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has extended, no remains of an organised body has ever been found, and, as my search has not been very limited, I may venture to say it contains none. In the second stratum snail shells, and the shells of river fish have been found, and a few bones of land animals, but of inconsiderable size, and in such a mutilated state that it cannot be ascertained to what class they belong. In the third stratum the horns and bones of the ox, and the horns, bones, and teeth of the deer, have been found, and also, as in the second stratum, snail shells, and the shells of river fish. In the fourth stratum were found teeth and bones of both the African and Asiatic elephants, teeth of the hippopotamus, bones, horns, and teeth of the ox. A tusk of an elephant measured, as it lay on the ground, nine feet three inches, but, in attempting to remove it, it broke into small pieces. When this stratum dips into the clay, and becomes a mixed mass, as before stated, it is seldom without the remains of animals. In the fifth stratum, namely, the blue clay, the extraneous fossils are entirely marine, with the exception of some specimens of fruit and pieces of petrified wood, the latter of which may be considered as marine, because, when of sufficient size, they are always penetrated by teredines. The other fossils from this stratum are nautili, oysters, pinnae marinae, crabs, teeth and bones of fish, and a great variety of small marine shells; this stratum has been penetrated hitherto in this field only to the depth of thirty feet, throughout which the specimens found were dispersed without any regularity. “The second field is about one mile to the westward of the former, one mile north of the Thames, and a quarter of a mile to the eastward of the river Brent; its height above the Thames at low water is about forty feet. The strata are, first, sandy loam, eight or nine feet, in the lowest three feet of which it is slightly calcareous. Secondly, sand, becoming coarser towards the lowest part, and ending in sandy gravel from three to eight feet. Thirdly, sandy loam highly calcareous, having its upper surface nearly level, but gradually increasing in thickness, from a feather-edge to nine feet. Below this are two strata of gravel and clay, as in the other field; but, as these strata have been only occasionally netrated in digging for water, nothing thereore is known with respect to them but that they exist there. In the first stratum, as in the other field, no organic remains have been observed. In the second, but always within two feet of the third stratum, have been found the teeth and bones of the hippopotamus, the teeth and bones of the elephant, the horns, bones, and teeth of several species of deer, the horns, bones, and teeth of the ox, and the shells of river fish. “The remains of hippopotami are so extremely abundant, that, in turning over an area of 120 yards in the present season, parts of six tusks have been found of this animal, besides a tooth and part of the horn of a deer, part of a tusk, and part of a grinder of an elephant, and the horns, with a small part of the skull, of an ox. One of these horns I had an opportunity of measuring as it lay on the ground, and found it to be four feet and a half in length, and five

inches in diameter at the large end; it was found impracticable to move it otherwise than in fragments, which I have preserved, and have hopes of being able to put a considerable part of it together. The immense size of this horn is rendered more remarkable by another horn from the same spot, which measures but six inches in length. ough this stratum is so extremely productive of the remains of animals, yet there are but few good cabinet specimens from it, owing, it is presumed, to their having been crushed at the time they were buried, and to the injury they have since received from moisture. It is necessary to remark that the gravel-stones in this stratum do not appear to have been rounded in the usual way by attrition, and that the bones must have been deposited after the flesh was off, because, in no instance have two bones been found together which were joined in the living animal; and further, that the bones are not in the least worn, as must have been the case had they been exposed to the wash of a seabeach. “In the third stratum, viz. calcareous loam, have been found the horns, bones, and teeth of the deer, the bones and teeth of the ox, together with snail-shells, and the shells of river-fish. “Brentford, in the neighbourhood of which are the fields I have mentioned, is situated on the north bank of the Thames, and is six miles west of London. The fall of the Thames from Brentford to its mouth at the Nore'is estimated at seven feet.”—Philosophical Transactions. We close with a late ingenious speculation of baron Humboldt's on the occurrence of tropical animals and plants, in a fossile state, in the frozen regions of the earth. Speaking of the heat of the body of our planet he says, “It is perhaps in the internal heat of the earth, a heat which is indicated by experiments made with the thermometer, and the phenomena of volcanoes, that the cause of one of the most astonishing phenomena which the knowledge of petrifactions presents to us resides. Tropical forms of animals, arborescent ferns, palms and bamboos, occur imbedded in the frozen regions of the north. The primitive world every where discloses to us a distribution of organic forms, which is in opposition to the presently existing state of climates. To solve so important a problem, recourse has been had to a great number of hypotheses, such as the approach of a comet, the change of obliquity of the ecliptic, the increase of intensity of the solar heat. None of these hypotheses has been able to satisfy at the same time the astronomer, the natural philosopher, and the geologist. As to my own opinion on the subject, I leave the earth's axis in its position, I admit no change in the radiation of the solar disk, a change by which a celebrated astronomer thought he could explain the good and bad harvests of our fields; but I imagine that in each planet, independently of its relations to a central body, and independently of its astronomical position, there exist numerous causes of development of heat, whether by the chemical processes of oxidation, or by the precipitation and changes of o of bodies, or by the augmentation of the electro-magnetic intensity, or the communication between the internal and external parts of the globe. “When, in the primitive world, the deeply fissured crust of the earth exhaled heat by these apertures, perhaps during many centuries, palms, arborescent ferns, and the animals of warm climates, lived in vast expanses of country. According to this system of things, which I have already indicated in my work entitled Essai Geognostique sur le Gisement des Roches dans les deux Hemispheres, the temperature of volcanoes is the same as that of the interior of the earth, and the same cause which now produces such frightful ravages would formerly have made the richest vegetation to spring in every zone, from the newly oxidised envelope of the earth, and from the deeply fissured strata of rocks. If, in order to account for the distribution of the tropical forms that occur buried in


the northern regions of the globe, it is assumed that elephants covered with long hair, now immersed in the polar ice, were originally natives of those climates, and that forms resembling the same principal type, such as that of lions and lynxes, may have lived at the same time in very different climates, such a mode of explanation would yet be inapplicable to the vegetable productions. For reasons which vegetable physiology discloses, palms, bananas, and arborescent monocotyledonous plants, are unable to support the cold of the northern countries; and, in the geognostical problem which we are here examining, it appears to me difficult to separate the plants from the animals; the same explanation ought to embrace the two forms.' (Tableaux de la Nature), as quoted in the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, September, 1828.

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Fr. remarquer, or perhaps reand mark. To note; observe particularly; distinReMARK'ER, n. s. guish : the note or observation made or taken : remarkable is, worthy of note; observable: the noun substantive and adverb corresponding: remarker, an observer. So did Orpheus plainly teach that the world had beginning in time, from the will of the most high God, whose remarkable words are thus converted. Raleigh. They signify the remarkableness of this punishment of the Jews, as signal revenge from the crucified Christ. - Hammond. The prisoner Samson here I seek. —His manacles remark him, there he sits. Milton. It is easy to observe what has been remarked, that the names of simple ideas are the least liable to mistakes. Locke. 'Tis remarkable that they Talk most who have the least to say. Prior. He cannot distinguish difficult and noble speculations from trifling and vulgar remarks. Collier. Such parts of these writings as may be remarkably stupid should become subjects of an occasional criticism. - Watts.

If the remarker would but once try to outshine the author, by writing a better book on the same subject, he would soon be convinced of his own insufficiency.


REMBANG, a large town on the north coast of Java, containing many good houses, and advantageously situated close to the sea, which washes the walls of a fort. Formerly the Dutch built their principal vessels and kept a considerable garrison here. A quantity of sea salt is produced in the neighbourhood.

REM BRANDT (Van Ryn). This celebrated painter was the son of a miller, and was born at a village near Leyden in 1606. He obtained the name of Van Ryn, from his having spent the youthful part of his life on the borders of the Rhine. He was at first placed under Jacob Van Zwanenburg, with whom he continued three years; and after this studied under Peter Lastman, with whom, however, he staid only six months. For the same length of time he was the scholar of Jacob Pinas; from whom he acquired that taste for strong contrasts of light and shadow which he ever after so happily cultivated. He, however, formed his own style entirely, by studying and imitating nature, and his amazing power in representing every object with truth, force, and life, has never since been equalled. By the advice of a friend, Rembrandt was prevailed on to carry one of his early performances to the Hague; where a dealer instantly gave him 100 florins for the picture. This incident not only served to make the public acquainted with his abilities, but contributed to make him more sensible of his own talents. He soon after this settled in Amsterdam, that he might follow his profession with more advantage. Business crowded on him immediately, so as scarcely to allow him time to gratify the demand for his paintings; and he had such a number of pupils that wealth flowed in plentifully. He received from each of his scholars 100 florins a-year for their instruction; and he also raised a considerable sum by the sale of the copies they made after his pictures and designs; which he always retouched in several parts, to increase their value, and to make purchasers believe them his own. Iły this traffic, and an artful manage

ment of the sale of his etchings, he gained at least every year 2500 florins. His style of painting, in the first years of his practice, was very different from that of his latter time; his early performances being highly finished, with a neat pencil, resembling those of Mieris; while his latter style of coloring and handling was strong, bold, and with a degree of force, in which he has not been excelled by any artist; a picture of his maid servant, placed at the window of his house in Amsterdam, is said to have deceived the passengers for several days. De Piles, when he was in Holland, not only ascertained the truth of this fact, but purchased the portrait, which he esteemed one of the finest ornaments in his cabinet. Rembrandt's local colors are extremely good; he perfectly understood the principles of the chiaro-oscuro; and it is said that he generally painted in a chamber so contrived as to admit but one ray of light, and that from above. The lights in his pictures were painted with a body of color unusually thick, as if it were his intention rather to model than to paint; but he knew the nature and property of each particular tint so thoroughly that he preserved them in full freshness, beauty, and lustre. His genuine works are rarely to be met with, and afford incredible prices. Many of them, however, are in the collections of our English nobility. The etchings of Rembrandt are exceedingly admired, and collected with great care and expense for the cabinets of the curious in most parts of Europe; but it is remarked that none of his prints are dated earlier than 1628, nor later than 1659, though there are several of his paintings dated in 1660, and particularly the portrait of a Franciscan Friar. There is, perhaps, no branch of collectorship that exhibits more caprice than that of prints in general, or those of Rembrandt in particular. Instances of this may be adduced in the Juno without the crown; the Coppenol with a white back ground; the Joseph with the face unshaded, and the good Samaritan, with the horse's tail white, which are regarded as inestimable; whilst the same subjects, without these distinctions, are considered as of little comparative value. Strutt says that, in consequence of a commission from an eminent collector, he bid forty-six guineas for the Coppenol, with the white back ground, that is, in its unfinished state; though at the same sale he bought a beautiful impression of that plate in a perfect con lition, for fourteen guineas and a half. Rembrandt is supposed to have taken advantage of this humor in collectors, by altering and obliterating parts of his plates to render them objects of enquiry. He also suffered himself to be solicited before he would consent to part with his work; and it is a fact that the print of Christ healing the sick, usually denominated the ‘hundred guilders, was so called because he refused to sell it under that price. At present a good impression is worth from fifty to sixty guineas. The rarest and most expensive of Rembrandt's portraits are those of Utenbogard, called the Gold Weigher, and, in France, the Banker; Van Tol, the advocate, and burgomaster Six, each of which is estimated at fifty guineas. This great artist died at Amsterdam

in 1674, or according to some accounts in 1688. His personal character was far from amiable; he was avaricious, and not very scrupulous in his means of getting money. He was also fond of low company, by which his taste and principles became degraded. REMEDIOS, NUESTRA SENora de Los, a reduced city of New Granada, and capital of the province of Rio del Hacha, has a good parish church, and is defended by a castle of regular construction. It was taken and sacked by Francis Drake in 1596. Seventy-three miles east by north of Santa Martha, and 104 north west of Maracaibo. It was formerly famous for its pearl fisheries. REM'EDY, n.s. & v.a. REME'DIABLE, adj. REME'DIATE,

Fr. remede; Ital. Span. and Port. remedio; Lat. remedi

REM'EDILess, um. Antidote; agent

REM'EdilessNess, n. s.) or instrument of cure; medicine; that which counteracts any evil; taking of, for, or against, before the object; reparation: to cure or heal; repair or remove mischief: remediable is capable of renewing; remediate, medicinal : remediless, cureless; admitting no remedy: the noun substantive corresponding.

In the death of a man there is no remedy.
Wisdom ii. 1.
Sad AEsculapius
Imprisoned was in chains remediless. Spenser.

Sorry we are that any good and godly mind should be grieved with that which is done; but to remedy their grief lieth not so much in us as in themselves. Hooker. All you, unpublished virtues of the earth, Spring with my tears; be aidant and remediate In the good man's distress. Shakspeare. King Lear.

Things, without all remedy, Should be without regard. Id. Macbeth. The war, grounded upon this general remediless necessity, may be termed the general, the remediless, or the necessary war. Raleigh. What may be remedy or cure To evils, which our own misdeeds have wrought Milton. We, by rightful doom remediless, Were lost in death, till he that dwelt above High-throned in secret bliss, for us frail dust Emptied his glory. - Id. Here hope began to dawn; resolved to try, She fixed on this her utmost remedy. Ş., There is no surer remedy for superstitious and desponding weakness, than first to govern ourselves by the best improvement of that reason which providence has given us for a guide; and then, when we have done our own parts, to commit all chearfully, for the rest, to the good pleasure of heaven, with trust and resignation. L’Estrange. Civil government is the proper remedy for the inconveniences of the state of nature. Locke. Flatter him it may, as those are good at flattering who are good for nothing else; but, in the mean time, the poor man is left under a remediless delusion. South O how short my interval of woe! . Our griefs how swift, our remedies how slow. Prior. The difference between poisons and remedies is easily known by their effects; and common reason soon distinguishes between virtue and vice. Swift.


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Old Fr. remembrer; Ital. remembrare; Lat. ReMEM'BRANCE, rememoror. To keep ReMEM'BRANceR. or bear in mind; preserve from forgetfulness; put in mind; mention: a rememberer is one who remembers: remembrance, memory; retentiveness of memory; recollection; reminiscence; memorial; memento; note of something past or absent; honorable memory: remembrancer, one who reminds; an officer of his majesty's exchequer. Remember not against us former iniquities. Psalm lxxix. 8. He having once seen and remembered me, even from the beginning began to be in the rierward. Sidney. Remember thee! Ay, thou poor ghost, while memory holds a place In this distracted brain. Remember thee!

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All are digested into books, and sent to the remembrancer of the exchequer, that he may make processes upon them. Bacon. It grieves me to be remembered thus By any one, of one so glorious. Chapman. A brave master to servants, and a rememberer of the least good office; for his flock he transplanted most of them into plentiful soils. Wotton. If ever we have found any word or act of God cordial to us, it is good to fetch it forth oft to the eye. The renewing of our sense and remembrance makes every gift of God perpetually beneficial. Bp. Hall's Contemplations. I would only remember them in love and prevention, with the doctrine of the Jews, and the example of the Grecians. Holyday. God is present in the consciences of good and bad; he is there a remembrancer to call our actions to mind, and a witness to bring them to judgment. Taylor. Had memory been lost with innocence, We had not known the sentence nor the offence; Twas his chief punishment to keep in store The sad remembrance what he was before. Denham. These petitions, and the answer of the common council of London, were ample materials for a conference with the lords, who might be thereby remembered of their duty. Clarendon. He brings them back, Remembering mercy and his covenant sworn. - Milton. I hate thy beams, That bring to my remembrance from what state I fell; how glorious once above thy sphere. Id. Thee I have heard relating what was done, Ere my remembrance. Id. Cry unto God; for you shall be remembered o him. Barclay.

Those proceedings and remembranees are in the Tower, beginning with the twenticth year of Edward I. Hale.

Would I were in my grave; For, living here, you're but my cursed remembrancers :

I once was happy. Otway's Venice Preserved.

Sharp remembrance on the English part, And shame of being matched by such a foe, Rouse conscious virtue up in every heart. Dryden.

This is to be remembered, that it is not possible now to keep a young gentleman from vice by a total ignorance of it; unless you will all his life mew him up. Locke.

Remembrance is when the same idea recurs, without the operation of the like object on the external sensory. Id. A citation ought to be certain, in respect of the person cited; for, if such certainty be therein omitted, such citation is invalid, as in many cases hereafter to be remembered. Ayliffe. This ever grateful in remembrance bear, To me thou owest, to me the vital air. Pope. We are said to remember any thing when the idea of it arises in the mind with a consciousness that we have had this idea before. Watts. Sorrows remembered sweeten present joy. Pollok. REMEMBRANCERs, anciently called clerks of the remembrance, certain officers of the exchequer, whereof three are distinguished by the names of the king's remembrancer, the lord trea. surer's remembrancer, and the remembrancer of the first fruits. The king's remembrancer enters in his office all recognizances taken before the barons for any of the king's debts, for appearances or observing of orders; he also takes all bonds for the king's debts, and makes out processes thereon. He likewise issues processes against the collectors of the customs, excise, and others, for their accounts; and informations upon penal statutes are entered and sued in his office, where all proceedings in matters upon English bills in o exchequer chamber remain. He makes out the bills of compositions upon penal laws, takes the statement of debts, and into his office are delivered all kinds of indentures and other evidences which concern the assuring any lands to the crown. He every year in crastino animarum reads in open court the statute for election of sheriffs; and likewise openly reads in court the oaths of all the officers, when they are admitted. The lord treasurer's remembrancer is charged to make out processes against all sheriffs, escheators, receivers, and bailiffs, för their accounts. He also makes out writs of fieri facias, and extent for debts due to the king, either in the pipe or with the auditors; and process for all such revenue as is due to the king on account of his tenures. He takes the account of sheriffs; and also keeps a record, by which it appears whether the sheriffs or other accountants pay their proffers due at Easter and Michaelmas; and at the same time he makes a record, whereby the sheriffs or other accountants keep their prefixed days; there are likewise brought into his office all the accounts of customers, comptrollers, and accountants, to make entry thereof on record; also all estreats and amercements are certified here, &c. The remembrancer of the first fruits takes all compositions and bonds for the

payment of first fruits and tenths; and makes out process against such as do not pay the same.

REMERCIE, v. a. Fr. remercier. To thank. Obsolete.

Offering his service and his dearest life For her defence, against that earle to fight; She him remercied, as the patron of her life.


REM'IGRATE, v. n. 2 Lat. remigro. To

REMIGRA’tion, n.s. ło, back again: removal back again.

The Scots, transplanted hither, became acquainted with our customs, which, by occasional remigrations, became diffused in Scotland. Hale.

Some other ways he F. to divest some bodies of their borrowed s apes, and make them remigrate to their first simplicity. Boyle.

REMIND, v.a. Re and mind. To put in mind; to force to remember. When age itself, which will not be defied, shall begin to arrest, seize and remind us of our mortality by pains and dulness of senses; yet then the pleasure of the mind shall be in its full vigour. South. The brazen figure of the consul, with the ring on his finger, reminded me of Juvenal's majoris pondera gemmae. Addison. REMINIS'CENCE, n.s. Lat. reminiscens. ReMINIscENTIAL, adj. ; Recollection; recovery of ideas; relating to memory. . I cast about for all circumstances that may revive my memory or reminiscence. Hale's Origin of Mankind. Would truth dispense, we could be content with Plato, that knowledge were but remembrance, that intellectual acquisition were but reminiscential evocation. - Browne. For the other part of memory, called reminiscence, which is the retrieving of a thing at present forgot, or but confusedly remembered, by setting the mind to ransack every little cell of the brain; while it is thus busied, how accidentally does the thing sought for offer itself to the mind South.

REMIREMONT, a town in the north-east of France, situated on the Moselle, among the Vosges mountains. It is the centre of the traffic of a large mountain district, and has some cotton manufactures and iron works. It had formerly a celebrated abbey for ladies of superior birth. The environs produce cherries and timber. Inhabitants 4000. Fourteen miles south-east of

REMISS, adj. Fr. remis; Lat. re-
REMIss’IBLE, missus, remitto. Slack;

negligent; not intense REMiss'LY, adv. or earnest; not strict: REMiss'Ness, n. s. remissible is, admitting REMIt', v. a. & v. n. of forgiveness: remisREMIt'TANce, n.s. |sion is, relaxation; REMIT'Tor. abatement; the giving back or relapse of a disease; release; forgiveness: the adverb and noun substantive follow the sense of remiss as negligent; lax: to remit is, to relax; resign; defer; forgive; send back; send money to a distance: as a verb neuter, to slacken; abate: remittance, the act of sending money to a distance; the sum of money sent: a remittor, he who sends it; and, in law, a restitution to the possession of lands by a more ancient title.

REMission, n.s.

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ways strive with us. Tillotson. Your candour in pardoning my errors, may make me more remiss in correcting them. Dryden.

With suppliant prayers their powers appease; The soft Napaean race will soon repent Their anger, and remit the punishment. Id. The Egyptian crown I to your hands remit ; And, with it, take his heart who offers it. Id. This bold return with seeming patience heard, The prisoner was remitted to the guard. Id. This difference of intension and remission of the mind in thinking, every one has experimented in himself. Locke. The magistrate can often, where the public good demands not the execution of the law, remit the punishment of criminal offences by his own authority, but yet cannot remit the satisfaction due to any private man. Locke. As, by degrees, they remitted of their industry, loathed their business, and gave way to their pleasures, they let fall those generous principles, which had raised them to worthy thoughts. South. Not only an expedition, but the remission of a

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