop of Winchester, and Bonner bishop of London. Gardiner began this bloody scene with Hooper and Rogers. Hooper had been bishop of Gloucester; Rogers was a clergyman who oi shone among the most distinguished of the protestants. He was prebendary of St. Pauls, and refused all submission to the church of Rome, which he looked upon as antichristian. They were both condemned by the commissioners appointed by the queen, with the chancellor at the head of them. Rogers suffered in Smithfield. When he was brought to the stake he had it in his power to save himself, by recanting his opinions; but neither hopes nor fears could prevail on him to desert his religion. When the faggots were placed around him he seemed no
way daunted at the preparation, but cried out, * I resign my life with joy, in testimony of the doctrine of Jesus;' and washing his hands in the flames, as they blazed around him, took his death with so calm and resolute a patience, that many who were present blessed God for the support which had been vouchsafed him. Hooper had his pardon offered him upon the same terms, but he refused it with equal indignation. This old martyr, who was executed at Gloucester, was three-quarters of an hour in torment; the fire either from malice or neglect had not been sufficiently kindled, so that his legs and thighs were first burnt, and one of his hands dropped off before he expired; yet the voice with which he called upon his Redeemer was not that of one impatient, or overcome with pain; he remained still and calm, we are told, to the last; and at length, in the words of Fox, ‘died as quietly as a child in his bed.' No father in his household, no gardener in his garden, no husbandman in his vineyard, was ever more employed than Hooper had been in his diocese among his flock, going about the towns and villages teaching and preaching to the people there. Saunders and Taylor, two other clergymen, whose zeal had been distinguished in carrying on the Reformation, were the next that suffered. And now Ridley bishop of London, and the venerable Latimer bishop of Worcester, were to receive the martyr's crown. Ridley was one of the ablest champions of the Reformation: his piety, learning, and solidity of judgment, were admired by his friends and dreaded by his enemies. The night before his execution he invited the mayor of Oxford and his wife to see him die; and when he saw them melted into tears he himself appeared quite unmoved. When he came to the stake where he was to be burnt, he found his old friend Latimer there before him, and began to comfort him in his sufferings, while Latimer was as ready to return the kind office. Ridley distributed such trifles as he had about him to those who were near him; and many pressed about him to obtain something as a relic. They then undressed for the stake; and Latimer, when he had put off his prison dress, remained in a shroud which he had put on, instead of a shirt, for that day's office. When the fire was brought Latimer said, “Be of good comfort, master Ridley, and play the man we shall this day light such a candle, by God's grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out!' The venerable old man received the flame as if embracing it; and having, as it were, bathed his hands in the fire, and stroked his face with them, died apparently without pain. Ridle enduled a long martyrdom, and fell at Latimer's feet. As the bodies were consumed the quantity of blood which gushed from Latimer's heart astonished the beholders. As soon as Cranmer perceived what course events were likely to take, after king Edward's death, he gave orders that all his debts should be paid to the uttermost farthing, and cancelled the bills which were due to him from persons who were not in a condition to discharge them. This being done, he said he was his own man and, with God's help, able to answer all the world