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Dess all the sophisms that had been brought against Seeds solitary. Species three, Ane East India him.
To Verse is not the effect of sudden thought ; but this
warn or admonish beforehand. hinders not that sudden thought may be represented in verse, since those thoughts must be higher than
What friendly premonitions have been spent nature can raise without premeditation.
On your forbearance, and their vain event.
After these premnonishments, I will come to the PREMER'IT, o.a.
Wotton's Architecture. serve before.
How great the force of such an erroneous persuaThey did not forgive Sir John Hotham, who had sion is, we may collect from our Saviour's premonition so much premerited of them. King Charles. to his disciples, when he tells them that those who
PREM’ICES, n. s. Fr. premices ; Lat. primi. killed them should think they did God service. tie. First fruits.
Decay of Piety. A charger, yearly filled with fruits, was offered to
It is no small mercy of God, that he gives us the gods at their festivals, as the premices or first ga.. warning of our end. We shall make an ill use of therings.
so gracious a premonition, if we make not a meet preparation for our passage.
Bp. Hall. PREMIER, adj. & n. s. Fr. premier. First;
PREMONSTRANTS, or PRÆMONSTRATENSES, chief: a chief minister of state.
a religious order of regular canons, instituted in The Spaniard challengeth the premier place, in re
1120, by St. Norbert; and thence also called gard of his dominions.
Camden's Remains. Thus families, like realms, with equal fate,
Norbertines. The first monastery of this order Are sunk by premier ministers of state. Swift.
was built by Norbert in the Isle of France,
which he called Premonstre, Præmonstratum ; PREMISE', v. a.
Lat. præmissus. To ex- and hence the order derived its name; though, PREMISES, 1. s. plain previously; lay as to the occasion of that name, the writers of
PREM'iss. S down premises which that order are divided. At first the religious of are propositions antecedently supposed or
this order were so very poor that they had only prored: premiss is the singular, and rarely used; a single ass, which served to carry the wood they premises or premisses, in law, properly signifies cut down every morning, and sent to Laon in the land, &c., mentioned in the beginning of a
order to purchase bread. But they soon redeed; hence it came to mean in law language, ceived so many donations, and built so many nouse and lands.
monasteries, that in thirty years after the foundaThey infer upon the premises, that as great differ- tion of the order they had above 100 abbeys in eace as commodiously may be, there should be in all France and Germany; and, in process of time, outward ceremonies between the people of God, and the order so increased that it had monasteries in them which are not his people.
all parts of Christendom, amounting to 1000 abO let the vile world end, And the premised flames of the last day
beys, 300 provostships, a vast number of priories, Knit earth and heaven together.
and 500 nunneries. The rule they followed was
Shakspeare. This is so regular an inference, that, whilst the that of St. Augustine, with some slight alterapremises stand firm, it is impossible to shake the con
tions, and an addition of certain severe laws, clusion.
Decay of Piety. whose authority did not long survive their founder. The apostle's discourse here is an answer upon The order was approved by Honorius II. in 1126, a ground taken ; he premiseth, and then infers. and afterwards by several succeeding popes.
Burnet. At first the abstinence from flesh was rigidly obI premise these particulars, that the reader may served. In 1245 Innocent IV. complained to a know I enter upon it as a very ungrateful task.
general chapter of its being neglected. In 1288 Addison.
their general, William, procured leave of pope She studied well the point, and found Nicholas IV. for those of the order to eat flesh Her foes' conclusions were not sound, From premises erroneous brought,
on journeys. In 1460 Pius II. granted them a And therefore the deductions nought.
general permission to eat meat, excepting from
Swift's Miscellanies. Septuagesima to Easter. The dress of the reThey know the major or minor, which is implied, ligious of this order is white, with a scapulary when you pronounce the other premiss and the con- before the cassock. Out of doors. they wear a closion.
Watts. white cloak and white hat; within, a little caPRE’MIUM, n. s. Lat. præmium. Something
mail; and at church a surplice, &c. In the first given to invite a loan or a bargain.
monasteries built by Norbert there was one for No body cares to make loans upon a new project; wall. In 1137, by a decree of a general chapter,
men and another for women, only separated by a whereas men never fail to bring in their money upon this practice was prohibited, and the nuns rea land tax, when the premium or interest allowed moved out of those already built to a greater them is suited to the hazard they run.
distance from those of the monks. The PræPeople were tempted to lend, by great premiums monstratenses, or monks of Premontre, vulgarly and large interest ; and it concerned them to preserve called white canons, came first into England that government, which they had trusted with their A.D. 1146. Their first monastery, called New money.
House, was erected in Lincolnshire by Peter de PREMNA, in botany, a genus of the angio- Saulia, and dedicated to St. Martial. In the spermia order, and didynamia class of plants: reign of Edward I. this order had twenty-seven CAL. bilobed:cor. quadrifid : berry quadrilocular: monasteries in England. Vol. XVII.
PREMONTVAL (Peter Le Guay de), an sess; fill with prejudice: preoccupation correeminent French writer, born at Charenton in sponds with these senses : to preoccupy is the 1716. He became a member of the academy of more modern synonyme of preoccupate. Berlin. He wrote several works, of which the
Honour aspireth to death ; grief fieth to it; and most noted is his Antidote to the Corruption of fear preoccupieth it.
Bacon. the French Language, written in German. He That the model be plain without colours, lest the died at Berlin in 1767, aged fifty-one.
eye preoccupate the judgment.
Il'otton. PREMUNI'RE, n. s. Lat. premunire. A As if, by way of preoccupation, he should have writ in common law, whereby a penalty is in- said ; well, here you see your commission, this is currable, as infringing some statute. See below. your duty, these are your discouragements; never Premunire is now grown a good word in our
seek for evasions from worldly afflictions ; this is English laws, by tract of time ; and yet at first it your reward, if you perform it; this is your doom,
you decline it.
South. was merely mistaken for premonire.
I think it more respectful to the reader to leave Bramhall against Hobbes.
something to reflections, than preoccupy his judg. Wolsey incurred a premunire, forfeited his honour,
Arbuthnot. estate, and life, which he ended in great calamity.
and ominor. Premunire. See PRÆMUNIRE.
To prognosticate ; to show by omens any future PRENANTHES, in botany, wild lettuce, a
event. genus of the polygamia æqualis order, and synge Because many ravens were seen when Alexander nesia class of plants; natural order forty-ninth, entered Babylon, they were thought to preominate
Broune. compositæ : receptacle naked : Cal. calyculated: his death. pappus simple, and almost sessile: the florets PREOPIN'ION, n. s. Lat. pre and opinio. are placed in a single series. Species thirty-three; Opinion antecedently formed; prepossession. one, P. mutalis, common to our own groves. Diet holds no solid rule of selection ; some, in
PRENOM’INATE, v. a. Latin prænomino. indistinct voracity, eating almost any; others, out To forename.
of a timorous preopinion, refraining from very many He you would sound, things.
Browne. Having ever seen, in the prenominate crimes,
PREORDAIN', 0. a.Lat. præ and ordain. The youth, you breathe of, guilty. Shakspeare.
Preor'DINANCE, n. s.) To ordain beforehand : The watery productions should have the prenomi- antecedent decree. nation ; and they of the land rather derive their names, than nominate those of the sea. Browne.
These lowly courtesies PRENO'TION, n. s. Fr. prenotion ; Lat.
Might stir the blood of ordinary men, pre and nosco. Foreknowledge; prescience.
And turn preordinance and first decree
Into the law of children. The hedgehog's presension of winds is so exact,
Shakspeare. Julius Cæsar. that it stoppeth the north or southern hole of its
Sin is the contrariety to the will of God, and if nest, according unto prenotion of these winds ensuing.
all things be preordained by God, and so demonPRENTICE, n. s.? Contracted from Ap- strated to be willed by him, it remains there is no
such thing as sin. PRENÖTICESHIP. | PRENTICE. One bound
Few souls preordained by fate, to a master, in order to instruction in a trade :
The race of gods, have reached that envied state. state or servitude of an apprentice.
Roscommon. My accuser is my prentice, and, when I did correct
PREPARE', v.a., v. n. & n.s.) Fr. preparer ; him for his fault, he did vow upon his knees he would
PREPARA’TION, n. S.
It. be even with me. Shakspeare.
preparare; He served a prenticeship, who sets up shop,
Prepar’ATIVE, adj. & n. s.
Lat. praparo. Ward tried on puppies, and the poor, his drop:
To fit, qualify,
or make ready PRENZLOW, the chief town of the district PREPA'REDLY, adv.
for any purof Brandenburgh, called the Ucker Mark, Prussia.
PREPA'REDNESS, n. s.
make It is situated in a plain on the lake and river
ready beforeUcker, and is divided into the Old and New hand; form ; adjust; compound : as a verb Town; both of which are tolerably built. Here neuter, to take previous or preparatory meaare four Lutheran, two Calvinist, and one Catho- sures; make every thing ready : Shakspeare uses lic church; a pleasant square, a beautiful public prepare for preparation; which signifies the act walk, several schools and hospitals, and 8000 of preparing or previously fitting or ordering inhabitants. The town has also several breweries, things; previous measures ; introduction; comand a considerable trade in corn. The woollen position; and, in an obsolete sense, accomplishmanufactures, and still more those of tobacco, ments ; qualification : preparative is, having the occupy a large portion of the inhabitants, many power or quality of preparing : and, as a noun of whom are descended from French Protestant substantive, that which has this power; that refugees. It was near this place, on 24th Oc- which is done as introductory to something else; tober 1806, that the remains of the Prussian the adverb corresponding with the adjective: army, about 20,000, defeated at Jena on the preparatory is, introductory; antecedent; neces. 14th, were obliged to surrender to the French. sary; previous : preparedly is, advisedly; orSeventy-three miles N.N.W. of Frankfort on the derly; by proper precedent measures : the noun Oder, and fifty-six N. N. E. of Berlin.
substantive corresponding: preparer, he or that PREOC'CUPATE, v. a. 2, Fr. preoccuper ; which fits or prepares, Preoccupation, n. s. Lat. præoccupo. To There he maketh the hungry to dwell, that they Preoc'cupy, v. a. anticipate; prepos- may prepare a city for habitation. Psalm cviii. 36.
When he prepared the heavens I was there, when deluge depended upon the disruption of the great he set a compass upon the face of the depth. abyss.
Id. Prou. viii. 27. Such a temper is a contradiction to repentance, The long suffering of God waited in the days of as being founded in the destruction of those qualiNoah, while the ark was a preparing. 1 Peter. ties which are the only dis positions and preparatives They tell us the profit of reading is singular, in
South. that it serveth for a preparative unto sermons. Some preachers, being prepared only upon two or
Hooker. three points of doctrine, run the same round. I make bold to press, with so little preparation,
Addison. upon you.
The beams of light had been in vain displayed, --You're welcome.
Had not the eye been fit for vision made; Shakspeare. Merry Wives of Windsor, In vain the author had the eye prepared Sir John, you are a gentleman of excellent breed. With so much skill, had not the light appeared. ing, authentick in your place and person, generally
Blackmore. allosed for your many warlike, courtlike, and learn In the preparations of cookery, the most volatile ed preparations.
Shukspeare. parts of vegetables are destroyed. Arbuthnot. Patient Octavia, plough thy visage up
Nothing hath proved more fatal to that due prepaWith her prepared nails.
ration for another life, than our unhappy mistake of Id. Antony and Cleopatra, the nature and end of this.
Wake. Go in, sirrah, bid them prepare for dinner.
PREPARATION OF DISSONANCES, in music. See
PREPARATIONS, in anatomy, the parts of ani-
mal bodies prepared and preserved for anatomiT' the way she's forced to.
cal uses. Though several parts prepared dry Id. Antony and Cleopatra. are useful, yet others must be so managed as to My book of advancement of learning may be some be always flexible, and nearer a natural state. preparative or key for the better opening of the in- According to Dr. Monro, the best liquor for this stauration.
purpose is a well rectified colorless spirit of The bishop of Ely, the fittest preparer of her mind wine, to which is added a small quantity of to receive such a doleful accident, came to visit her. nitric or sulphuric acids. When these are pro
Wotton. Efficacy is a power of speech, which represents to
perly mixed, they neither change the color nor our minds the lively ideas of things so truly, as if we the consistence of their parts, except where there saw them with our eyes ; as Dido preparing to kill The brain, even of a young child, in this
are serous or mucous liquors contained in them. berself.
The miseries, which have ensued, may be yet, grows so firm as to admit of gentle handling, as through thy mercy, preparatives to us of future bles- do also the vitreous and crystalline humors of sings.
King Charles. the eye. The liquor of the sebaceous glands Resolvedness in sin can, with no reason, be ima- is coagulated by this spirituous mixture; and it gined a preparative to remission. Decay of Piety. heightens the red color of the injection of the
Prepare men's hearts by giving them the grace blood-vessels, so that, after the part has been in of humility, repentance, and probity of heart.
it a little time, several vessels appear which were Hammond.
before invisible. The glasses which contain the He took the golden compasses, prepared In God's eternal store, to circumscribe
preparations should be of the finest sort, and This universe.
pretty thick; for through such the parts may be It is preparatively necessary to many useful things seen very distinctly, and of a true color, and the in this life, as to make a man a good physician.
object will be so magnified as to show vessels in
Hale. the glass which out of it were not to be seen. Preparatory, limited, and formal interrogatories in As the glass when filled with the liquor has a writing preclude this way of occasional interroga- certain focus, it is necessary to keep the preparatories,
tion at a proper distance from the sides of it, I wish the chymists had been more sparing, who which is easily done by little sticks suitably magnify their preparations, inveigle the curiosity of placed, or by suspending it by a thread in a wany, and delude the security of most.
proper situation. Mr. Sheldon describes a simBrowne's Vulgar Errours. Though he judged the time of sickness an impro ration glasses, by which means the stopper is
ple method of stopping the mouths of the prepaper season for the great work of repentance; yet he esteemed it a most useful preparative, the voice of rendered nearly as durable as the glass itself. God himself exhorting to it.
Fell. To execute it, let the anatomist take care to The practice of all these is proper to our condition have the upper surface of his bottles made plane, in this world, and preparutory to our happiness in the by desiring the workmen at the glass-house to nert.
Tillotson. flatten them in the making. This they will What avails it to make all the necessary, prepara- easily do in forming the round ones, but the flat tives for our voyage, if we do not actually begin the bottles are attended with considerable difficulty. journey?
The right way to make them, would be to blow Confound the peace established, and prepare
them in moulds of various sizes; the workmen Their souls to hatred, and their hands to war.
should likewise form the bottoms of the bottles Codded grains are an improver of land, and pre- perfectly flat, that they may stand upright and parer of it for other crops.
I will shew what preparations there were in nature steady. Bottles of this form being provided for for this dissolution, and after what manner it came
the larger preparations, we grind the upper sur
Burnet. face of them on a plain plate of lead, about a Rains were but preparatory, the violence of the quarter of an inch thick, and two feet in diame
ver; first with Ane emery and water, then with PREPON'DER, v. a. Lat. prepondero. powdered rotten stone, or putty first wet with PREPON'DERANCE, or To outweigh; overwater and at last dry; so that the surface may PrePON'DERANCY, n. 8.
power by weight or be reduced to an exact horizontal plane, and of PREPON’DERATE, influence: the noun as fine a polish as plate glass. The manœuvre PREPONDERA’TION. substantive correrequires but little dexterity; and the anatomist sponding. should be provided with a considerable number Though pillars by channelling be seemingly inof these glasses thus prepared. To the top of grossed to our sight, yet they are truly weakened ; each bottle a piece of plate glass, cut by a dia- and therefore ought not to be the more slender, but mond, is to be adapted so as completely to
the more corpulent unless appearances preponder
Wotlan's Architecture. cover, but not project over, the edge of the truths. bottle. When these iwo smooth surfaces are put ponderate light falsehood in a thousand. Bp: Hall
A solid verity in one month, is worthy to preupon each other, with a drop of solution of gum
That is no just balance, wherein the heaviest side between, the attraction of cohesion is so con
will not preponderate.
Wilkins. siderable that it requires great force to separate An inconsiderable weight, by distance from the them. A piece of wet ox bladder, freed from fat, centre of the balance, will preponderate greater magand soaked in water till it becomes mucilaginous, nitudes,
Glanville. is then to be placed over the top, the air pressed As to addition of ponderosity in dead bodies, out fron between it and the glass; after which it comparing them unto blocks, this occasional preponmust be tied with a pack-thread dipped in the derancy is rather an appearance than reality. solution of gum arabic. The bladder, being cut
Browne's Vulgar Errours. off neatly under the last turn of the thread, is
He that would make the lighter scale preponderate, then to be dried, the string taken cautiously off, will not so soon do it
, by adding new weight to the and the top and neck painted with a composition emptier, as if he took out of the heavier, what he
adds to the lighter.
Locke. of lamp-black mixed with japanner's gold size:
The mind should examine all the grounds of prothis soon dries, and leaves a fine smooth glossy bability, and, upon a due balancing the whole, reject surface, from which the dirt can at any time be
or receive proportionably to the preponderancy of the as readily wiped off as from a mirror. By this greater grounds of probability.
Id. method large bottles are as easily and effectually Little light boats were the ships which people secured as small ones; and it is found to answer used, to the sides whereof this fish remora fastenas well as the hermetical sealing of glasses, ing, might make it swag, as the least prepondewhich in large vessels is altogether imprac- rance on either side will do, and so retard its course. ticable. With respect to the stopper bottles,
Grew. which are very convenient for holding small
The triviallest thing, when a passion is cast into preparations, Mr. S. advises the stoppers to be
the scale with it, preponderates substantial blessings.
Government of the Tongue. perfectly well ground; that they pass rather
Unless the very mathematical centre of gravity of lower down than the neck of the bottle, for the convenience of drilling two holes obliquely of the attractive power of all the rest, they cannot
every system be fixed in the very mathematical centre through the inferior edge of the substance of the be evenly attracted on all sides, but must prepondestopper, opposite to each other, for the conve
rate some way or other.
Bentley. nience of fixing threads to hold the subject; for, In matters, which require present practice, we must if the threads pass between the neck and stopper, content ourselves with a mere preponderation of proa space will be left; or, if the stopper be well bable reasons.
Il'aits. ground, the neck of the bottle will be broken in
PREPOSITION, n. s. Fr. preposition ; Lat. endeavouring to press it down. On the other præpositio. In grammar, a particle governing a hand, if any space be left, the thread, by its capillary attraction, will act from capillary attrac A preposition signifies some relation, which the tion, raise the spirits from the bottle, and cause thing signified by the word following it, has to someevaporation, which will likewise take place from thing going before in the discourse; as, Cæsar came the chink between the stopper and neck. Mr. to Rome.
Clarke's Latin Grammar. W. Cooke has found that all preparations of PREPOSSESS', v. a. Pre and possess. To animal bodies may be preserved by a solution of possess with an opinion unexamined ; to prejucommon salt. He finds that if used a little be- dice. low saturation, it will preserve animal sub God hath taken care to anticipate and prevent stances for an indefinite period, at all the tem- every man to give piety the prepossession, before other peratures of our atmosphere.— Transactions of competitors should be able to pretend to him ; and the Society of Arts, vol. xxxvii. p. 43.
so to engage him in holiness first, and then in bliss. PREPARIS, the most northern of the Anda
Hammond's Fundumentals. unan Islands, in the eastern entrance of the Bay under the prejudices and prepossessions of education,
Had the poor vnlgar rout only, who were held of Bengal, about a degree south of the Pegue been abused into such idolatrous superstitions, it shore, is four miles long, by one and a half might have been pitied, but not so much wondered at. broad. It rises gradually towards the middle,
South. and is covered entirely with wood. In clear
With thought, from prepossession free, reflect weather it may seen at the distance of twenty- On solar rays, as they the sight respect. Blackmore. five miles, but can only be approached on the She was prepossessed with the scandal of salivating east side, on account of rocks; on that side,
Wiseman. within half a mile of the shore, there is seven PREPOSTEROUS, adj. 7 Latin præpostefathoms water. It is only inhabited by birds, PREPOS'TEROUSLY, adv.
Strictly, squirrels, and monkies. Long. 93° 40' E., lat. PREPOS'TEROUSNESS, 1. s.) having that first 14° 50' N.
which ought to be last : hence, absurdly wrong; unto the prerequisite and previous conditions of birth, perverted; the adverb and poun-substantive cor- but also unto the parturition.
PRERO'GATIVE, n. s. Fr. prerogatif ; Preposterous ass! that never read so far
Slow Lat. præroga-
Shakspeare. ing exclusive privilege.
My daughters and the fair Parthenia might far
better put in their claim for that prerogative. id. Midsummer Night's Dream.
Sidney. Put a case of a land of Amazons, where the whole The great caliph bath an old prerogative in the government, public and private, is in the hands of choice and confirmation of the kings of Assyria. women : is not such a preposterous government
Knolles. against the first order of nature, for women 10 rule
How could communities,
Bacon. The primogeniture, and due of birth,
Prerogative of age, sceptres, and crowns,
But by degree, stand in authentick place ?
Shakspeare. And blushes to behold herself so cruel. Denham.
"Tis the plague of great ones, The Roman missionaries gave their liberal contri
Prerogatived are they less than the base; bution, affording their preposterous charity to make
'Tis destiny unshunable.
Id. them proselytes, who had no mind to be confessors
Had any of these second causes despoiled God of or martyrs.
Fell. his prerogative, or had God himself constrained the The method I take may be censured as preposterous, mind and will of man to impious acts by any celesbecause I thus treat last of the antediluvian earth, tial inforcements ?
Paleigh. which was first in order of nature.
They are the best laws, by which the king hath the Woodward's Natural History. justest prerogative, and the people the best liberty. Upon this supposition, one animal would have its
Bacon. lungs where another hath its liver, and all the other They obtained another royal prerogative and members preposterously placed ; there could not be a power, to make war and place at their pleasure. like configuration of parts in any two individuals.
Davies. Bentley's Sermons. The house of commons, to these their prerogatives The shapeless pair,
over the lords, sent an order to the lieutenant of the As they designed to mock me, at my side
Tower, that he should cause him to be executed that Take step for step; and, as I near approach very day.
Clarendon. The cottage, walk along the plastered wall,
For freedom still maintained alive,
It seems to be the prerogative of human under
Lat. præpotentia. standing, when it has distinguished any ideas, so as Predominance; superior power.
to perceive them to be different, to consider in what If there were a determinate prepotency in the right, circumstances they are capable to be compared. and such as ariseth from a constant root in nature,
Locke. we might expect the same in other animals.
I will not consider only the prerogaiives of man
Browne. above other animals, but the endowments which na-
Ray on the Crealion. putium. That which covers the glans ; foreskin.
PREROGATIVE Court, an English court esThe prepuce was much inflamed and swelled.
tablished for the trial of all testamentary causes, PREPUCE. See ANATOMY.
where the deceased has left bona notabilia within PRERAU, a circle comprising the north-east
two different dioceses. In which case the proportion of Moravia, bordering on Austrian Sile- bate of wills belongs to the archbishop of the sia. Its area is 1210 square miles. The smaller province, by way of special prerogative. And all part lying on the rivers March and Hanna, is causes relating to the wills, administrations, or fertile; the rest is mountainous and containing legacies of such persons, are originally cognizaonly here and there fruitful spots. The pastures ble herein, before a judge appointed by the are good, and the number of sheep considerable. archbishop, called the judge of the prerogativeThe chief rivers are the March, Hanna, Becswa, court; from whom an appeal lies, by stat. 25 and Oder, which has here the commencement of Hen. VIII. c. 19, to the king in chancery, inits course. Population 215,000. The chief town
stead of the pope as formerly. of the same name is situated thirteen miles south PREROGATIVE, Royal, that special pre-emieast of Almutz and contains 2300 inhabitants.
nence which the king hath over and above all PREREQUIRE', v. a. ? Pre and require. other persons, and out of the ordinary course of PREREQʻUISITE, adj. To demand
the common law, in right of his regal dignity. It viously : præ and requisite. Something pre
signifies in its etymology (from præ and rogo) viously necessary.
something that is required or demanded before,
or in preference to all others. And therefore Some primary literal signification is prerequired to that other of figurative.
Finch lays it down as a maxim, that the prero
Hammond. Before the existence of compounded body, there gative is that law in case of the king, which is must be a pre-existence of active principles, neces
law in no case of the subject. Prerogatives are sarily prerequisite to the mixing these particles of bo- either direct or incidental. The direct are such dies.
Hale. positive substantial parts of the royal character The conformation of parts is necessary, not only and authority, as are rooted in, and spring from,