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in Siberia. It has been frequently confounded Molares 28, utrinques 7. Anteriores compressi. with the mammoth or fossil elephant, and in Posteriores superiores quadrati. Inferiores North America it is named mammoth. In plate

bilunati. II. we have given an engraving of one of the Palmæ et plantæ didactylæ, ossibus metacarpi et grinding teeth of this animal. 2. Mastodon metatarsi discretis; digitis accessoriis in quiwith narrow grinders.—The fossil remains of busdam. this species have been dug up at Simorre and many other places in Europe, and also in Ame- 1. A. Commune. Digito accessorio duplo brerica. 3. Liitle mastodon with small grinders.

viori, in palmis tantum ; cauda corporis This species is much less than the preceding,

longitudine crassissima. and was found in Saxony and Montabusa rd. 4.

Magnitudo asini aut equi minoris. Mastodon of the cordilleras.—This species was

Habilus elongatus et depressus lutræ.

Versimiliter patatorius. discovered in South America by lumboldt. Its

2. A. Secundarium. Similis præcedenti, sed grinders are square, and it appears to have

statura suis. E ubia et molaribus aliquot equalled in size the great mastodon. 5. Rum

cognitum. boldien mastodon.- This, which is the smallest

3. A. Medium. species of the genus, was found in America by

Pedibus elongatis, digitis, ac

cessoriis nullis. Humboldt. All the fossil species of quadrupeds we have

Magnitudo et habitus elegans Gazellæ.

4. A. Minus. Dinito accessorio utrinque, in just enumerated have been found in the alluvial soil which covers the bottoms of valleys, or is

palmis et plantis, intermedios fere æspread over the surface of plains. All of them

quante. are strangers to the climate where these bones 5. A. Minimum. Statura caviæ cobayæ, e max

Magnitudo et habitus leporis. now rest.

illa tantum cognitum. Pulæotherium, 1. e. ancient large animal or

Habitatio omnium, olim in regione ubi beast. A new and entirely fossil genus found

nunc Lutetia Parisiorum. by Cuvier in the rocks around Paris. The following are the characters of the genus and the

Order VI.-PALMATA. species :Dentes 44. Primores utrinque 6.

Family. Glires. Laniarii 4, acuminati paulo longiores, tecti. Castor, beaver.-Two species are found in alMolares 28, utrinque 7. Superiores quadrati; luvial soil of different kinds :--the one, which inferiores bilunati.

is the castor fiber, or common beaver, has been Nasus productior, flexilis.

found in marl pits and peat bog, in Perthshire Palmæ et plantæ tradactylæ.

and Berwickshire, in Scotland, and also in 1. P. Magnum. Statura Equi.

France; the other (on the shores of the sea of 2. P. Medium. Statura Suis; pedibus strictis, Azof by M. Fischer) differs from the former, subelongatis.

and is named castor trogontherium. 3. P. Crassum. Statura Suis; pedibus latis, brevioribus.

Family Fera. 4. P. Curtum. Pedibus ecurtatis patulis. Phoca, seal.—A species of seal nearly three 5. P. Minus. Statura Ovis; pedibus strictis, times the size of the cominon seal, or phoca vidigitis lateralibus minoribus.

tulina, bas been found in the coarse marine limeBesides these five species found in the gyp- Loire. Another species of this genus, but some

stone of the department of the Maine and sum quarries around Paris, remains of others what less than the common, is also described by have been discovered in other parts of France,

Cuvier. either imbedded in the fresh-water limestone, or in alluvial soil. Cuvier enumerates and describes

Family: Bruta. the following species :

Lamantin.—Two species have been found im

bedded in the coarse marine limestone of the de6. P. Giganteum. Statura rhinocerotis. 7. P. Tapirvides. Statura bovis; molarium in- partment of the Maine and Loire.

feriorum colliculis fore rectis, transversis. 8. P. Buxovillanum. Statura suis; molaribus

Class II.-AVES. inferioribus exius sub gibbosis. 9. P. Aurelianensi. Statura suis; molarium in

Sturnus, starling.–Occurring in the formations

around Paris. feriorum angulo intermedio bicorni. 10. P. Occitanum. Statura ovis; molarium in- also found in the strata near Paris.

Coturnir, quail.-Bones of this tribe have been feriorum angulo intermedio bicorni.

Sterna, tern.--Bones of terns are occasionally Anoplotherium, i. e. beast without weapons, found along with those of the quail. referring to its distinguishing character, the want Gralla, wudders.-- Bones of birds resembling of canine teeth. This also is another fossil ge- those of the order grallæ have been found near nus first discovered by Cuvier. The following Paris in the solid rocks. are its characters :

Pelicunus' pelican.- Bones resembling those of Dentes 44, seria continua.

the pelican tribe occur in the Paris formations. Primores utrinque 6.

Fossil remains of birds are also said to have ocLaniarii primoribus similes, ceteris non lon- curred in the limestone of Solenhoff and Pappengiores.



head of which animal forms hardly a twelfth

part of the whole length. The tail must have Order.-REPTILIA.

been very strong, and its width at its extremity Testudo, tortoise. -Remains of this genus are must have rendered it a most powerful oar, met with in different parts of Europe ; and tor- and have enabled the animal to have opposed toises, of unknown species, are found imbedded the most agitated waters. From this circumin coarse marine limestone in the environs of stance, and from the other remains which accomBrussels : also in the coarse chalk or limestone pany those of this animal, Cuvier is of opinion of the hill of Saint Peter, near Maestricht. They that it must have been an inhabitant of the are irregularly distributed throughout the masses ocean. of the rock, along with different marine produc Salamandra, salamander.- In the valley of tions, and bones of the gigantic monitor. All Altmūhl, near Aichsted and Pappenheim, and of them are remains of sea-tortoises, named at Aeningen, there is a formation of calcareous chelonii by French zoologists; but of different slate, belonging to the Paris formation, rich in species from those at present known. An un- petrifactions. One of the most remarkable of known species of tortoise has been found in the these is that described by Scheuchzer, under the limestone slate of Glaris; and remains of unknown name homme fossile, and which some natuspecies have been dug out of the rocks of the vi- ralists, as Gesner, maintained to be the siluris cinity of Aix. Fossil fresh-water species have glanis of Linnæus, but which is, in reality, also been found in the gypsum quarries near nothing more than an unknown and probably Paris.

extinct species of salamander or proteus. It Crocodilus, crocodile.-Two extinct species of was found imbedded in the limestone of Aeninfossil crocodiles, nearly allied to the gavial gen. (Lat. gangeticus), or gangetic crocodile, occur Bufu, toad.—Remains of an animal of this in a pyritical bluish-gray compact limestone, at tribe occur in the slaty limestone of Aeningen. the bottom of the cliffs of Honfleur and Havre : Dr. Karg, who has published a long description one of these species at least is found in other of the Aeningen quarries, is of opinion, that this parts of France. It would also appear that the petrifaction is that of a common toad; whereas skeleton of a crocodile, discovered at the bottom Cuvier is inclined to refer it to some species of a cliff of pyritical slate, about half a mile nearly allied to the bufo calamita. from Whitby, by captain William Chapman, be Fossil saurus of Cuvier.-Only one specimen longs to one of these species. Fragments of of this remarkable fossil animal has hitherto heads of crocodiles found in the Vicentine may been found, and is now in the cabinet of the be referred to the same species. The remains of king of Bavaria. In regard to this specimen, it an unknown species of fossil crocodile was found may be remarked, that some naturalists have near Newark, in Nottinghamshire, by Dr. Stukely. taken it for a bird, others for a bat, but Cuvier is The supposed crocodiles found along with fish of opinion that it belongs to the class amphibia. in the copper slate, or bituminous marl slate, of Its true nature is still unascertained, although it Thuringia, are reptiles of the genus monitor. All appears more nearly allied to the class mammalia these fossil remains of oviparous quadrupeds than to any of the others in the system. | elong to old fætz strata, far older than the flætz rocks that contain unknown genera of true

Class IV.-PISCES. quadrupeds, such as the palæotheriums and ano • The accuracy of La Cepede's list of the fossil plotheitums; which opinion, however, does not fishes of Bolca, Aeningen, and Hessia, bas been oppose the finding of the remains of croco- much questioned by naturalists,' says Mr. Jamediles with those of these genera, as has been done son, and Cuvier has hitherto paid but little in the gypsum quarries.

attention to this branch of geology. He only Monitor.-In the quarries of Maestricht there enumerates in a very general way the few met occur remains of a large fossil monitor. This, with in the gypsum quarries around Paris. Five which is one of the most celebrated of all the species are mentioned. The first described befossil species of oviparous quadrupeds, occurs longs to a new genus allied to that named amia, in a soft limestone which contains flint, and the and is conjectured to be a fresh-water species. same kinds of petrifications as are observed in The second is nearly allied to two fresh-water gethe chalk near Paris. It had engaged the atten- nera, viz. the mormyrus of La Cepede, natives tion of enquirers in 1766, and up to the present of the river Nile, and the pæcilia of Bloch, naday has not ceased to be an object of discussion tives of the fresh waters of Carolina. The third and investigation. Some have described it as a appears to be a species of sparus, different from crocodile, others as a whale; and it has even been any of the present species. The fourth and arranged along with fishes. Cuvier, after a fifth are very dubious. The bituminous marl careful study of its osteology, ascertained that it slate of Germany abounds in fossil fishes. must have formed an intermediate genus between Schlottheim mentions a fossil fish found in this those animals of the lizard tribe which have a rock, as being five feet in length, and six inches long and forked tongue, and those which have a broad, which he conjectures to belong to the short tongue and the palate armed with teeth. genera cyprinus or Salmo. Petrified specimens, The length of the skeleton appears to have been supposed of the salmo arcticus, are found in a nearly twenty-four feet. The head is a sixth of bluish-gray clay in West Greenland. Single bones, the whole length of the animal; a proportion as vertebræ, teeth, also scales of fishes, are found approaching very near to that of the crocodile, in the shell limestone, chalk, and in the rocks of bui differing much from that of the monitor, the the Paris formation.

Thus far we have travelled with the able trans- murinus. The orbits of the eyes are disproporlation of Cuvier's Essay edited by Mr. Jameson, tionably large, and hence it is thought probable and have only to regret that he did not complete that, like the bat, it was a nocturnal animal, while, the catalogue of existing remains in that work! from the size of its jaws, it is likely that it fed Two or three important classes must be glean- on small Aying insects. There are four legs (the ed from other sources.

hinder ones being of considerable length), and a

distinct tail. There are no tarsal bones, only Class V.-AVES.

metatarsal bones and claws. Two species are The remains of birds are rarely found in a described by Sommering, the largest about a foot fossil state. Bones, which may be considered as long, named 0. longirostris ; the other, which is referrible to this class, are, however, imbedded less, 0. brevirostris. See plate II. figs. 1 & 2. in the calcareous schist of Oeningen, and in the oolitic schist of Stonesfield. The foot of a bird

Class VI.-INSECTA. has been found incrusted in gypsum, near Mont Insects also are of rare occurrence as fossils. martre; Blumenbach describes the bones of a Scheweigga mentions a perfect scorpion, different water-fowl in the Pappenheim stone; and Faujas from the common genus, found in a piece of St. Fond has figured two feathers found in the amber ; ants of the present species have also calcareous stone of Vestena Nuova.

been found in amber : supposed larvæ of the Cuvier, however, has not only ascertained the libellula and ephemera genera have likewise been existence of fossil remains of this class, but has mentioned, and the elytra of coleopterous insects furnished the student with information to aid him as occurring in the Stonesfield slate. in his investigations with respect to these fossils. The foot, he observes, in birds, has a single bone

CLASS VII.-RELIQUA OCEANA. in the place of the tarsal and metatarsal bones. We are compelled to rank under this general Birds,

too, form the only class in which the toes head all the crustacea, mollusca, radiarii, and all differ as to the number of joints, and in which polypi of authors. Of the first the mutilations this number, and the order of the toes which have are so great, and they are so enclosed, that often them, is nevertheless fixed. The great toe has nothing is to be seen but parts of the thorax or two; the first toe, reckoning on the inside, three; upper surface of the body: the antennæ and feet the middle, five; and the outermost five. The are commonly broken and separated from the crocodile has the same number of phalanges; body; while the under surface, or numerous but, as these have a tarsal and metatarsal bone, pieces of the plastron, or sternum, giving attachthey cannot be mistaken. Some birds have no ment to feet composed of many articulations, great toes, but, in these, the other toes preserve present also the external parts of the mouth. the usual order: the ostriches and cassowars The want of the antennä and feet induced Deshave three toes. Although the crocodile has the marest to restrict the distinctions to characters same number of phalanges, yet, as every one of obtained from the shell or thorax. The various the toes is supported by a particular metatarsal prominences of the latter, he continues, are not bone, the distinction is easily made. From an irregular and accidental ; on the contrary, in all attention to the specific characters, Cuvier ascer- the genera the disposition of these inequalities tained the existence of the remains of five or six is constant, and subjected to certain laws. We different species of birds in the plaster quarries have been the inore inclined, he remarks, to near Paris. Among these are the bones of a pe- admit these relations, that it is known at a cerlican, less than pelicanus onocratulus, and larger tain period of the year all the crustacea, after . than P. carbo; of one of the larger curlews, with having lost their old solid envelope, are covered a naked neck (Tantalus, Gmelin); of a wood- with a delicate skin, which hardens in its turn, cock, a starling, and a sealark (Alouette de Mer). and at the end of a few days changes into a He also describes and figures a bird, found in crust equally resisting with that which it substithe quarries of Montmartre, which appears to tutes; and we might presume that in the first have fallen on its belly on the newly-formed moments the new skin moulded itself to a cergypsum, without having been quite involved in tain point upon the internal organs, and that its it; and having, probably whilst in this state, ossification was subsequently influenced by the been deprived of its head and the whole of the motions peculiar to these organs, or by the right leg. The result of a careful examination greater or less development of each of them. of this fossil is, that it belongs to some exotic He describes on this plan twenty genera, and a quail, rather larger than the one known in France. considerable number of species from different

And here perhaps we may best introduce the parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Many occur ornithocephalus, although naturalists are nut in Great Britain, principally in England, in the agreed as to its correct place. It is entirely a chalk formations, as well as in the plastic clay fossil genus. Cuvier refers it to the amphibia; of Sheppey and other places. others, as Blumenbach, to birds; Collini de Mollusca.-Fossil shells are perhaps the most scribes it as a fish ; while Sommering arranges abundant of all organic remains: and occur from it, as a bat, with the mammalia. The skull is the size of several feet in diameter to microscopic enormous in proportion to the skeleton, the jaws objects. They are divided into univalve, bivalve, themselves being longer than the body, and fur- and multivalve shells. nished with sharp incurvated teeth. The head Univalve shells with but one chamber are callof the 0. longirostris resembles that of the cur- ed unilocular, and of these between seventy and lew tribe, while the brevirostris more nearly re- eighty genera have been specified; while of the niulsembles the bat, particularly the vespertilio tilocular, or many chambered univalves, not more

than twenty-five occur. Dr. Montfort, author the animal to be lying at the bottom of the sea, of an important work, Conchyliologie System- saturated with food, and the siphuncle filled with atique, has, indeed, with much discrimination a fluid; as the food is digested and decomposed, separated the multilocular univalves into many detached gas may pass into the siphuncle, and more genera : the microscopic shells into sixty; gradually take the place of the water ; when, in and those which are within the power of the proportion as the specific gravity of the whole naked eye, being those which had been included mass is thus diminished, it will rise, probably in nautilus, ammonites, belemnites, orthocera- into that region of the waters in which the food tites, spirula, scaphites, nummulites, and sideru- of the animal most abounds. Here, on oblainlites, into forty genera; forming almost every ing sufficient food, or on alarm from an enemy, shell, marked by a slight difference, into a dis- the animal admits water into the siphuncle, and tinct genus. These separations, although per- immediately sinks. In all the other genera of haps founded on accurate discrimination, appear, this tribe, an apparatus, formed of vacant chamas Mr. Parkinson observes, to be too frequent; bers and a membraneous siphuncle, exists, capatheir multiplicity bears too much on the memory, ble of producing similar effects with those proand deprives it of the aid which it seeks to de- duced by that of the nautilus; but necessarily rive from classification. A more intimate know- differing in some respects, from variety of modiledge of their nature and characteristics seems to fication of the form and structure peculiar to be necessary before an appropriate arrangement each genus. The siphuncle is often very well of them can be adopted. The larger tribe has displayed in sections of the orthoceratite, and in been separated into twenty-two genera, all of these this tube will be found to have been capawhich have been found in a fossil state : whilst ble of being dilated to a very considerable exone genus only, nautilus, is known to exist in a tent. recent state. Two opinions are entertained re With the nautilus agree in general at a ratio specting this great disproportion between the the orthoceratite, the, belemnite, and the bacunumber of fossil and of recent shells of this tribe. lite species : other abundant tribes of multilvers Some suppose that those genera, of which only are the ammonites and nummulites; the former fossil shells are found, have become extinct; being the vulgar petrified serpents; and whole whilst others bel eve that these shells are still masses of limestone being entirely made up of existing in a recent state : but are pelagian the latter : as, for instance, that with which the shells, their inhabitants constantly residing at pyramids of Egypt are built. the bottom of the deep. This opinion is enter Bivalve fossils are so varied in their forms tained by some of the latest French writers. that we can only refer the reader for a description

An examination of these shells proves, how- of them to Mr. Parkinson's Introduction, or ever, according to Mr. Parkinson, that, so far some other of the various treatises on fossil confrom their inhabitants having been destined to a chology. The multivalves are of unfrequent occonstant residence at the bottom of the ocean, currence. they possessed, beyond all other testaceous ani Radiaria.-Of the echinus, or sea urchin mals, the power of rising up to, and remaining family, a great variety is met with in several of at, the surface of the sea. Supposing them still the newer rucks. Some of the species resemble to live, they would occasionally, as the nautilus those at present met with in our seas The is, be seen at the surface; but, not a single in- asterias or sea star family, from their delicacy stance being known of a shell of these genera and frail structure, are rarely met with. The having been thus seen, their existence may be crinoidea, or encrinite family, abound in many reasonably doubted. The apparatus enabling strata, and in vast abundance, but very rarely the animal to raise or sink himself at pleasure is in a living state. Blumenbach first conjectured plainly discoverable in the fossil shell of the their affinity to the radiaria ; and Miller, in his nautilus : but the most important part of this late work on the crinoidea, has removed every organ, the continuous siphuncle, is not discover- doubt as to their true place in the system. The able in the dried specimens of the recent shell. entrochites and encrinites belong to this family. The shell is formed of a number, more or less, of Polypi.-We may include under this head the chambers, divided by pierced septa. The ani- different kinds of simple animals named polypi, mal resides in the largest and last formed cham- and their coverings, termed polyparia The ber; an elastic tube, proceeding from the animal, corals are polyparia, and many of these occur in passes through the pierced septa and the several a fossil state. The alcyonia and sponges are likechambers, and terminates in the first. Now, as wise to be included. In the fresh state the forsuming that the office of this tube is analogous mer are nearly as soft as sponge, but have with that of the swimming bladder of fishes, it is openings on the surface, through which polypi by no means difficult to conceive how the require project. They occur frequently in flints. Sponges ed changes of situation may be produced. The are composed of horny fibres connected together weight of the shell is so counterbalanced by the by ineans of an animal jelly, but no distinct empty chambers, that the siphuncle passing polypi have been detected in them. They occur through these chambers, accordingly as it is di- in a fossil state, and are abundant in the fint lated with gaseous or with aqueous Auids, will and chalk formations. We add from Mr. Paraiter the specific gravity of the whole mass, and kinson's work cause it either to swim or to sink. Supposing


Each Genus and each Species being placed in the order of the Strata in which they occu


[blocks in formation]



Limestone rock(coal measures).









Gray limestone (coal measures).
Limestone shale.
Coal shale.
Alum shale.


Slaty limestone.
Blue lias.

Blue lias and crag.
Lower oolite.


ditto Green sand.

ditto Chalk marl


ditto London clay




Alum shale. Lower oolite. Upper oolite.
Gray limestone, Isle of Man.
Coal shale.
Alum shale. Lower oolite.
White lias clay.

[blocks in formation]

{ Upper bias clay. Marston or lias marble.

marl. White lias clay. Lias clay.

ditto Blue lias.


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