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breccia, which we have just regarded as an uneven, and rather spicular, veined with spar of island in the ancient gulph, is covered with a a lightish brown color. Found in the clay of thick forest of columnar cactus and opuntia, some bituminous slate accompanying the lias. The thirty or forty feet high, covered with lichens, lime being removed, by the muriatic acid, a conand divided into several branches in the form siderable volume of dark brown powder remains, of candelabras, wearing a singular appearance. which, when dried, is remarkably combustible, Near Maniquarez, and Punta Araya, we mea- burning with a flame resembling that of some of sured a cactus, the trunk of which was four feet the pyrophori. On the brown spar being subnine inches in circumference. The European, jected to the action of diluted muriatic acid, the acquainted only with the opuntia in our hot- bituminous matter with which it is colored rises houses, is surprised to see the wood of this plant in a film to the surface of the solution. The become so hard from age, that it resists for cen- polished surface of both these fossils being exturies both air and water, and that the Indians amined with a lens, the spathose substance is of Cumana employ it in preference for hords and seen to have permeated the minutest woody doorposts. Cumana, Coro, the island of Mar- fibres in all their directions. The powder de garetta, and Curacao, are the places in South posited during the solution of both these fossils America that abound most in the plants of the is undoubtedly the woody fibre reduced to this family of the nopals. There, only, a botanist can state of minute division, in consequence of its compose a monography of the genus cactus, the penetration in every directiou by the spathose species of which vary not only in their flowers crystallisation. and fruits, but in the form of their articulated II. SILICEOUS VEGETABLE Fossils.—The mistem, the number of costæ, and the disposition neralisation of vegetable substances is most freof the thorns: the divisions of property are quently effected by those impregnations in which marked by hedges formed of the agave and cac- silex is the principal constituent; the fossils thus tus. At San Fernando, S. A., the soil abounds formed being remarkable for the correctness in aquatic plants with sagittate leaves, and he with which their forms and markings have been remarks that some of these succulent plants are preserved. from eight to ten feet high. In Europe their as 1. Siliceous wood. Its color is generally grayish semblage would be considered a little wood.' He and yellowish white, thence passing into ash also mentions a kind of bamboo which the In- gray, grayish black, and different shades of dians call jagua, which is found near San Fer- brown. Its internal lustre is glistening, its frac
more than forty feet in height. These, ture more or less perfect conchoidal, showing the he observes, cannot but remind the admirer of ligneous texture. The fragments sharp-edged fossils of the vast fossil bamboos which are found and translucent. It is harder than opal, and in the sandstones accompanying coal. Speaking easily frangible. of a rock of considerable height and magnitude, It is found in many parts of the world, but he observes, 'Euphorbium, cacalia, kleinia, and some of the finest specimens are obtained in the cactus, which are become wild in the Canary neighbourhood of Schemnitz and at Telkabanya Islands, as well as in the south of Europe and in Hungary. the whole continent of Africa, are the only plants It is frequently found in this islana in the die we see on this arid rock, being plants which luvian detritus, and in almost the whole of the draw their nourishment rather from the air than green sand formation. Very large fragments are from the soil in which they grow.' He also re- found in the Portland stones, the interstices of marks, “it is not, in general, by mosses and which are often beautifully sprinkled with quartz lichens that vegetation in the countries near the crystals. Interesting specimens are also distropics begins. In the Canary Islands, as well covered in the gritstone of the same formation in as in Guinea and in the rocky coasts of Peru, the the blackdown pits of Devonshire, which are first vegetables that prepare the mould for others frequently rendered very interesting by the deliare the succulent plants.'
cate amiantbine form in which the silex is We now follow Mr. Parkinson's description of disposed. Specimens are also found in the I. Calcareous VEGETABLE Fossils.—Lime is sands of Bedfordshire. It is but rarely found in not very frequently the mineralising matter of ve- chalk; it however forms the nucleus of a flint getable fossils; it is however sometimes found in- nodule which is said to have been obtained in troduced into the remains of wood in the form Berkshire. of spar, and sometimes it becomes, in the form The varieties of siliceous wood depend not of limestone, the internal substance of fossil only on the nature of the combinations forming reeds and of various succulent plants.
the lapideous matter of which it is chiefly con1. Calcareous spathose wood previously de- stituted, but also, as has been already observed, cayed.-Color light brown, surface rough and on the state of the wood previous to its petrifacdull, but susceptible of polish; fracture dull, tion. When the fossil is light colored, and of a uneven, and rather spicular; interstices filled shivery texture, the wood may be presumed to with nearly colorless spar. The line being re- have been previously in a decayed state, or, as it moved from this fossil, by muriatic acid, a con- is termed, rotten wood; and when close, comsiderable portion of light-colored flocculent sub- pact, and dark-colored, it may have suffered prestance is deposited. Found in alluvia and in the vious bituminisation. oolite formation.
A. Chalchedonic wood.- In the most common 2. Calcareous spathose wood previously bitumi- form in which this variety appears, the color is niscd. Color darkish red brown; surface com- of a yellowish-white, the substance resembling monly rough, but partially glossy; fracture dull, that of withered wood. The surface rough and
splintery, the splinters frequently so minute as to their substance becomes softened down, and is be wafted with the slightest breath. The internal resolved into a mass in which the vegetaole part solid, chiefly formed of the translucent sili- matter is obvious. ceons matter, wbich fills the interstices and such 2. Aluminous wood. The wood which has cavities as may have been formed by the tere- been thus named by different authors, by its dines and other insects, and also sometimes in- proneness to combustion, and by the other provests the ends of the specimen in a mammillated perties which they describe it to possess, should or stalagmitic form. Specimens occur in which be considered as pyritous wood, having obtained previous bituminisation also appears to have its change in the ferruginous clay in which it taken place, and in which the clear siliceous has been imbedded. The mineralising matter of substance appears as if it had transuded into the metallic fossil vegetables is most commonly the cavities, and had exuded at the ends of the spe- pyrites or sulphurets and carbonates of iron, cimens. Hither must be referred those amorphous copper, zinc, or lead. specimens which possess a rough surface, scarcely I. FERRUGINOUS Fossil Wood. any lustre, with patches of apple-green color and 1. Pyritical.-In this fossil the sulphuret of of a quartzose Hardness, intermixed with others iron pervades the charcoal into which the vegeof a light or light gray color, considerably softer. table matter has been converted. When first When cut and polished, the white parts display found it generally possesses metallic brilliancy, evident marks of vegetable texture; either that is sufficiently hard to scratch glass, emits sparks of very fine grained woods, or of some of the on collision with steel, and displays the forms palms or reeds, the spaces between being filled and markings pointing out its vegetable origin ; with siliceous matter, either translucent or of an but it soon begins to suffer from decomposition, apple-green color.
when its characters change, and it finally resolves B. Jasperine wood displays all the colors and into a saline flocculent substance. appearances belonging to common jasper, so 2. Carbonated. In these specimens, which disposed as to mark the existence of ligneous are of different shades of brown color, and getexture, and frequently so varied as to give the nerally of a uniform substance, the marks of the resemblance of different woods. It is usually vegetable origin are easily observable, although opaque, but sometimes translucent at the edges, not so distinct as in the specimens of the preand sometimes in patches, where it appears as ceding species before the commencement of the jasper agate. Its fracture passes from con- decomposition. choidal to flat and earthy; its internal lustre is II. FERRUGINOUS Fossil Seeds, &c. generally dull, but sometimes approaching to re Innumerable seeds, seed-vessels, &c., have been sinous; its interstices are frequently set with found by Mr. Crow and others, in the blue clay minute crystals. The texture of the wood is of Sheppey in the state of pyrites. Most of discoverable in some very rare specimens of he- these belong to plants unknown to our botanists; liotrope, or bloodstone.
the existing plants, to which the others seem to c. 'Opaline wood occurs in pieces of a yellow. approximate, are some of those of the warmer ish or yellowish-white color, passing into different climates. shades of brown: surface generally marked by III, CUPREOUS Fossil Wood. the ligneous structure, and possessing a resinous 1. Pyritical.--This fossil is distinguishable lustre. The fracture more or less approaching to from the ferruginous pyritical wood, by the pyperfect conchoidal, showing the ligneous marking sites being of rather a darker color, but chiefly and a glistening lustre. Fragments sharp-edged, by the blue, or green color which partially perand somewhat translucent: the surface some- vades the fossil. In some specimens, in which times dull, like wood, and the internal substance the general appearance is that of bituminous transparent. It is considered by Dr. Thomson wood, the metallic impregnation can only be deas consisting of wood penetrated by opal, and tected by the weight of the fossil and the blue or as being so intimately connected with opal that green hue on its surface. it would perhaps be better to unite them. 2. Wood converted into carbonate and hydrate
D. Pitchstone wood.-Specimens of fossil of copper.-Cupreous wood in this state forms wood, evidently showing its original texture, and very beautiful specimens, displaying, not only on answering to the characters of pitchstone, are its surface, but in its substance, mingled with frequently seen : its colors are yellow, brown, the charred wood, the most vivid blue and green reddish brown, red, black, white, and gray, with colors, with patches of the carbonate in the various intermediate shades ; fracture is flattish, state of malachite. The finest specimens of imperfectly large conchoidal ; lustre varying be- cupreous wood are obtained from the copper tween dull, vitreous, and resinous. The woody mines of Siberia. texture is to be traced also in numerous lapide 3. Wood mineralised by lead.-Specimens of ous substances bearing the intermingled charac- wood containing galena, the sulphuret of lead, ters of pitchstone, opal, jasper, chalcedony, have been chiefly discovered in Derbyshire. The jasper-agate, &c.
leaves of plants, except those of gramina, junci, III. ALUMINOUS VEGETABLE Fossils. and of the cryptogamia, are seldom found in a
1. Bituminous slate, schistus, and shale, contain- mineralised state. The lobes and pinnulæ of ing vegetable remains, are frequently met with in ferns, as has been before mentioned, are frethe neighbourhood of coal. These remains, as quently found in a bituminised state in nodules have been already mentioned, are of various of ironstone, and in immense quantities with the gramina, cryptogami, and succulent plants. On remains of gramina and succulent plants in the allowing some of these bodies to remain in water, schistose and slaty coverings of coal.
Among the numerous remains of plants very The remarks of Dr. M'Culloch on the mode few are found which agree in their specific cha- in which these curious investments were accouracters with any known species, and many indeed plished, deserve particular attention :- The rediffer so much as to render it difficult to deter- mains are, in fact (if I may use such an expression), mine even the genus under which they should embalmed alive. To produce this effect, we can be placed. The leaves of trees are only found only conceive a solution of silex in water, so in substances which appear to be of modern for dense as to support the weight of the substance mation. Among these are said to have been involved, a solution capable of solidifying in a found those of the willow, the pear-tree, mul- short space of time, or capable at least of sud. berry-tree, and of several others. These have denly gelatinizing previously to the ultimate been found in fossil calcareous stone, chiefly in change by wbich it became solidified into stone.' that of Oeningen, and in the calcareous tufa bor- Dr. M'Culloch describes and figures a congedering those lakes and rivers wbich abound in ries of tubuli contained in an oriental agate : calcareous matter. Leaves are sometimes found similar substances are found in the pebbles on in sandstone which somewhat resemble those of the Yorkshire coast. trees, but which most probably have belonged to A knowledge of the vegetable fossils peculiar aquatic plants. In the gray chalk, small white to the different strata will, in all probability, ramose forms' are found, which pervade the open to us considerable stores of instruction; chalk, and have the appearance of being of vege we may thereby learn, not only the nature of the table origin. Wood and other vegetable sub- several vegetable beings of the earlier ages of this stances are frequently found in clay and limestone planet, but may ascertain the order in which the in the state of charcoal. It cannot always be several tribes were created : and, reckoning upon ascertained by what means this change has been the considerable advance which has been made effected; but in that which is found in the blue in our knowledge of the structure of the earth, clay, and in other situations in which pyrites pre- and upon the eagerness with which enquiries revail, the change may safely be attributed to the specting the organic remains of former periods decomposition of the pyrites with which those are pursued, the attainment of such knowledge, substances bad been impregnated.
it may be presumed, is not far distant. At preMosses, Confervæ, &c.—Rounded pebbles, sent we know of no vegetable remains of earlier called moss agates, are frequently found on the existence than those which belong to the coal coast of the North Riding of Yorkshire: and Dr. formation; and these appear to be chiefly derivM'Culloch describes them as having been found ad from various grasses and reeds, and plants of on the shore at Dunglas in Scotland, containing the cryptogamous and succulent tribes, many of substances which have the appearance of vege- which are not known to exist on the surface of tables.
the earth at present. From the latter of these Daubenton and Blumenbach had expressed the coal itself appears to have chiefly proceeded. their conviction of the vegetable origin of these In the mountain limestone above the coal, and substances; still many considered them as en in the different members of this formation exist. tirely mineral : but Dr. M'Culloch, pursuing ing between this and the blue lias, vegetable rethis enquiry with his usual zeal and acuteness, mains appear to be of but rare occurrence; so observes, that deception is very likely to arise in that particulars of such as have been discovered these specimens, from the well known metallic in these situations may furnish much useful inarborizations emulating the vegetable forms, be- formation, and especially with respect to those coming blended with the real vegetable; and fossils which are supposed to have derived their from the actual investment of the whole plant origin from wood. with carbonate of iron; but the most common It has been assumed that wood, or parts of source of deception and obscurity, in the Dr.'s trees, have been found in coal and in the accomopinion, will be found in the whimsical and panying coal-measures, but some confirniation of fibrous disposition occasionally assumed by these accounts seems to be required. The dechlorite, its color often imitating the natural huescription of these fossils has seldom been so parof a plant as perfectly as its fibrous and ramified ticular and exact as to yield positive evidence of appearance does the disposition and form of one.' their original nature; and, as has been already All the plants that have been discovered in this shown, the instances are by no means infrequent state of envelopment in quartz appear to belong in which the traces, and even the remains, of cacto certain species of the cryptogamia class, chiefly tuses and other succulent plants, had given rise byssi, confervæ, jungermanniæ, and the mosses. to the belief of the existence of fossil trees in The stones found at Dunglas, Dr. M'Culloch ob- these strata. This opinion may therefore have serves, 'contain remains of organized substances obtained seeming confirmation from the ligneous of an epocha at least equally ancient with that in hardness which large plants of this kind might which the vegetable remains found in the foetz have acquired, and which, perhaps, might be strata existed. As the species ascertained by traced in their mineralised remains. The earliest Daubenton have, in all probability, been pre- "stratification in which fossil wood exists is not served in recent formations of chalcedony,' so the perhaps at present determined; but it seems Dr. thinks that those which he describes have that the earliest appearance in this island of fosbeen preserved in the chalcedonies of former sil wood, which by its uniformity of character days. The moss agates of the Yorkshire coast appears to belong to a particular bed, is the appear to be of the ancient, whilst other speci- spathose bituminous wood of the blue lias, as mens prove the correctness of Dr. M'Culloch's found at Lyme in Dorsetshire, and in the neighopinion, that some of these fossils are of recent bourhood of Bath. In the next formation, and formation.
particularly in that of the green sand, siliceous the animals to which they belonged met their fossil wood occurs frequently. Very delicate fate in the very places where they now lie buspecimens are found in the sandstone, the whet- ried. Hence it may be considered as an axiom, stone of the Blackdown hills of Devonshire. The that man, and other animals, whose bones are specimens of fossil wood found in the Portland not found intermixed with them, did not costone are frequently of very considerable size, exist in time and place. The same mode of and bear all the characteristic marks of wood: reasoning would further justify us in the conthese are also siliceous, and are often beautifully clusion, that, if those catastrophes which oversprinkled on their interior surfaces with quartz whelmed a great proportion of the brute crecrystals. Siliceous fossil wood is also found in ation were general, as geognostic observations in other situations, as in the sands of Wooburn in various parts of the world render probable, the Bedfordshire: it also occurs at Folkstone in creation of man must have been posterior to Kent, in that part of the green sand where it ap- that of those genera and species of mammalia proximates to the superincumbent marl, in which which operished by a general cataclysm, and it is also found. Traces of wood are hardly ever whose bones are so thickly disseminated in the discovered in the chalk itself, and so rarely in more recent formations of rocks. the accompanying flint nodules, that the know • The human skeletons from Guadaloupe are ledge of but one specimen, an instance of this called Galibi by the natives of that island; a occurrence, is known to the writer of these pages. name said to have been that of an ancient tribe But in the blue clay, incumbent upon this im- of Caribs of Guiana, but which, according to a mense accumulation of chalk, fossil wood, pierc- plausible conjecture, originated in the substied with tеredines, and impregnated with calcare- tution of the letter l instead of r, in the word ous spar, is exceedingly abundant : and in almost Caribbee. No mention is made of them by any every sunken part of this bed, and even of the author except general Ernouf, in a letter to M. whole surface of this island, the remains are dis- Faujas St. Fond, inserted in vol v. 1805 of the coverable of vast forests which have suffered little Annales du Muséum; and by M. Lavaisse, in other change than that of having undergone dif- his Voyage à la Trinidad, &c., published in ferent degrees of bituminisation.
1813. The former of these gentlemen writes, By these facts, concludes Mr. Parkinson, we that, on that part of the windward side of the learn that, at some very remote and early period Grande-Terre called La Moule, skeletons are of the existence of this planet, it must have found enveloped in what he terms · Masses de abounded with plants of the succulent kind, and, madrépores pétrifiés,' which being very hard, as it appears from their remains, in great variety and situated within the line of high water, could of form and luxuriancy of size These, from not be worked without great difficulty, but that what is discoverable of their structure, beset with he expected to succeed in causing some of these setæ and spines, were not formed for the food of masses to be detached, the measurements of animals; nor, from the nature of the substances which he states to be about eight feet by two of which they were composed, were they fitted and a half. to be applied to the various purposes to which "The block brought home by Sir Alexander wood, the product the earth at a subsequent Cochrane exactly answered this account with period, has been found to be so excellently adapt- regard to the measurements; in thickness it was ed, by man. Their remains, it must also be about a foot and a half. It weighed nearly two remarked, are now found in conjunction with tons; its shape was irregular, approaching to a that substance which nature has, in all probabi- flattened oval, with here and there some concality, formed from them; and which, by the pe- vities, the largest of which, as it afterwards apculiar economical modification of its combustibi- peared, occupying the place where the thigh lity, is rendered an invaluable article of fuel. bone had been situated, the lower part of which If this be admitted to be the origin of coal, a was therefore wanting. Except the few holes satisfactory cause will appear for the vast abund- evidently made to assist in raising the block, the ance of vegetable matter with which the earth masons here declared, that there was no mark of must have been stored in its early ages : this a tool upon any part of it; and, indeed, the vast, and in any other view useless, creation, will whole had very much the appearance of a huge thus be ascertained to have been a beneficent ar nodule disengaged from a surrounding mass. rangement by Providence for man, the being of The situation of the skeleton in the block was so a creation of a later period.
superficial, that its presence in the rock on the Class IX.-HOMO.
coast had probably been indicated by the pro
jection of some of the more elevated parts of Remains of the human species are not found the left fore-arm. · n secondary strata; but in the clay of the fis The skull is wanting; a circumstance which sures of rocks they are not infrequent, and they is the more to be regretted as this characterhave been found in alluvial soil at Köestretz in istic part might possibly have thrown some light Germany. Mr. Konig's account of the most on the subject under consideration, or would, at celebrated fossile skeleton yet discovered (and least, have settled the question, whether the skewhich is now in the British Museum) is thus leton is that of a Carib, who used to give the introduced :
frontal bone of the head a particular shape by All the circumstances under which the known compression; which had the effect of depresdepositions of bones occur,' says this gentleman, sing the upper, and protruding the lower edge both in alluvial beds and in the caverns and of the orbits, so as to make the direction of their fissures of fætz limestone tend to prove, that opening nearly upwards, or horizontal, instead
of vertical. The vertebræ of the neck were lost itself as a dark colored straight line. The porwith the head. The bones of the thorax bear tion of the stone which contained part of the all the marks of considerable concussion, and bones of the tarsus and metatarsus was unforare completely dislocated. The seven true ribs tunately broken ; but the separate fragments are of the left side, though their heads are not in preserved. connexion with the vertebræ, are complete; but • The whole of the bones, when first laid bare, only three of the false ribs are observable. On had a mouldering appearance, and the hard surthe right side only fragments of these bones are rounding stone could not be detached, without seen; but the upper part of the seven true ribs frequently injuring their surface; but, after an of this side are found on the left, and might at exposure for some days to the air, they acquired first sight be taken for the termination of the a considerable degree of hardness. Sir H. left ribs. The right ribs must therefore have Davy, who subjected a small portion of them to been violently broken, and carried over to the chemical analysis, found that they contained part left side, where, if this mode of viewing the of their animal matter, and all their phosphate subject be correct, the sternum must likewise of lime. Here follows an exact description of lie concealed below the termination of the ribs. the rock, in which the fossile skeleton is found. The small bone dependent above the upper ribs The attention of geologists being now directed of the left side appears to be the right clavicle. towards this object, it may be expected that a The right os humeri is lost; of the left nothing scientific examination of the circumstances remains except the condyles in connexion with under which this limestone occurs will not fail the fore-arm, which is in the state of pronation; ere long to fix its age, and assign to it the place the radius of this side exists nearly in its full it is to occupy in the series of rocks. All our length, while of the ulna the lower part only present information respecting the Grande Terre remains, which is considerably pushed upwards. of Guadaloupe amounts to this, that it is a fiat Of the two bones of the right fore-arm the in- limestone country, derived principally from the ferior terminations are seen. Both the rows of detritus of zoophytes, with here and there single the bones of the wrists are lost, but the whole hills (mornes) composed of shell limestone ; metacarpus of the left hand is displayed, toge- while Guadaloupe, properly so called, separated ther with part of the bones of the fingers : the from the upper part by a narrow channel of the first joint of the fore finger rests on the upper sea, has no traces of limestone, and is entirely ridge of the os pubis, the two others, detached volcanic. See plate II. fig. 3. from their metacarpal bones, are propelled Since the above has been prepared we have downwards, and situated at the inner side of the happened of the accounts of an old acquaintance, femur, and below the foramen magnum ischii Mr. Trimmer, of some organic remains found of this side. Vestiges of three of the fingers of near Brentford, Middlesex , the spot mentioned the right hand are likewise visible, considerably will be familiar to many of our readers. He is below the lower portion of the fore-arm, and describing in order the remains of two fields, close to the upper extremity of the femur. The not contiguous. vertebræ may be traced along the whole length ‘The first,' he says, “is about half a mile of the column, but are in no part of it well de- north of the Thames at Kew Bridge; its surface fined. Of the os sacrum the superior portion is about twenty-five feet above the Thames at only is distinct : it is disunited from the last low water. The strata here are, first, sandy vertebra and the ilium, and driven upwards. loam from six to seven feet, the lowest two feet The left os ilium is nearly complete; but shat- slightly calcareous. Secondly, sandy gravel, a few tered, and one of the fragments depressed below inches only in thickness. Thirdly, loam slightly the level of the rest : the ossa pubis, though calcareous, from one to five feet: between this well defined, are gradually lost in the mass of and the next stratum peat frequently intervenes the stone. On the right side the os innomi- in small patches, of only a few yards wide and a natum is completely shattered, and the frag- few inches thick. Fourthly, gravel containing ments are sunk; but, towards the acetabulum, water; this stratum varies from two to ten feet part of its internal cellular structure is dis- in thickness, and is always the deepest in the cernible.
places covered by peat; in these places the . The thigh bones and the bones of the leg of lower part of the stratum becomes an heterogethe right side are in good preservation, but, being neous mass of clay, sand, and gravel, and freconsiderably turned outwards, the fibula lies quently exhales a disagreeable muddy smell. buried in the stone, and is not seen. The lower Fifthly, the main stratum of blue clay, which lies part of the femur of this side is indicated only under this, extends under London and its viciby a bony outline, and appears to have been nity; the average depth of this clay has been distended by the compact limestone that fills ascertained, by wells that have been dug through the cavities both of the bones of the leg and, it, to be about 200 feet under the surface of the thigh, and to the expansion of which these bones more level lands, and proportionally deeper probably owe their present shattered condition. under the hills, as appears from lord Spencer's The lower end of the left thigh bone appears to well, at Wimbledon, which is 567 feet deep. have been broken and lost in the operation of This stratum, besides figured fossils, contains detaching the block; the two bones of the leg, pyrites and many detached nodules; at the depth however, on this side are nearly complete: the of twenty feet there is a regular stratum of these tibia was split almost the whole of its length a nodules, some of which are of very considerable little below the external edge, and the fissure, size. being filled up with limestone, now presents • In the first stratum, as far as my observatio