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and all worldly adversities. Those adversities soon came upon him; he was attainted of treason, and adjudged guilty of it. Accordingly he was arraigned for blasphemy, incontinency, and heresy, before the same commissioners who condemned his fellow-prisoners: but he was dealt with very differently from any of the former sufferers; being removed to the house of the dean of Christ Church, and treated there rather as a guest than a prisoner. We have noticed the success of this treatment on a mind naturally timid. See our article CRANMER. He signed a recantation of his former opinions, and concluded it with a protestation that he had done it freely and only for the discharge of his conscience. The queen, however, was resolved to make him a sacrifice to her resentments. She said it was good for his own soul that he repented; but, since he had been the chief spreader of heresy over the nation, it was necessary to make him a public example; so the writ was sent down to burn him: and, after some stop had been made in the execution of it, new orders came for doing it suddenly. This seems to have been kept from Cranmer's knowledge. He, however, was gradually prepared by a better influence for the worst; and on being carried to St. Mary's where Dr. Cole vindicated the queen's justice in condemning Cranmer while he magnified his conversion and ascribed it to the workings of God's Spirit, the conduct of the archbishop far more surprised his enemies. A Romanist who was present, and who thought that his former life and wretched end deserved a greater misery, if greater had been possible, was yet, in spite of his opinions, touched with compassion at beholding him in a bare and ragged gown, exposed to universal contempt. “I think,’ said he “that there was none that pitied not his case, and bewailed not his fortune, and feared not his own chance, to see so noble a prelate, so grave a counsellor, of so long continued honor, after so many dignities, in his old years to be deprived of his estate, adjudged to die, and in so painful a death to end is life.” In this hour of utter humiliation, and severe repentance, he certainly possessed his soul in patience; never had his mind been more clear and collected, never had his heart been so strong. At the stake no cry was heard from him, save the exclamation of the proto-martyr Stephen, * Lord Jesus, receive my Spirit!' He stood immovable as the tree to which he was bound, his countenance raised, looking to heaven, and anticipating that rest into which he was about to enter. Bonner now seemed not satisfied with single deaths, but sent men in whole companies to the flames; even women were not spared; and in Guernsey, when a woman condemned for heresy was delivered of a child in the midst of the flames, and some of the spectators humanely snatched it out, the magistrate, who was a papist, ordered it to be thrown in again, and it was consumed with the mother! During the four years that this persecution continued, it appears by authentic records that 280 persons were burnt alive; the number of those who perished in prison is unknown. The loss of property in London alone, consequent upon the arrest or flight of

substantial citizens, and the general insecurity, was estimated at £300,000. Nor was it in wealth alone that the kingdom suffered; the spirit of the nation sunk; and the character, and with it the prosperity, of the English would have been irrecoverably lost, if God in his mercy had not cut short this abominable tyranny. Mary was supposed to be with child; but those appearances, which had so far deceived the queen herself that the cradle was made ready, proved to be the indications of a mortal disease. Not a week before her death three women and two men were burnt at Canterbury. Elizabeth, immediately on her accession, made greater approaches to toleration than any prince who had hitherto reigned on any throne in Europe. Indulgence and forbearance, such as that age had never seen, were freely extended to all; neither were there any violations of this unknown and unthought of generosity till repeated acts of treason endangered the safety both of her person and her throne. When the parliament met, the keeper of the great seal, Sir Nicholas Bacon, was directed, with a moderation at that time very unusual, to entreat the members to reunite all classes of the people by avoiding the extremes of both parties. In consequence of this advice, and in accordance with the known wishes of the queen, public worship was appointed in the vulgar tongue—the supremacy of the queen was restored—the acts of Edward, concerning religion, were renewed and confirmed. No laws were made to punish the Romanist persecutors of the former reign—no retaliation was attempted—no censure was passed—no disapprobation expressed. The first act of the new queen was to take Sir William Cecil into her council, and appoint him her principal secretary. When the bill for restoring the supremacy to the crown was debated in parliament, it was opposed by the bishops. Heath said, that, as concerning tem|. government, the house could give her ighness no further authority than she already had by right and inheritance, not by their gift, but by the appointment of God, she being their sovereign lord and lady, their king and queen. their emperor and empress. But spiritual government they could not grant, neither could she receive. The bishop of Chester, speaking upon the same subject, asked of whom those men, who in this and other points dissented from the Catholic church, learned their doctrine ! “They must needs answer,’ said he, “that they learned it of the Germans. Of whom did the Germans learn it ! Of Luther. Well, then, of whom did Luther learn it ! He shall answer himself: he saith, that such things as he teacheth against the mass, and the blessed sacrament of the altar, he learned of Satan, the devil; at whose hands, it is like, he did also receive the rest of his doctrines.’ The infamous persecutor, Story, went beyond this in the house of commens. He boasted of the part he had taken; related with exultation how he had thrown a faggot in the face of an earwig, as he called him, who was singing psalms at the stake, and how he had thrust a thornbush under his feet to prick him: wished that he had

done more; and said he only regretted that they should have labored at the ‘young and little twigs, when they ought to have struck at the root;' words by which it was understood that he meant the queen. Even this unreasonable insolence did not provoke the government to depart from the temperate course which it had laid down. The measures adopted by the pope were, at this time, not less impolitic than cruel and wicked. It is possible that Elizabeth would have been content to have allowed the people to retain their faith so long as her crown was independent. The measures of the pope, and the dissensions he fomented, however, gradually kindled in Elizabeth's mind the most anxious apprehensions for her individual safety as well as that of her throne. The insurrection of Northumberland and Westmoreland was sanctioned by the pope, who, in his letters, exhorts them “to persevere in the work, not doubting but that God would grant them assistance; and that if they should die in asserting the Catholic faith, and the authority of the see of Rome, it were better for them, with the advantage of a glorious death, to purchase eternal life, than by ignominiously living, with the loss of their souls, shamefully to obey the will of an ungovernable woman.'—Pii. V. Epist. p. 290. Soon after this pious exhortation the pope, in the thirteenth year of the reign of Elizabeth, fulminated the Bull of Excommunication “out of the fulness of his apostolic power;' declaring the queen to be a heretic, and a favorer of heretics. “We declare her,’ said the pope, ‘to be deprived of her pretended title to the kingdom aforesaid, and of all dominions, dignity, and privilege whatsoever: and also the nobility, subjects, and people of the said kingdoms, and all which have in any sort sworn unto her, to be for ever absolved from every such oath, and all manner of duty, of dominion, of allegiance, and obedience. We also command and interdict all and every the noblemen, subjects, and people, aforesaid, that they presume not to obey her, or her monitions, mandates, and laws, and those which shall do to the contrary we do likewise anathemise.’ Irritated by this presumptuous and scandalous decree Elizabeth procured an act declaring it to be high treason to affirm that the queen was not a lawful sovereign, or to bring bulls, indulgences, or absolutions from the pope. Matters now threatened so complete a separation of England from Rome that the pope declared it would be of so much benefit to Christendom that Elizabeth should be destroyed, that he was ready to aid in person, to spend the whole revenue of the apostolic see, all the chalices and crosses of the church, and even his very clothes, to procure her destruction, &c. A public disputation was at this time appointed, not, as in Mary's reign, to be concluded by burning those who differed in opinion from the ruling party, but with full liberty of speech, and perfect safety for the Romish disputants. Upon Heath's motion, the queen ordered it should be managed in writing, as the best means to avoid vain altercation; but, when it came to the point, the Romanists, upon some difference concerning the manner of proceeding, refused to dispute at all. For this contempt of the privy council, in whose presence

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never more, we trust, to be subverted, the sepa

ration of England and all the members of her hierarchy from the domination of Rome. VIII. The Reformation in Denmark, France, &c.—In Denmark the Reformation was introduced as early as the year 1521, in consequence of the ardent desire of Christiern II. to have his subjects instructed in the doctrines of Luther.’ His uncle Frederick, duke of Holstein and Sleswick, being appointed his successor, conducted the Reformation with much greater prudence than his predecessor. He permitted the Protestant doctors to preach publicly the sentiments of Luther, but d. not venture to change the established government and discipline of the church. However, he procured the publication of a famous edict, by which every subject of Denmark was declared free either to adhere to the tenets of the church of Rome, or to the doctrine of Luther; and the papal tyranny was totally destroyed by his successor Christiern III., who began by suppressing the despotic authority of the bishops, and restoring to their lawful owners a great part of the wealth and |. sions which the church had acquired. This was followed by a plan of religious doctrine, worship, and discipline, laid down by Bugenhagius, whom the king had sent for from Wittemberg; and, in 1539, an assembly of the states at Odensee gave a solemn sanction to all these transactions, and settled that form of church government which has since been retained. The first dawn of the Reformation in France appeared, as we have before noticed, in the E.; of Waldo, who, in the twelfth century, rought to light some truths which had been kong hidden amidst the ignorance and superstition of the Romish church; and, though persecution soon attended his steps, it served but to scatter his principles, and disperse his followers over the face of Europe. Waldo himself appears to have proclaimed his opinions in various parts of the continent. The Albigenses, so called from the country about Toulouse, where they dwelt, embraced in a body the doctrine of reform. It was carried into Calabria, Bohemia, Germany, Flanders, Poland, Spain, and even the dominions of the grand sultan. Calvin was born at Noyon, in Picardy, early in the sixteenth century; when twenty years of age, he first preached the doctrines of the Reformation to his countrymen; and, seven years afterwards (in 1536), printed his Institutes, which contain a full, and certainly a very able,

statement of his opinions. This work was dedi

cated, in a preface written with remarkable elegance of style, to Francis I.; but it does not seem to have produced much effect on the mind of that monarch. In 1553 Calvin edited an edition of Olivitan's translation of the Bible, which proved of great benefit to the church. In 1557, however, an attempt was made to establish an inquisition at Paris, after the plan of that in Spain, to put down heretical opinions; but it did no effectual mischief. The king of Navarre, who was also a prince of the blood, and through whom the title to the crown of France afterwards descended to his son Henry IV., became about this time a convert to the reformed doctrines. In 1562 the ever-memorable Charles IX. succeeded to his brother. As he was only nine years of age at that time, the government remained in the hands of Catherine. Two years after this period Calvin died. It does not appear that this great man, except at an early period of his life, took directly any personal {.." in prosecuting the Reformation in France;

ut it grew up under his inspection; and his authority was the acknowledged human standard of faith and duty. In 1571 the Protestant church in France had reached its highest point of prosperity. A synod was held at Rochelle, where the queen of Navarre, Jean D'Albert, her son, afterwards Henry IV., and two princes of the royal family, attended. At that time the protestants had 2150 churches, some of which contained 10,000 members. The deepest aversion, however, to the views of the Protestants had long dwelt in the minds of all connected with the court, except the few members of their own body; and a plot for getting rid of the reformed religion had long been meditated. To the queen-mother, one of the family of Guise, the atrocious contrivance is due, of the means by which it was to be attempted. On the occasion of the marriage of Henry, with the sister of Charles IX., the whole body of Protestants were enticed to Paris. After the admiral De Coligny, the champion of the reformed cause, as he was really the head of the party, was fairly in the toils, the minds of the populace were exasperated against the Protestants by the contrivance of the Duc de Guise; and, by the command of the king, they were all given up to slaughter. The proclamation for their destruction was made on the night of St. Bartholomew; and, at two o'clock in the morning, the work of death began. The king himself is said to have shot from a gallery many of the fugitives; and neither age, rank, nor character, afforded any protection to the unfortunate victims. Henry of Navarre, the brother-in-law of Charles, the prince De Conde his uncle, and the king's physician, were alone exempted from destruction. Henry and De Conde were hurried from their beds, and dragged, not without danger, before the king, who, when they refused to be converted, as the phrase ran, broke out into an excessive rage, declaring that he would be obeyed as the vicegerent of God; that they must teach others to submit by their acquiescence; and that it became them no longer to hold themselves in opposition to the holy mother. They were in consequence obliged to attend mass. The massacre was continued without cessation for three days, till the king became aghast at his own act, and his conscience

was so haunted with images of murder and death that he directed it should cease. Charles lx. survived this event only one year; he lived, however, to repent of his crimes, and to suffer for them. His death was of that kind which it has pleased God often to inflict upon eminent persecutors of his church. He was tormented in mind and body; and sank into his untimely grave unhonored even by his former friends, and unregretted by every lover of his country. During the concluding period of this reign, the reformed church was at a very low ebb. There could be no security that the anniversary of St. Bartholomew would not be celebrated with a recurrence of the same disasters. The heads of the church were gone. Henry of Navarre himself seemed to have been in a sort of imprisonment, and the remainder of the scattered flock could scarcely be collected together. It was not till the year 1578 that another synod was held, and then no formal notice was taken of the late events. Henry III. succeeded his brother in 1574. During his reign the great conflict for independence and religious liberty was being carried on in the Low Countries; and the successful issue of it gave respect and consideration to the Protestant cause wherever its supporters were found. At length, in 1589, Henry IV. ascended the throne. Never had a prince been nurtured amidst greater dangers, concerned in more critical enterprises, or come to a throne more encompassed with difficulties. He had been well educated by his excellent mother, whose prudence and power he inherited, but not her piety. In the year 1572 he married Margaret, sister of Charles IX., from whom he was divorced. He married a second time Mary of Medicis. This was the first step by which he allied himself to the Catholics; and it was doubted by some whether to it may not be traced another great error of his life, his abjuration of the Protestant faith, which took place in the year 1592. In the year 1598 he granted all his subjects full liberty of conscience by the famous edict of Nantes, and the Reformation seemed to be established throughout his dominions. During the minority of Louis XIV., however, this edict was revoked by cardinal Mazarine; since which time the Protestants have often been cruelly persecuted; nor has the profession of the reformed religion in France been at any time so safe as in most other countries of Europe. In the other parts of the continent the cause of the Reformation made a considerable, though secret, progress. Some countries threw off the Romish yoke entirely; and in others a prodigious number of families embraced the principles of the reformed religion. It is certain indeed, and some Roman Catholics themselves do not hesitate to acknowledge it, that the papal doctrines and authority would have fallen into ruin in all parts of the world at once, had not the force of the secular arm been employed to support the tottering edifice. In several places the pope put a stop to the progress of the Reformation, by letting loose the inquisitors; who spread dreadful marks of their barbarity through the greatest parts of Europe. These formidable ministers of superstition put so many to death, and perpetrated such horrid acts of cruelty and oppression, that most of the reformed consulted their safety by a voluntary exile; while others returned to the religion of Rome, at least in external appearance. The political results of the Reformation are thus summarily stated by Villiers:— ‘Europe, plunged for several centuries in a stupor and apathy interrupted only by wars, or rather by incursions and robberies, without any beneficial object to humanity, received at once a new life and a new activity; a universal and deep interest agitated the nations, their powers were developed, their minds expanded by new political ideas. Former revolutions had only exercised men's arms; this employed their heads. The people, who before had been only estimated as flocks passively subject to the caprice of their leaders, now began to act for themselves, and to feel their importance and ability. Those who embraced the reform made common cause with their princes for liberty; and hence arose a closer bond, a community of interests and of action, between the sovereign and his subjects. Both were for ever delivered from the excessive and burdensome power of the clergy, as well as from the struggle, so distressing to all Europe, between the popes and the emperors, for supreme power. Social order was now regulated and brought nearer to perfection. In one part of Europe the church ceased to form an extraneous state within the state; from which it was easy to foretell that this change would one day be effected through the whole of it, and that its head would be reduced to the simple spiritual primacy. At length the Catholic clergy reformed

their conduct on the example of the Protestants, and gained in manners, knowledge, and esteem, as much as they lost in power and riches. Nor has science been less a gainer. It is little more than two centuries since Galileo, having discovered and collected incontestable proofs of the true motion of the earth, was condemned, as a heretic, to perpetual imprisonment, by the tribunal of the inquisition. The ancient system of Roman Catholicism was diametrically opposite to the progress of knowledge; the Reformation, which has contributed to free the human mind from such an adversary, must ever be considered as one of the most fortunate epochs in the inteliectual culture of modern nations. The opposite system of liberality, of examination, of free criticism, established by the Reformation, has become the aegis under which the Galileos of subsequent ages have been enabled securely to develope their exalted conceptions.”

The moral effects of the Reformation on the opinions and conduct of mankind must not be overlooked. The intention of the Reformers was, in principle, to free themselves from the despotism and infallibility of the popes; to depend only on the Sacred Writings for the grounds of their belief; and, in short, to overthrow the scholastic divinity, which was become the soul of the Roman theology, and the firm support of the hierarchy. Hence it follows that the Reformation, in its essence, must have had an immediate and powerful influence on the liberty of men's opinions, judgment, and actions. It at once stimulated them to think for themselves, and handed to them a perfect standard of faith and morals.

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Refraction, in general, is the incurvation or change of determination in the body moved, which happens to it whilst it enters or penetrates any medium : in dioptricks, it is the variation of a ray of light from that right line, which it would have passed on in, had not the density of the medium turned it aside. Harris. The image of the sun should be drawn out into an oblong form, either by a dilatation of every ray, or by any other casual inequality of the refractions. Newton. Those superficies of transparent bodies reflect the greatest quantity of light, which have the greatest refracting power; that is, which intercede mediums that differ most in their refractive densities. - Id. Optics. If its angle of incidence be large, and the refractire . of the medium not very strong to throw it far from the perpendicular, it will be refracted. Cheune's Philosophical Principles. Rays of light are urged by the refracting media. Cheyne. Refracted from yon eastern cloud,

The grand etherial bow shoots up. Thomson.

REFRACTION is chiefly used with regard to the rays of light, and is an inflection or deviation of the rays from their lectilinear course on passing

obliquely out of one medium into another of a different density. That a body may be refracted, it is necessary that it should fall obliquely on the second medium: in perpendicular incidence there is no refraction. Yet Vossius and Snellius imagined they had observed a perpendicular ray of light undergo a refraction; a perpendicular object appearing in the water nearer than it really was: but this was attributing that to a refraction of the perpendicular rays, which was owing to the divergency of the oblique rays after refraction, from a nearer point. Yet there is a manifest refraction even of perpendicular rays found in island crystal. Rohault adds, that though an oblique incidence be necessary in all other mediums we know of, yet the obliquity must not exceed a certain degree; if it do, the body will not penetrate the medium, but will be reflected instead of being refracted. Thus, cannon-balls, in sea engagements, falling very obliquely on the surface of the water, are observed to bound or rise from it, and to sweep the men from off the enemy's decks. And the same thing happens to the little stones with which children make their ducks and drakes along the surface of water. The ancients confounded refraction with reflection; and it was Newton who first taught the true difference' between them. He shows however that there is a good deal of analogy between them, and particularly in the case of light.

*. laws of the refraction of the rays of light in mediums differently terminated, i.e. whose surfaces are plane, concave, and convex, make the subject of dioptrics. By refraction it is that convex glasses, or lenses, collect the rays, magnify objects, burn, &c., and hence the foundation of microscopes, telescopes, &c. And by refraction it is that all remote objects are seen out of their real places; particularly that the heavenly bodies are apparently higher than they are in reality. The refraction of the air has many times so uncertain an influence on the places of celestial objects near the horizon, that, wherever refraction is concerned, the conclusions deduced from observations that are much affected by it will always remain doubtful, and sometimes too precarious to be relied on. See Optics.

The true law of refraction, viz. that the ratio of the sines of the angles made by the perpendicular (to the plane bounding the mediums) with the incident and refracted rays, is a constant and fixed ratio, was first discovered by Willebrord Snell, professor of mathematics, at Leyden. From this law it follows that one angle of inclination, and its corresponding refracted angle, being found by observation, the refracted angles corresponding to the several other angles of inclination are thence easily computed. Now Zahnius and Kircher have found that, if the angle of inclination be 70°, the refracted angle out of air into glass will be 38° 50'; on which principle Zahnius has constructed a table of these refrac

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Hence it appears that, if the angle of inclination be less than 20°, the angle of refraction out of air into glass is almost one-third of the angle of inclination; and therefore a ray is refracted to the axis of refraction by almost a third part of the quantity of its angle of inclination. And on this principle it is that Kepler, and most other dioptrical writers, demonstrate the refractions in glasses; though, in estimating the law of these refractions, he followed the example of Alhazen and Vitello, and sought to discover it in the proportion of the angles, and not in that of the sines, or cosecants, as discovered by Snell, as mentioned above.

Refraction of ALT1tude is the arc or portion of a vertical circle, by which the altitude of a star is increased by the refraction of light.

REFRAction or Ascension AND Descensiox is an arc of the equator, by which the ascension and descension of a star, whether right or oblique, is increased or diminished by the refraction. REFRAction of Declination is an arc of a circle of declination, by which the declination of a star is increased or diminished by the refraction. Refraction of LATITUDE is an arc of a circle of latitude, by which the latitude of a star is increased or diminished by the refraction. Refraction of LoNgitude is an arc of the ecliptic, by which the longitude of a star is increased or diminished by the refraction. REFRAction, TERRESTRIAL or ATMospher 1cAL, is that by which terrestrial objects appear to be raised higher than they really are, in observing their altitudes. The quantity of this refraction is estimated by Dr. Maskelyne at onetenth; by Le Gendre at one-fourteenth ; by De Lambre at one-eleventh, and by others at the twelfth of the distance of the object observed, expressed in degrees of a great circle. But there can be no fixed quantity of this refraction, as it depends on the state of the atmosphere, which is very variable. Some very singular effects of this are related in the Philosophical Transactions for 1798, by W. Latham, esq., F. R. S. and A. S. Many curious effects of atmospherical refraction have been noticed by ingenious men; for which see Dr. Hutton's Dictionary, and the papers of Vince, Huddart, Lathem, &c., in the Philosophical Transactions. For more on the theory of atmospherical refraction, the reader may consult the treatises on astronomy by Vince, Gregory, Biot, Woodhouse, and Prony's Architectural Hydraulique. See also our article AstroNoMy. REFRACTORY, adj. A French refractaire; REFRActor INESS, n.s. ! Lat. refractarius. It is sometimes accented on the first syllable, but by Shakspeare on the second; sullen; obstinate; perverse: sullenness; obstinacy.

There is a law in each well-ordered nation, To curb those raging appetites that are Most disobedient and refractory. Shakspeare.

A rough hewn seaman, being brought before a wise i. for some misdemeanor, was by him ordered to sent away to prison, and was refractory after he heard his doom, insomuch as he would not stir a foot from the place where he stood; saying, it was better to stand where he was, than go to a worse place. Bacon's Apophthegms. I did never allow any man's refractoriness against the privileges and orders of the houses. King Charles. It maketh them indocile and intractable, averse from better instruction, pertinacious in their opinions, and refractory in their ways. Burrow. Great complaint was made by the presbyteriar gang, of refractoriness to obey the parliament's order. Saunderson. Refractory mortal! if thou wilt not trust thy friends, take what follows; know assuredly, before next full moon, that thou wilt be hung up in chains. Arbuthnot's History of John Bull.

These atoms of theirs may have it in them, but they are refractory and sullen; and therefore, like men of the same tempers, must be hanged and butfeted into reason. - Bentley,

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