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fissures which are filled with matters wholly once whether fossil bones belong to any species foreign to their constitution. These veins are which still exists, or to one that is lost; but it is allowed by all to be of posterior formation to the impossible to say whether fossil testaceous animasses between which they are interposed. mals, although unknown to the zoologist, may Sometimes veins of different substances cut not belong to genera yet undiscovered in the through each other, and in this case it is obvious fathomless depths of the sea. that the one which is cut must have been of older This indefatigable observer of nature, from a formation than the one which traverses it. The mature consideration of the subject, after a disdisorder and various degrees of inclination of the play of the most complete knowledge of the osplanes of the strata point to some great revolu- teology of comparative anatoiny, and after a tion which must have broken their surfaces by learned comparison of the description of the rare the elevation of the upper or the depression of animals of the ancients, and the fabulous prothe lower ridge. Geologists all agree in this un- ducts of their imaginations, draws the following avoidable inference, though they differ from each instructive conclusion :— None of the larger other as to the nature of the cause.

species of quadrupeds, whose remains are now In the science of geology, of late, observation found imbedded in regular rocky strata, are at all has certainly greatly superseded useless specula- similar to any of the known living species. This tion, and the classification of the different for- circumstance is by no means the mere effect of mations of the earth's surface, the distinction and chance, or because the species to which these description of different individuals of a series, the fossil bones have belonged are still concealed in analysis of minerals, and the investigation of their the desert and upinhabited parts of the world, properties, have taken the place of useless cavils and have hitherto escaped the observation of about remoter causes. It is by such gradual travellers, but this astonishing phenomenon has means that we may hope to penetrate the secrets proceeded from general causes, and the careful of time; step by step to unravel the long series investigation of it affords one of the best means of past events; to harmonise philosophy with for discovering and investigating the nature of history.

those causes.' There is not a more interesting or important de The method of observation adopted is susceppartment of this science than that which involves tible, he contends, of the utmost accuracy. the consideration of organic remains; varying as Every organised individual forms an entire sysmuch in regard to the state in which they are tem of its own, all the parts of which mutually found as in their respective species. Sometimes correspond and concur to produce a certain defithe most delicate bodies are little changed by the nite purpose by reciprocal re-action, or by comprocesses which they have undergone; sometimes bining towards the same end. Hence none of these they are completely impregnated with stony mat- separate parts can change their forms without a ter; and often exhibit mere casts of the original corresponding change on the other parts of the substance. Uniting perhaps in himself more ex same animal, and consequently each of these tensive knowledge of every department of nature parts taken separately indicates all the other than any other existing individual, it has been parts to which it has belonged. Thus, if the the arduous undertaking of M. Cuvier not only viscera of an animal are so organised as only to to class the different species, and compare them be fitted for the digestion of recent flesh, it is with their existing analogues, but carefully to as- also requisite that the jaws should be so concertain the superpositions of the strata in which structed as to fit them for devouring their prey; their remains occur, and their connexion with the claws must be constructed for seizing and the different animals and plants which they en- tearing it to pieces; the teeth for cutting and diclose.

viding its flesh; the entire system of the limbs, He has particularly illustrated the fossil re or organs of motion, for pursuing and overtaking mains of quadrupeds ; and the highest degree of it; and the organs of sense for discovering it importance attaches to this class of fossils. They at a distance. Hence any one who observes indicate more clearly than others the nature of merely the print of a cloven foot, may conclude the revolutions they have undergone. The im- that it has been left by a ruminant animal; and portant fact of the repeated irruptions of the sea regard the conclusion as equally certain with upon the land is by them placed beyond a doubt. any other in physics or in morals. Consequently, The remains of shells and of other bodies of this single foot-mark clearly indicates to the obmarine origin might merely indicate that the sea server the forms of the teeth, of the jaws, of the had once existed where these collections are vertebræ, of all the leg bones, thighs, shoulders, found. Thousands of aquatic animals may have and of the trunk of the body of the animal that been left dry by a recess of the waves, while their left the mark.' races may have been preserved in more peaceful It is from this connexion of all the different parts of the ocean. But a change in the bed of the parts of an animal that the smallest piece of bone sea, and a general irruption of its waters, must may become the sure index of the class and have destroyed all the quadrupeds within the species of the animal to which it has belonged ; reach of its influence. Thus entire classes of and it is from an indefatigable and ingenious animals, or at least many species, must have application of this rule that our author has been been utterly destroyed. Whether this actually enabled to class the fossil remains of seventyhas been the case we are more easily able to deter- eight different quadrupeds, of which forty-nine mine from the greater precision of our knowledge are distinct species, hitherto unknown to na

the quadrupeds, and the smaller turalists. The bones are generally dispersed, limits of their number. It may be decided at seldom occurring in complete skeletons, and Vol. XVIII.

2 I

with respect

still more rarely is the fleshy part of the animal effects are marked upon the face of the whole preserved.

earth. Thus a way was opened for the return But one of the most important and interest- of the waters of the ocean, which again deing of the observations for which we are in- posited their sediments and the remains of their debted to the precision of the French naturalist living tribes, and thus gave rise to the upper is the distinction of two different formations salt water strata. The same causes again acting amongst secondary strata. These consist of al- excluded once more the waves of the sea, and ternate deposits from salt and fresh water; and gave time for the deposit of the upper fresh are characterised by the nature of the shells water formation. Such an explanation appears which are found imbedded in them. The coun to us simple and satisfactory. It accounts for try about Paris is founded upon chalk. This is the phenomena of nature by nature's laws. But, covered with clay and a coarse limestone, con- however this may be, the sagacity which first taining marine petrifactions. Over this lies an pointed out the distinction cannot be too much alternating series of gypsum and clay, in which praised. The discovery has already stimulated occur the remains of quadrupeds, birds, fish, and the exertions of others, and there is reason to shells, all of land or fresh water species. Above suppose that the phenomenon is not only not this interesting stratum lie marl and sandstone, confined to the environs of Paris, but is of pretty containing marine shells, which are covered with general occurrence in secondary countries. A beds of limestone and flint, which again contain similar formation has been observed in the Isle petrifactions of fresh water remains. The upper of Wight; and has been most scientifically debed of all is of an alluvial nature, in which scribed and compared with the French strata by a trunks of trees, bones of elephants, oxen, and member of the Geological Society, rein-deer, intermingled with salt water produc It is remarkable that those coarse limestone tions, seem to suggest that both salt and fresh strata which are chiefly employed at Paris for water have contributed to its accumulation. This building, are the last formed series which indialternate flux and reflux of the two fluids is a cate a long and quiet continuance of the water most extraordinary phenomenon, and promises of the sea above the surface of the continent. to lead to an important conclusion respecting About them indeed there are found formations the general theory of the earth. We are inclined containing abundance of shells and other proto think that something analogous to the process ductions of the sea, but these consist of alluvial which produced these changes may be perceived materials, sand, marle, sand-stone, or clay, which in operations which are going on in our own rather indicate transportations that have taken time, and in gradual alterations which have been place with some degree of violence than strata effected within the memory of one generation. formed by quiet depositions; and, where some

The following extract from the accurate de- regular rocky strata of inconsiderable extent and scriptions of the indefatigable De Luc will better thickness appear above or below these alluvial explain our ideas. We have selected one from formations, they generally bear the marks of among many instances which are afforded by an having been deposited from fresh water. All attentive examination of our own coasts. “Slap- the known specimens of the bones of viviparous ton Lee occupies the lower part of a combe, land quadrupeds have either been found in these which at first formed a recess in the bay, but, the formations from fresh water, or in the alluvial sea before it being shallow, the waves brought formations; whence there is every reason to up the gravel from the bottom along the coast, and conclude that these animals have only begun to the beach thus produced passed at length quite exist, or at least to leave their remains in the across this recess, which it closed : since then, the strata of our earth since that retreat of the sea fresh water proceeding from the combe has almost which was next before its last irruption. It has entirely displaced the salt water within this space, also been clearly ascertained, from an attentive because the former arriving there freely, and consideration of the relation of the different repassing through the gravel of the beach, repels mains with the strata in which they have been the small quantity of the sea water wbich filtrates discovered, that oviparous quadrupeds are found into it. Slapton Lee, which is about two miles in much older strata than those of the viviparous in length and a quarter of a mile in its greatest class. Some of the former have been observed breadth, is a little brackish, on account of its in and even beneath the chalk. Dry land and communications with the sea water, as well fresh waters must therefore have existed before through the gravel in common seasons, as when the foundation of the chalk strata. No bones of there is any opening in the beach; however, it mammiferous quadrupeds are to be found till contains fresh water fish, carp, tench, and pike. we come to the newer formations, which lie over The sediments of the land waters are tending to the coarse limestone strata incumbent on the fill up this basis, and wherever the bottom is chalk. Determinate order may also be observed sufficiently raised the reeds are beginning to in the succession of these. The genera which grow.'

are now unknown are the lowest in position : Such may have been the process which formed unknown species of known genera are next in a fresh water deposit upon a marine basis. By succession : and lastly, the bones of species, apextending the analogy further, we can have little parently the same with thuse which are now in difficulty in conceiving that the barrier thus existence, are never found but in the latest alluraised by the action of the waves may have been vial depositions. easily destroyed again, even by an extraordinary The more we learn respecting the secondary exertion of the same wer which raised it, or strata of the globe, the more interesting becomes by some other of those violent revolutions whose the investigation. The bold outline of the pri

mitive ranges, their cloud-capt summits and ma- condary limestone in the rock of Gibraltar and jestic forms, are calculated to rivet the attention; Corsica. It nearly resembles the l. alpinus of but they rather force the fancy to speculate upon Siberia. their formation than lead the judgment by in Lepus, hare.—Two species occur in fissures of ternal evidences to their origin. It is in the the limestone rocks of Cette; one of them bears curious observations above recited that we seem a strong resemblance to the common rabbit, the to approach the history of our own state. The other is one-third less. study of secondary formations is as yet scarcely commenced. The labors of Cuvier have

Family.— Fera thrown a new light upon their high importance ; Ursus, bear.2. U. Spelæus.—The size of a already by his exertions has the history of the horse, and different from any of the present exmost recent changes been ascertained,' in one isting species. 2. U. Arctoideus.-A smaller particular spot, as far as the chalk formation. species, also extinct. Both species are fossil, This, which has hitherto been conceived to be of and remains of them are found in great very modern origin, is shown to have owed its de abundance in limestone caves in Germany and position to causes connected with the revolution Hungary. The caves vary much in magnitude and catastrophe before the last general irruption and form, and are more or less deeply incrusted of the waters over our present habitable world. with calcareous sinter, which assumes a great Our author well observes that these posterior variety of singular and often beautiful forms. geological facts, which have hitherto been neg- The bones occur nearly in the same state in all lected by geologists, furnish the only clue by these caves : detached, broken, but never rolled; which we may hope, in some measure, to dispel they are somewhat lighter and less compact than the darkness of the preceding times. • It would recent bones, but slightly decomposed, contain certainly be exceedingly satisfactory to have the much gelatine, and are never mineralised. fossil organic productions arranged in chronolo- They are generally enveloped in an indurated gical order, in the same manner as we now have earth, which contains animal matter; sometimes the principal mineral substances. By this the in a kind of alabaster or calcareous sinter, and science of organization itself would be improved; by means of this mineral are sometimes attached the development of animal life; the succession to the walls of the caves. It is worthy of reof its forms; the precise determinations of those mark that these bones occur in an extent of upwhich have been first called into existence, the wards of 200 leagues. simultaneous production of certain species and

Cuvier thinks that rather more than threetheir gradual extinction;—all these would perhaps fourths of the bones in the caves of Gayleninstruct us fully as much in the essence of or- reuth, Bavaria, belong to species of bears now ganisation as all the experiments that we shall extinct; one-half

, or two-thirds of the remaining ever be able to make upon living animals: and fourth belong to a species of hyæna, which ocman, to whom only a short space of time is al- curs in a fossil state in other situations. A very lotted upon the earth, would have the glory of small number of these remains belong to a sperestoring the history of thousands of ages which cies of the genus lion or tiger; and another to preceded the existence of the race, and of thou- animals of the dog or wolf kinds; and, lastly, sands of animals which never were contempora- the smallest portion belongs to different species neous with his species.'

of smaller carnivorous animals, as the fox and In the present state of science respecting them pole-cat. Cuvier is inclined to conjecture that the we cannot, we conceive, assist the geological animals to which they belonged must have lived student better than by presenting to him an and died peaceably on the spot where we now find ample classification of existing organic remains. them. This opinion is rendered highly probable We depend in the first instance largely on the from the nature of the earthy matter in which abstract of Cuvier's researches furnished in the they are enveloped, and which, according to notes of Mr. Jameson to M. Kerr's translation Laugier, contains an intermixture of animal of the Essay on the Earth.

matter with phosphate of lime, and probably

also phosphate of iron. Remains of the fossil Class I.-MAMMALIA.

bear also occur in limestone caves in England. Order 1.-DIGITATA.

Canis, hyæna, and wolf.-Several species oc

cur in the caves already mentioned ; one very Family.Glires.

closely resembles the Cape hyæna, and is about Cavia.—The slaty limestone of Oeningen, the size of a small brown bear; another species near Schaffhausen, affords remains of a species is allied to the dog or wolf; and a third species of this genus.

Cuvier conjectures it to belong is almost identical with the common fox. A to the cavia porcellus or Guinea pig, or more fossil species also resembling the common fox likely to an unknown species of this tribe, or of has been found in the gypsum quarries near that entitled arvicola.

Paris; and in the same formation there are Mus, mouse.--In the slaty limestone rocks at fossil remains of a genus intermediate between Walsch, in the circle of Saatz, Bohemia, there canis and viverra. Remains of the wolf were are fossil remains of a species of this tribe nearly found at Cannstadt in Germany, along with those allied to the mus terrestris ; smaller remains of the elephant, rhinoceros, hyæna, horse, deer, occur in alluvial strata at Kostritz, in Germany, and hare. `In the alluvial deposites there are reand in the limestone of Corsica.

mains of the hyæna. Blumenbach has described Lagomys.-Occurs in fissures of the third se. the remains of a fossil hyæna, nearly resembling

erroneous.

the canis crocuta, which was found in marl along belong to any of the present existing species, and with the remains of the lion and the elephant, is therefore considered as extinct. Cuvier rebetween Osterode and Herzberg in Hanover. Pro- marks that, as all the species of this genus are fessor Buckland's account of the Kirkdale cave natives of America, it is evident that the hypoof hyænas will be found in our article GREAT thesis advanced by some naturalists, of all the Britain, vol. x. p. 596.

fossil organic remains of quadrupeds baving Bones of hyænas have been found in similar been flooded from Asia to northern countries, is caves in other parts of Great Britain, viz. at Crawly Rocks near Swansea, in the Mendip Hills

Order III.-SOLIDUNGULA. at Clifton, at Wirksworth in Derbyshire, and at Oreston, near Plymouth. In some of these teeth of a species of horse are found in alluvial

Equus adamaticus, equus caballus ?—Fossil there is evidence of the bones having been in- soils associated with those of the elephant, rhinotroduced by beasts of prey; but in that of Hutton Hill, in the Mendips, which contains rolled ceros, hyæna, mastodon, and tiger ?' These teeth

are larger than those of the present horse, and to stones, it is probable they were washed in.

all Felis, tiger.-One species occurs in the

appearance belong to a different species which limestone caves of Germany, and appears to be inhabited the countries where they are now nearly allied to the jaguar; another species, found, as Great Britain, along with elephants, nearly allied to the tiger, is found in alluvial soil

rhinoceroses, &c. along with fossil remains of the elephant, rhino

Order IV.-BISULCA. ceros, hyæna, and mastodon.

Cervus, deer.-1. Fossil elk of Ireland.- This, Viverra, weasel.—Two species occur in the the most celebrated of all the fossil ruminating German limestone caves; the one is allied to the animals, is certainly of a different species from common pole-cat, and the other to the zorille, a any of those that at present live on the earth's pole-cat belonging to the cape of Good Hope. surface, and may therefore be considered as erAnother species allied to the ichneumon, but tinct. It was first found in Ireland, where it gedouble its size, occurs in the gypsum quarries nerally occurs in shell marl and in peat-bogs. around Paris.

It has also been found in superficial alluvial soil Family. Bruta.

in England, Germany, and France.

In plate I. fig. 2, we have given a drawing of Bradypus, sloth.-Two fossil species have the head and horns of this animal. It was du: been described, which are nearly allied not only out of a marl pit at Dardisdoun, near Drogheda, to the two living species, but also to the myrme- in Ireland. Dr. Molyneux, in the Philosophical cophaga, or ant eater. They are the following: Transactions, informs us that its dimensions were 1. Megalonix.—This remarkable fossil animal

as follows:appears to have been the size of an ox.

Ft. In. mains were first discovered in limestone caves in From the extreme tip of each Virginia in the year 1796. 2. Megatherium. horn.

a. b. 10 -This species is the size of the rhinoceros, and from the tip of the right horn its fossil remains have hitherto been found only to its root

5 in South America. The first, and most complete from the tip of one of the inner skeleton, was sent from Buenos Ayres by the branches to the tip of the opmarquis Loretto, in the year 1789. It was found

posite branch

7} in digging an alluvial soil, on the banks of the The length of one of the palms, river Luxan, a league south-east of the village of within the branches

g. h. 2 6 that name, about three leagues W. S. W. of The breadth of the palm, within Buenos Ayres. Plate I. fig. 1, REMAINS, OR the branches

i. k.

1 105 GANIC, gives a faithful representation of this re- The length of the right brow markable skeleton, which is now preserved in antler.

d. 1. 1 the Royal Cabinet of Madrid. A second skele- The beam of each horn at some ton of the same animal was sent to Madrid from

distance from the head, in Liina, in the year 1795; and a third was found diameter

21 in Paraguay. Thus it appears that the remains

in circumference, of this animal exist in the most distant parts of The beam of each horn, at its South America. It is very closely allied to the

root, in circumference. d. 011 megalonix, and differs from it principally in size, The length of the head, from being much larger. Cuvier is of opinion that the back of the skull to the the two species, the megalonix and megatherium, extremity of the upper jaw,

2 0 may be placed together, as members of the same Breadth of the skull

p. q. 1 0) genus, and should be placed between the sloths and ant-eaters, but nearer to the former than to

We saw a fine specimen of the horns of this

animal in the summer of 1828 at Knole, the seat the latter. It is worthy of remark that the re

of the duke of Dorset. It is exalted among the mains of these animals have not been hitherto trophies of the chase in the hall of his grace

, found in any other quarter of the globe besides but not claiming we suppose to have been hunted America, the only existing country which affords by a duke of Dorset." A splendid and nearly hem.

perfect skeleton of this animal has been lately Order II.-MARSUPIALIA.

dug out of a marl pit in the Isle of Man, and is Didelphis, opossum.-One species of this ex now preserved in the Regium Museum of Edinvraordinary tribe has been found in a fossil state burgh. in the gypsum quarries near Paris. It does not 2. Fossil deer of Scania.--Found in a peat

Its re

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SKELETON OF THE MEGATHERIUM.
Dug out of Alluvial Strata near Buenos Ayres.

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London Published by Ther

Teae. 73. Cher side. January 7./820

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