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wan's temper, by which he is distinguished, and for which he is loved or esteemed, or shunned and despised by others. Mason.

PREEM'INENCE, n.s. Fr.preeminence; PREEM'INENT, adj. } Lat. prae and eminence. It has been written, to avoid the junction of ee, preheminence. Excellence; superiority of merit or station: pre-eminent is excellent; superior. His lance brought him captives to the triumph of Artesia's beauty, such as, though Artesia be amongst the fairest, yet in that company were to have the inency. Sidney. That which standeth on record hath preeminence above that which passeth from hand to hand, and hath no pens but the tongues, no book but the ears of men. Hooker. I do invest you jointly with my power, Preeminence, and all the large effects That troop with majesty. Shakspeare. King Lear. The É. desired no preeminence, but offered equality both in liberty and privilege, and in capaso of offices and employments. Hayward. t is a greater preeminence to have life, than to be without it; to have life and sense, than to have life only; to have life, sense, and reason, than to have only life and sense. Wilkins. Tell how came I here? by some great maker In goodness and in power preeminent. Milton. Beyond the equator, the southern point of the needle is sovereign, and the north submits his preeminence. Browne.

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PREENGAGE., v.a. } Prae and engage. PREENGAGE'MENT, n.s. 5. To engage by precedent ties or contracts: the noun substantive corresponding. Men are apt to think that those obediences they pay to God shall, like a preengagement, disannul all after-contracts made by guilt. Decay of Piety. The opinions, suited to their respective tempers, will make way to their assent, in spite of accidental preengagements. Glanville. My preengagements to other themes were not unknown to those for whom I was to write. Boyle. To Cipseus by his friends his suit he moved, But he was preengaged by former ties. Dryden." As far as opportunity and former preengagements will give leave. Collier of Frendship. The world has the unhappy *. of preen#. our passions at a time when we have not reection enough to look beyond the instrument to the Rogers's Sermons. Lat. prae and eristo.

hand whose direction it obeys.
PREExis'TENCE, n.s. o exist beforehand :
PREExis'TENT, adj. 5 the noun-substantive

and adjective corresponding.

If thy preeristing soul,

Was formed at first with myriads more
It did through all the mighty poets roll. Dryden.

and governed, by a sovereign intelligence.

Wisdom declares her antiquity and preeristence to all the works of this earth. Burmet.

Artificial things could not be from eternity, because they suppose man, by whose art they were made, preexistent to them; the workman must be before the work. I+.

As Simonides has exposed the vicious part of woman from the doctrine of preeristence; some of the ancient philosophers have satirised the vicious part of the human species, from a notion of the soul's postexistence. Addison.

If this preeristent eternity is not compatible with a successive duration, then some being, though infi. nitely above our finite comprehensions, must have had an identical, invariable continuance from all eternity, which being is no other than God. Bentley. Blind to former, as to future fate, . What mortal knows his preeristent state? Pope.

PRE-Existence is a priority of being, or the being of one thing before another. Thus a cause is in nature pre-existent to its effect. The Peripatetics, though they maintained the eternity of the world, were likewise dogmatical in their opinion that the universe was formed, actuated, Mr. Hume's speculations also, on this abstruse and arduous subject, had a greater tendency to dissipate its gloom than that philosopher himself could imagine. The pre-existence of the human soul to its corporeal vehicle had been from time immemorial a prevailing opinion among the Asiatic sages, and from them was perhaps transferred by Pythagoras to the philosophy of the Greeks; but his metempsychosis is too trivial either to be seriously proposed or refuted. Nevertheless, from the sentiments of Socrates concerning the immortality of the soul, delivered in his last interview with his friends, it is obvious that the tenet of pre-existence was a doctrine of the Platonic school. But their hypothesis was totally unsupported by fact, except the solitary pretence of Pythagoras, that his soul had formerly io the body of Euphorbus; a fable evidently invented to . his doctrine of transmigration. After the Christian religion had been considerably diffused, and warmly combated by its philosophical antagonists, the same doctrine was resumed and taught at Alexandria, by Platonic proselytes, not only as a topic constituent of their master's philosophy, but as an answer to those formidable objections which had been deduced from the doctrine of original sin, and from the vices which stain, and the calamities which disturb human life. For the human beings introduced by them to the theatre of probation had already attained the capacity of moral agents; as their crime therefore was voluntary, their punishment might be just.

The word has also been used with regard to the divinity of our Saviour. The Arians, who allowed the subordinate divinity of our Saviour, believed him pre-existent to all time, and before all worlds; but the Socinians, who esteemed his nature, as well as his person, merely human, insisted that before his incarnation he was only pre-existent in the divine idea, not in nature or person.

PRE'FACE, n.s., v. n. & Parr’AcER, [v. a. } Latin , . profatio. PREF'atory, adj. Something introductory to the main design; introduction; to say or introduce something proemial: a prefacer is the author of a preface: prefatory, introductory; preparative. This superficial tale Is but a preface to her worthy praise. Shakspeare. Sir Thomas More betrayed his depth of judgment in state affairs in his Utopia, than which, in the opinion of Budapus, in a preface before it, our age hath not seen a thing more deep. Peacham. I love to wear clothes that are flush, Not prefacing old rags with plush. Cleaveland. Heaven's high behest no preface needs. Milton. Wheresoe'er he gave an admonition, he prefaced it always with such demonstrations of tenderness. Fell. If there be not a tolerable line in all these six, the prefacer gave me no occasion to write better. Dryden. If this proposition, whosoever will be saved, be restrained only to those to whom it was intended, the Christians, then the anathema reaches not the heathens, who had never heard of Christ: after all, I am far from blaming even that prefatory addition to the creed. ld. " . Before I enter upon the particular parts of her character, it is necessary to preface that she is the only child of a decrepid father. Spectator. tis lamentable to behold with what lazy scorn many of the yawning readers in our age, now-a-days, travel over forty or fifty pages of preface and dedication (the usual modern stint) as if it were so much Latin. Swift.

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Thou art rash, And must be prefaced into government. Southern.

PREFECT, n.s. Lat. prefectus. GoverPREFEcTURE. 3 nor; commander: prefecture is his office or sphere of government.

He is much The better soldier, having been a tribune, Prefect, lieutenant, praetor in the war. - Ben Jomson. It was the custom in the Roman empire for the Profects and viceroys of distant provinces to transmit arelation of every thing remarkable in their admimistration. Addison.

The PREFEct, in ancient Rome, was one of the chief magistrates who governed in the absence of the kings, consuls, and emperors. This Power was greatest under the emperors. His chief care was the government of the city, takin cognizance of all crimes committed therein, an within 100 miles. He judged capitally and finally, and even presided in the senate. He had the superintendance of the provisions, building, and navigation. PREfect of The PRAEToRIUM was the leader of the pretorian bands destined for the emPetor's guards, consisting, according to Dion, of 100,000 men. This officer, according to Suetonius, was instituted by Augustus, and usually oken from among the knights. By the favor of the emperors his power grew very considerable; "reduce which, Constantine divided the prefecture of the praetorium into four prefectures, and each of these again he subdivided into civil and

military departments, the title being reserved to him who was invested with the civil authority, and that of comes belli given him who commanded the cohorts. PREFER', v. a. Fr. preferer; Span. PREF'ERABLE, adj. lo Ital. prePREF'ERABLENEss, n.s. (ferire ; Lat. prafero. PREF'ERABLY, adv. To regard with suPREF'ERENCE, n.s. perior esteem or atPREFER'MENT. tention; taking above, before, and to, before the object postponed; to advance; exalt; raise; exhibit; offer or propose solemnly : preferable is eligible before some other thing or person; the adverb and noun substantive corresponding: preference is, the act of preferring; electing; esteeming or raising one thing before another: preferment, advancement; promotion; place of honor or advantage; particularly a church living.

If I do not remember thee, let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth; if I prefer not Jerusalem above my chief o Psalms. He that cometh after me is preferred before me; for he was before me. John i. 15. In honour preferring one another. Romans. I, when my soul began to faint, Mo. and prayers to thee preferred: he Lord my passionate complaint, Even from his holy temple, heard. Sandys. It may worthily seem unto you a most shameful thing, to have preferred an infamous peace before a most just war. Rnolles. I'll move the King To any shape of thy preferment, such As thou’lt desire. Shakspeare. Cymbeline. They flatly disavouch To yield him more obedience or support, And as to a perjured duke of Lancaster, Their cartel of defiance they prefer. Daniel. The greater good is to be preferred before the less, and the lesser evil to be endured rather than the greater. Wilkins. By the recommendation of the earl of Dunbar, he was preferred to the bishoprick of Coventry and Litchfield. Clarendon. O spirit, that dost prefer Before all temples the upright heart. Milton. I shall give an account of some of those approF. and discriminating notices wherein the human ody differs, and hath preference above the most perfect brutal nature. Hale. All which declare a natural preferment of the one unto the motion before the other. Browne. Leave the criticks on either side to contend about the preference due to this or that sort of poetry. Dryden All preferments should be placed upon fit men. L’Estrange." The stronger ties we have to an unalterable pursuit of happiness, which is greatest good, the more are we free from any necessary compliance with our desire, set upon any particular, and then appearing preferable good, till we have duly examined it: Locke. We find in ourselves a power to begin or forbear several actions of our † and motions of our bo. dies, barely by a thought or preference of the mind, ordering the doing, or not doing such a particular action. . Id. It gives as much due to good works as is consistent with the grace of the gospel; it gives as much preference to divine grace as is consistent with the precepts of the gospel. Sprat. .

The mercenary and inconstant crew of the hunters after preferment, whose designs are always seen through. Davenant. Almost every man in our nation is a politician, and hath a scheme of his own, which he thinks preferable to that of any other. Asoldison. The several musical instruments in the hands of the Apollos, Muses, and Fauns, might give light to the dispute for preference between the ancient and modern musick. Id. Every person within the church or commonwealth may prefer an accusation, that the delinquent may suffer condign punishment. Ayliffe. Take care, Lest thou prefer so rash a prayer, Nor vainly hope the queen of love Will e'er thy fav'rite's charms improve. Prior. Prefer a bill against all kings and parliaments since the conquest; and, if that won't do, challenge the crown and the two houses. Collier. Even in such a state as this, the pleasures of virtue would be superior to those of vice, and justly preferable. Atterbury. How came he to chuse a comick preferably to the tragick poets; or how comes he to chuse Plautus preferably to Terence? Dennis. The Romanists were used to value the latter equally with the former, or even to give them the preference. Waterland. A secret pleasure touched Athena's soul, To see the pref'rence due to sacred age Regarded. Pope's Odyssey. He spake, and so her hand preferred the bowl. Pope. Princes must, by a vigorous exercise of that o, make it every man's interest and honour to cultivate religion and virtue, by rendering vice a disgrace, and the certain ruin to preferment or pretensions. Swift. We know your prudence, Sir William, and I isia be sorry to stop your preferment. Junius. PREFIGURATE, or ). Lat.pre and figuro. PREFIG'URE, v. a. }: show by antecePREF1GURA'tion, n. s. X dent representation: antecedent representation.

What the Old Testament hath, the very same the New containeth; but that which lieth there, as under a shadow, is here brought forth into the open sun; things there prefigured are here performed. - Hooker. | Such piety, so chaste use of God's day, That what we turn to feast; she turned to pray, And did prefigure here in devout taste, The rest of her high sabbath, which shall last. Donne. If shame superadded to loss, and both met together, as the sinner's portion here, perfectly prefiguring the two saddest ingredients in hell, deprivation of the blissful vision, and confusion of face, cannot prove efficacious to the mortifying of vice, the church doth give over the patient. Hammond. The variety of prophecies and prefigurations had their punctual accomplishment in the author of this institution. Norris. The same providence that hath wrought the one will work the other; the former being pledges, as well as prefigurations, of the latter. Burnet.

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PREFIX', v. a. & n.s. Lat. prafigo. To appoint before hand; settle; put before another thing; a thing so fixed : a particle put before a word to vary its signification. A time prefir, and think of me at last. At the prefired hour of her awaking, Came I to take her from her kindred's vault. Shakspeare. - Whose sins Full weight must be transferred upon my head; Yet neither thus disheartened or dismayed, The time prefired I waited. Milton. Because I would prefir some certain boundary between them; the old statutes end with king Edward II., the new or later statutes begin with king Edward III. Hale's Law of England. It is a prefir of augmentation to many words in that language. Browne's Vulgar Errours. Booth's forward valour only served to show, He durst that duty pay we all did owe: The' attempt was fair; but heaven's prefired hour Not come. Dryden. These boundaries of species are as men, and not as nature makes them, if there are in nature any such prefired bounds. Locke. In the Hebrew language the noun has its prefira and affixa, the former to signify some few relations, and the latter to denote the pronouns possessive and relative. Clarke.

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If you consider the true cause Why all these things change from their ordinance, Their natures and preformed faculties, To monstrous quality; why you shall find That heaven made them instruments of fear Unto some monstrous state. Shakspeare. Julius Caesar. PREGNANT, adj. } Fr. pregnant; Lat. PREG'NANTLY, adv. $ pragmans. Teeming; breeding; fertile; full of meaning; evident; free: the adverb corresponding. Pregnancy is made a tapster, and hath his quick wit wasted in giving reckonings. Shakspeare. This granted, as it is a most pregnant and unforced osition, who stands so eminent in the degree of this ortune as Cassio, a knave very voluble. Id. Othello. Were 't not that we stand up against them all, 'Twere pregnant, they should square between themselves. Shakspeare. A most poor man made tame to fortune's blows, Who by the art of known and feeling sorrows, Am pregnant to good pity. Id. King Lear. A thousand moral paintings I can shew, That shall demonstrate these quick blows of fortune More pregnantly than words. Id. Timon. He was sent to school, where his pregnancy was advantaged by more than paternal care and industry. 'ell. These knew not the just motives and pregnant grounds with which I thought myself furnished. 'King Charles. Thou

Dove-like satest brooding on the vast abyss, And madest it pregnant. Milton. His town, as fame reports, was built of old By Danae, pregnant with almighty gold. Dryden. The breast is encompassed with ribs, and the belly left free for respiration; and, in females, for that extraordinary extension in the time of their pregnancy. Ray on the Creation.


The dignity of this office among the Jews is so pregnantly set forth in holy writ, that it is unquestionable; kings and priests are mentioned together. South. Through either ocean, foolish man! That pregnant word sent forth again, Might to a world extend each atom there, For every drop call forth a sea, a heaven for every Stat. Prior. An egregious and pregnant instance how far virtue surpasses ingenuity. Woodward's Natural History. 0 detestable passive obedience' did I ever imagine I should become thy votary in so pregnant an instance? - Arbuthnot. This writer, out of the pregnancy of his invention, hath found out an old way of insinuating the grossest reflections under the appearance of admonitions. Swift's Miscellanies.

PREGNANCY. See MidwifeRY. PREHNITE, or PRISMATIC PREHNITE, a mineral of which there are two sub-species, the foliated and the fibrous. 1. Foliated. Color apple-green. Massive, in distinct concretions, and sometimes crystallised. Primitive form an oblique four-sided prism of 103° and 77°. Secondary forms, an oblique four-sided table, an irregular eight-sided table, an irregular six-sided table, and a broad rectangular four-sided prism. Shining. Fracture fine grained uneven. Translucent. Hardness from felspar to quartz. Easily frangible. Specific gravity 2-8 to 3-0. It melts with intumescence into a pale-green or yellow glass. It does not gelatinize with acids. Its constituents, according to the analysis of Klaproth, are, silica 43-83, alumina 30-33, lime 1833, oxide of iron 5-66, water 1-83. It occurs in France, in the Alps of Savoy, and in the Tyrol. It is said to become electric by heating. Beautiful varieties are found in the interior of Southern Africa. 2. Fibrous prehnite. Color light-green. Massive, in distinct concretions, and crystallised in acicular four-sided prisms. Glistening, pearly. Translucent. Easily frangible. Specific gravity 2.89. It melts into a vesicular enamel. It becomes electric by heating. Its constituents, according to Laugier, are, silica 42:5, alumina 28'5, lime 20:44, natron and potash 0-75, oxide of iron 3, water 2. It occurs in veins and cavities in trap-rocks near Beith in Ayrshire, Bishoptown in Renfrewshire, at Hartfield near Paisley, and near Frisky Hall, Old Kilpatrick; in the traprocks round Edinburgh, &c.

PREJUDGE, v. a. Fr. prejuger; Lat. prae and judico. To determine beforehand; generally to condemn beforehand.

If he stood upon his own title of the house of Lancaster, he knew it was condemned in parliament, and prejudged in the common opinion of the realm, and that it tended to the disinherison of the line of York. Bacon's Henry VII. The child was strong and able, though born in the eighth month, which the physicians do prejudge. Bacon. The cause is not to be defended, or patronized by names, but arguments, much less to be prejudged, or blasted by them. Hammond. Some action ought to be entered, lest a greater cause should be injured and prejudged thereby. Ayliffe.

The committee of council hath prejudged the whole case, by calling the united sense of both houses of

parliament an universal clamour. Swift. PREJU'DICATE, v.a.S. adj. : Also of Lat. PREJUDica"tion, n. s. prae and judico.

To determine beforehand to disadvantage: prejudiced: the art of prejudging. Are you, in favour of his person, bent Thus to prejudicate the innocent? Sandys. Our dearest friend Prejudicates the business, and would seem To have us make denial. Shakspeare. Their works will be embraced by most that understand them, and their reasons enforce belief from prejudicate readers. Browne. This rule, of casting away all our former prejudicate opinions, is not proposed to any of us to be practised at once as subjects or Christians, but merely as philosophers. Watts. PREJ'UDICE, n.s. & v.a. } Fr. prejudico; PREJudi'cIAL, adj. Lat.prejudicium. Prepossession; judgment formed is." examination; used for prepossession either in favor of anything or against it; and sometimes (but not properly) with to before that which the prejudice is against; mischief; hurt; detriment: to prejudice is to fill with unexamined notions or opinions; to obstruct; injure; hurt: prejudicial, obstructed; or possessed by opposite opinions; contrary; opposite; hurtful.

The strength of that law is such, that no particular nation can lawfully prejudice the same by any their several laws and ordinances, more than a man, by his private resolutions, the law of the whole commonwealth wherein he liveth. Hooker. What one syllable is there, in all this, prejudicial * way to that we hold 2 Id. Weither must his example, done without the book, prejudice that which is well appointed in the book. Whitgifte. I have not spoke one the least word, That might be prejudice of her present state, Or touch of her good person. Shakspeare. Henry VIII. Factions carried too high and too violently, is a sign of weakness in princes, and much to the prejudice of their authority and business. Bacon. 'Tis a sad irreverence, without due consideration, to look upon the actions of princes with a prejudicial eye. Holyday. The king himself frequently considered more the person who spoke, as he was in his prejudice, than the council itself that was given. Clarendon. His going away the next morning with all his troops was most prejudicial and most ruinous to the king's affairs. Id. My comfort is, that their manifest prejudice to my cause will render their judgment of less authority. Dryden. How plain this abuse is, and what prejudice it does to the understanding of the sacred scriptures. Locke. A prince of this character will instruct us by his example, to fix the unsteadiness of our politicks; or by his conduct hinder it from doing us any prejudice. Addison. One of the young ladies reads while the others are at work; so that the learning of the family is not at all prejudicial to its manufactures. Id. Half pillars wanted their expected height, And roofs imperfect prejudiced the sight. Prior. A state of great prosperity, as it exposes us to va

nous temptations, so it is often prejudicial to us, in that it swells the mind with undue thoughts. Atterbury. Suffer not any beloved study to prejudice your mind, so far as to despise all other learning. - Watts. To this is added a vinous bitter, warmer in the composition of its ingredients than the watery infusion; and, as gentian and lemon-peel make a bitter of so grateful a flavour, the only care required in this composition was to chuse such an addition as might not prejudice it. London Dispensatory. By these a man's judgment is *} perverted, and a wrong bias hung upon his mind; these are the inlets of prejudice; the unguarded avenues of the mind. Mason. The truth is, if the truth may suit your ear, And prejudice have left a passage clear, Pride has attained its most luxuriant growth, And poisoned every virtue in them both. Cowper. PRELATE, n.s. } Fr. prelat; Lat, praclaPRELAT’icAl. tus. An ecclesiastic of the highest order: relating to prelacy. Divers of the reverend prelacy, and other most judicious men, have especially bestowed their pains about the matter of jurisdiction. Hooker's Dedication. It beseemed not the person of so grave a prelate, to be either utterly without counsel, as the rest were, or in a common perplexity to shew himself alone sescure. Hooker. Hear him but reason in divinity, And, all-admiring, with an inward wish You would desire the king were made a prelate. Shakspeare. The archbishop of Vienna, a reverend prelate, said one day to king Lewis XI. of France: Sir, your mortal enemy is dead, what time duke Charles of Burgundy was slain. Bacon. The presbyter, puff'd * with spiritual pride, Shall on the necks of the lewd nobles ride, His brethren damn, the civil power defy, And parcel out republic prelacy. Yet Munster's prelate ever be accurst, In whom we seek the German faith in vain. Id. Prelacies may be termed the greater benefices; as that of the pontificate, a patriarchship, an archbishoprick info. Ayliffe's Parergon. How many are there, that call themselves protestants, who put prelacy and popery together as terms convertible! Swift. The king then a wrote a letter to the bishop, in which he complained of the violation of his rights, and the contempt of his authority, charged the prelate with countenancing the late act of disobedience, and required an answer in two days. Johnson. PRELATION, n.s. Lat. pralatus. Preference: setting of one above the other. In case the father left only daughters, they equally succeeded as in co-partnership, without any prelation or preference of the eldest daughter to a double portion. Hale. PRELECTION, n.s. Lat. praelectio. Reading; lecture; discourse. He that is desirous to prosecute these asystata, or infinitude, let him resort to the prelections of Faber. Hale. PRELIBATION, n.s. Lat. prelibo. Taste beforehand; effusion previous to tasting. The firm belief of this, in an innocent soul, is a high prelibation of those eternal joys. More.


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