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the sereral denominations of Christians in this Some of its most ornamental country seats were state is stated as follows:-Baptists fifty-seven; destroyed ; and their fine groves, orchards, and Friends eighteen ; Congregationalists eleven; fruit trees, wantonly cut down. The soil is of a Episcopalians five; Moravians one; Jews one. superior quality. Between 30,000 and 40,000

The legislature is composed of a council of sheep are fed on the island, besides neat cattle twelve, including the governor and lieutenant-go- and horses. There is a valuable coal mine on the vernor, all chosen annually, and a house of re north-west part of the island. presentatives, consisting of seventy-two members, RHODES, a celebrated island in the Archichosen twice a year; viz. on the third Wed- pelago, the largest and most easterly of the Cynesday in April, and on the fourth Tuesday in clades, was known in ancient times by the names August. Judges and other civil officers are ap- of Asteria, Ophiusa, Æthrea, Trinacria, Corympointed yearly. The legislature meets at New- bia, Poessa, Attabyria, Marcia, Oloessa, Stadia, port twice a year, at Providence once, and once Telchinis, Pelagia, and Rhodus. In latter ages, a year alternately at East Greenwich and South the name of Rhodus, or Rhodes, prevailed, from Kingston. This state sends two representatives the Greek word rhodon, a rose : the island to congress.

abounding very much with these flowers. It The rivers are Pawtucket, Providence, Paw- is about twenty miles distant from the coasts tuxet, Pawcatuck, and Wood River. Narraganset of Lycia and Caria, and 120 miles in comBay extends up from south to north between the pass. mainland on the east and west, and embosoms Pliny and several other ancient authors assert many pleasant and fertile islands; among which that Rhodes was formerly covered by the sea, are Rhode Island, from which the state derives its but gradually raised its head above the waves, name, Canonicut, Prudence, Patience, Hope, and became an island. Philo ascribes this event Dyer's and Hog Íslands. Block Işland, off the to the decrease of the waters of the ocean. If coast in the Atlantic, is the most southerly land his conjecture be not without foundation, most of belonging to the state.

the isles of the Archipelago, being lower than The face of the country is mostly level, except Rhodes, must have had a similar origin. But it in the north-west part, which is hilly and rocky. is much more probable that the volcanic fires The soil is generally better adapted to grazing which in the fourth year of the 135th Olympiad than tillage. A large proportion of the western raised Therasia and Thera, known at present by and north-western part of the state has a thin the name of Santorin, from the depths of the sea, and lean soil; but the islands and the country and have in our days thrown out several small bordering on Narraganset Bay are of great fer- islands adjacent, also produced in some ancient tility, and are celebrated for their fine cattle, their era Rhodes and Delos. The first inhabitants of numerous Aocks of sheep, and the abundance Rhodes, according to Diodorus Siculus, were and excellence of their butter and cheese ; cedar, called the Telchinæ, who came originally from Tye, barley, oats, grasses, and culinary roots and the island of Crete. These, by their skill in plants are in great abundance and perfection. astrology, perceiving that the island was soon to The rivers and bays swarm with a variety of ex- be deluged, left their habitations, and made room cellent fish. Iron ore is found in large quanti- for the Heliades, or descendants of Phæbus, who ties in several parts, and some copper; there is took possession of the island, and excelled all also an abundance of limestone, particularly in other men in learning, invented navigation, &c. the county of Providence.

In after ages, however, being infested with great The manufactures of Rhode Island are exten- serpents which bred in the island, they consulted sive. They consist chiefly of iron, cotton, the oracle in Delos, which advised them to auwoollen, paper, and hats. The exports consist mit Phorbus, a Thessalian, with his followers chiefly of flax-seed, lumber, brorses, cattle, beef, into Rhodes. This was done, and Phorbus, havpork, fish, poultry, onions, butter, cheese, barley, ing destroyed the serpents, was, after his death, grain, spirits, and cotton and linen goods. They honored as a demigod. Afterwards a colony of amounted, in 1816, to 612,794 dollars. The Cretans settled in the island, and, a little before climate of this state is as healthy as that of any the Trojan war, Tlepolemus the son of Herpart of America, and it is more temperate than cules was made king of it, and governed with the climate of any of the other New England great justice. After the Trojan war all the anstates, particularly on the islands, where the cient inhabitants were driven out by the Dorians, breezes from the sea have the effect not only to who continued to be masters of the island for mitigate the heat in summer, but to moderate the many ages. cold in winter. The summers are delightful, es A liule before the expeditior, of Xerxes into pecially on the island of Rhode Island.

Greece a republican form of government preRuode Island, Indian name Aqucdneck vailed here ; during which the Rhodians applied Island, from which the state takes its name, themselves to navigation, and became very powsituated in Narraganset Bay. Long. 71° 20' W., erful by sea, planting several colonies in distant lat. 41° 25' N. It is about fifteen miles from countries. In the time of the Peloponnesian war north to south, and three and a half wide, and the republic of Rhodes was rent into two factions, is divided into three townships, Newport, Ports- one of which favored the Athenians, and the mouth, and Middletown. It is a noted resort other the Spartans; but at length, the latter prefor invalids from southern climates. The island vailing, democracy was abolished, and aristois exceedingly pleasant and healthful. Tra- cracy introduced. About 351 B.C. we find the vellers, with propriety, call it the Eden of Ame- Rhodians oppressed by Mausolus king of Caria, rica. It suffered much by the revolutionary war. and at last reduced by Artemisia his widow. In Vol. XVIII.

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this emergency they applied to the Athenians ; trius. The besieged taking an account of those by whose assistance they regained their liberty. who who were capable of bearing arms, found

From the period above-mentioned to that of that the citizens amounted to 6000, and the foAlexander the Great the Rhodians enjoyed un- reigners to 1000. Liberty was promised to all interrupted tranquillity. To him they voluntarily the slaves who should distinguish themselves by submitted; and were on that account highly fa- any glorious action, and the public engaged to vored by him: but no sooner did they hear of pay the masters their ransom. A proclamation his death than they drove out the Macedonian was likewise made, declaring, that whoever died garrisons, and once more became a free people. in defence of his country should be buried at the About this time happened a dreadful inundation public expense; that his parents and children at Rhodes; which, being accompanied with vio- should be maintained out of the treasury; that lent storms of rain, and hailstones of an extraor- fortunes should be given to his daughters; and dinary size, beat down many houses, and killed his sons should be crowned at the great festival numbers of the inhabitants. As the city was of Bacchus. Demetrius, having planted his enbuilt in the form of an amphitheatre, and no care gines, began to batter with incredible fury the had been taken to clear the pipes and conduits walls on the side of the barbour; but was for which conveyed the water into the sea, the lower eight days successively repulsed, and the besieged parts were instantly laid under water. Many of set fire to some of the most powerful of his enthe inhabitants fled to their ships. But the wall gines. He now, therefore, ordered a general on a sudden bursting, we are told, asunder, and assault be made; but this also was repulsed the water discharging itself into the sea, they with great slaughter. In a similar assault

, next were delivered from all farther dauger. The day, he was again forced to retire, after having Rhodians soon retrieved their losses by trade. lost a great number of men, and some officers.

During the wars among the successors of Alex. Having seized and fortified an eminence, near the ander, they observed a strict neutrality; whereby city, Demetrius caused several batteries to be they enriched themselves so much that Rhodes erected, which incessantly discharged against the became one of the most opulent states of the age; walls stones of 150 lbs. weight; so that the towers insomuch that they undertook the piratic war, began to totter, and several breaches were openand, at their own charge, cleared the seas of the ed: but the Rhodians, unexpectedly sallying out, pirates who had for many years infested the coasts drove the enemy from this post, and overturned of Europe and Asia. But, as the most advantage- their machines. Their enterprising foe now orous branches of their commerce were derived dered a scalade by sea and land at the same time; from Egypt, they were more attached to Ptolemy, the attack was commenced with great fury; but than to any of the neighbouring princes. When the besieged defended themselves with the greattherefore Antigonus, having engaged in a war est intrepidity and success. After the combat with Ptolemy about Cyprus, demanded succors had lasted many hours, with great slaughter on both of them, they intreated him not to compel them sides, Demetrius retired : but soon returned with to declare war against their ancient ally. Anti- new vigor to attack the fortifications which degonus immediately ordered one of his admirals fended the harbour. Here he caused a vast to sail with his fleet to Rhodes, and seize all the quantity of burning torches and firebrands to be ships that came out of the harbour; but the thrown into the Rhodian ships; and at the same Rhodians, equipping a number of galleys, fell time galled them with showers of darts, arrows, upon

and obliged them to retire with and stones. However, the Rhodians put a stop great loss. Hereupon Antigonus threatened to to the fire; and having, with great expedition, besiege their city with his whole army; and the manned three strong ships, drove with such viaonly terms of accommodation to which he would lence against the vessels on which the enemy's hearken were, that the Rhodians should declare machines were planted that they were shattered war against Ptolemy, and admit his fleet into in pieces, and thrown into the sea. Excestus, their harbour. The Rhodians now sent ambassa- the Rhodian admiral, encouraged by this sucdors to all their allies, and to Ptolemy in particu- cess, now attacked the enemy's fleet, and sunk lar, imploring their assistance; and the prepara- many vessels, but was himself taken prisoner. tions on both sides were immense. Antigonus, Demetrius on this ordered a machine of a new being near eighty years of age, committed the invention to be buil., which was thrice the height management of the war to his son Demetrius, and breadth of those he had lost. But as it was surnamed Poliorcetes, or the taker of towns, entering the harbour, á dreadful storm arising, who appeared before Rhodes with 200 ships and drove it against the shore, with the vessel on 170 transports, having on board 40,000 men, which it had been reared. The besieged, while and 1000 other vessels laden with provisions and the tempest was still raging, made a sally against warlike engines; so that the whole sea between the post of the Demetrians; and, though repulsed the continent and the island was covered with several times, carried it, obliging 400 of them to vessels.

lay down their arms. Having landed his troops beyond the reach of After this victory Demetrius framed the the enemy's machines, Demetrius detached seve famous engine called helepolis, much larger ral small bodies to lay waste the country, em- than any military engine hitherto invented. See ploying the timber to fortify his camp with strong HELEPOLIS. It was moved upon eight strong ramparts. The Rhodians, on their part, prepared and large wheels, whose fellies were strengthenfor a vigorous defence. Many commanders, ed with strong iron plates. To facilitate and who had signalised themselves on other occasions, vary its movements, castors were placed under it, came to Rhodes to try their skill against Deme- whereby it was turned in an instant to that side

the enemy,

which the workmen and engineers desired. From bassadors arrived from Cnidus, soliciting Deme. each of the four angles a large pillar of wood trius to suspend further hostilities, and giving was carried to about the height of 100 cubits, him hopes that they should prevail upon the inclining to each other; the machine consisting Rhodians to submit to a capitulation. A moof nine stories, whose dimensions gradually les- mentary suspension of arms took place; but, the sened. The first story was supported by forty. Rhodians refusing the conditions offered, the atthree beams, and the last by no more than nine. tack was renewed. At this crisis a fleet which Three sides of the machine were plated over with Ptolemy had freighted with 300,000 measures of iron, to prevent its being damaged by fire. In corn and pulse arrived very seasonably. A few the front of each story were windows defended days after came in safe two other fleets: one sent with shutters covered with skins stuffed with by Cassander, with 100,000 bushels of barley; wool. This machine was moved forwards by the other by Lysimachus, with 400,000 bushels 3000 of the strongest men of the whole army; of corn, and as many of barley. The Rhodian but the art with which it was built greatly facili- troops now suddenly sallied out, and set fire to tated the motion. Demetrius caused likewise the enemy's batteries; built a third wall in the to be made several testudoes or penthouses, to form of a crescent, which took in all that part cover his men while they advanced to fill up the that was most exposed to the enemy; and drew trenches and ditches, and invented a new sort a deep trench behind the breach. They also deof galleries, through which those that were em- tached a squadron of their best ships under ployed at the siege might pass and repass. He Amyntas, who, meeting with some privateers employed all his seamen in levelling the ground commissioned by Demetrius, took both the ships over which the machines were to be brought up, and the men, among whom were Timocles, the to the space of four furlongs. The number of chief of the pirates, and several officers of disworkmen employed amounted to 30,000. tinction of the fleet of Demetrius. These were

The Rhodians, observing these formidable pre- soon followed by a numerous fleet of small vesparations, raised a new wall within that which sels loaded with corn and provisions, sent them ihe enemy intended to batter. To accomplish by Ptolemy, with 1500 men, under Antigonus, a ibis, they pulled down the wall of their theatre, Macedonian of great experience. While the the neighbouring houses, and even some tem- Rhodians were thus signalizing themselves in the ples, after having solemnly vowed to build more defence of their country, a second embassy armagnificent structures in honor of the gods, if rived from Athens and the other cities of Greece, the city were preserved. At the same time they soliciting Demetrius to make a peace. A cessasent out nine of their best ships to seize such of tion of arms was agreed upon, but, the terms ofthe enemy's as they could meet with, and there- fered by Demetrius being once more rejected by by distress them for want of provisions. As the Rhodians, hostilities were renewed; and these were commanded by their bravest sea-of- Demetrius formed a detachment of 1500 of his ficers, they soon returned with an immense best troops, under Alcimus and Mancius, two i ooty, and many prisoners. Among other ves- officers of experience, ordering them to enter the sels, they took a galley richly laden, on board of breach at midnight, and possess themselves of which they found a great variety of valuable fur- the strong posts about the theatre. To facilitate niture, and a royal robe, which Phila herself had the execution of so dangerous an undertaking, wrought and sent as a present to her husband be amused the enemy with false attacks by sea Demetrius. The Rhodians sent the furniture, and land. Accordingly the detachment entered the royal robe, and the accompanying tter, to the breach, and fell upon those who defended Ptolemy, which highly exasperated Demetrius. the ditch with such vigor that, having slain the The statues of Antigonus and his son Demetrius, most part of them, they advanced to the theatre, however, were still allowed to remain in the city. and seized on the post adjoining. The darkness Mining and countermining were now tried : and of the night prevented the Rhodiaus from disone Athenagoras, a Milesian, who had been sent lodging the enemy. Next day they fought like to the assistance of the Rhodians by Ptolemy, men in despair, the enemy defending their post promised to betray the city to the Demetrians. several hours without giving ground. At length But this was only to ensnare them ; for Alexan- the Rhodians, breaking into the enemy's battader, a Macedonian whom Demetrius had sent lion, and killing both their commanders, the rest with a body of troops to take possession of a post were easily put into disorder, and all to a man agreed on, no sooner appeared but he was taken either killed or taken prisoners. The Rhodians prisoner by the Rhodians, who were waiting for also lost many of their best commanders; and him under arms. Athenagoras was crowned by among the rest Damotetis, their chief magistrate. the senate with a crown of gold, and presented Demetrius was making preparations for a new with fire talents of silver. Demetrius now assault, when he received letters from his father, placed all his hopes of reducing the city on bis enjoining him to conclude a peace with the Rhobattering engines. Having therefore levelled the dians upon the best terms he could obtain : at ground, he brought up his helepolis, with four the same time ambassadors arrived from the testudoes on each side. Two others of an ex- Ætolian republic, soliciting the contending partraordinary size, bearing battering rams, were ties to put an end to the war. Demetrius, how likewise moved forwards by 1000 men. Each ever, was preparing once more to bring forward story of the helepolis was filled with engines for his helepolis, when a Rhodian engineer renderdischarging stones, arrows, and darts. When ed it altogether useless. He undermined the tract all things were ready his men assaulted the city of ground over which it was to pass; and when on all sides. But, in the heat of the attack, am- it came to the place it sunk so deeply into the

ground that it was impossible to draw it out the Athenian territories; and, putting the other again. This misfortune decided the enemy to aboard his fleet, gave it orders to sail to lemake peace on the following conditions : ronea, a city in the north of Thrace. He then That the republic of Rhodes should be maintain- marched towards that city himself, took it by ed in the full enjoyment of their ancient rights, assault, and reduced a great many others; so privileges, aud liberties, without any foreign gar- that the confederates would, in all probabilny, rison; that they should renew their alliance with have had little reason to boast of their success, Antigonus, and assist him in his wars against all had not the Romans come to their assistance. In states and princes except Egypt; and that, for the war between the Romans and Antiochus the the effectual performance of the articles stipulated, Great king of Syrià, the Rhodians were very they should deliver 100 hostages, such as Deme. useful allies to the former. The best part of trius should make choice of. Thus was the siege their fleet was indeed destroyed by a treacherous raised, after it had continued a whole year: contrivance of Polyxeniades the Syrian admiral; the Rhodians amply rewarded all those who but they soon fitted out another, and defeated á liad distinguished themselves in the service of squadron commanded by the celebrated Hannibal, their country. They also set up statues to Pro- after which, in conjunction with the Romans, they lemy, Cassander, and Lysimachus ; to all of utterly destroyed the Syrian fleet commanded by whom they paid the highest honors, especially to Polyxeniades; which, together with the loss of the first. Demetrius at his departure presented the battle of Magnesia, so dispirited Antiochus, them with the helepolis, and all the other ma that he submitted to whatever conditions the chines which he had employed in battering the Romans pleased. For these services the Rhocity: from the sale of which, with some additi- dians were rewarded with the provinces of Lycia onal sums of their own, they are said to have and Caria; but, tyrannizing over the people in a erected the famous colossus.

terrible manner, the Lycians applied to the senale The Rhodians after this applied themselves for protection. This was readily granted; but entirely to commerce, by which means they be- the Rhodians were so much displeased that they came masters of the sea, and much more opulent secretly favored Perseus in the war which broke than any of the neighbouring nations. However, out between him and the Roman republic. For they could not avoid a war with the Byzantines, this offence the two provinces above-mentioned who, being obliged to pay a tribute of eighty were resumed; but the Rhodians, having banished talents to the Gauls, resolved to lay a toll on ail or put to death those who had favored Perseus, ships that traded to the Pontic Sea. This reso werc again admitted into favor, and greatly lution provoked the Rhodians, who first de honored by the senate. In the Mithridauc war spatched ambassadors to the Byzantines, com their alliance with Rome brought upon them the plaining of the new tax; but they persisted in king of Pontus with all his force; but, having their resolution: and the Rhodians declared war, lost the greatest part of his fleet before the city, engaging the king of Pergamus to assist them: he was obliged to raise the siege. In the war the Byzantines were now so intimidated that which Pompey made on the Cilician pirates the they agreed to relinquish the toll. About this Rhodians assisted him with their naval force, time happened the earthquake, which threw and had a great share in his victories. In the down the colossus, arsenal, and a great part of civil war between Cæsar and Pompey they also the city walls of Rhodes; on which occasion assisted the latter. After his death they sided the Rhodians sent ambassadors to all the Grecian with Cæsar; which drew upon them the resentprinces and states, to whom their losses were so ment of C. Cassius, who advanced to Rhodes much exaggerated, that they obtained immense with a powerful fleet. When the Rhodians sent sums of money. B.C. 203 the Rhodians en- ambassadors, promising to stand neuter, and gaged in a war with Philip V. of Macedon. recal the ships which they had sent to assist the

Philip had invaded the territories of Attalus triumviri, Cassius insisted upon their delivering king of Pergamus; and, because the Rhodians up their feet, and putting him in possession of seemed to favor their ancient friend, sent Hera- their harbour. This the Rhodians refused, and clides, by birth a Tarentine, to set fire to their began to put themselves in a condition to stand fleet; at the same he despatched ambassadors a siege; but first sent Archelaus, who had taught into Crete, in order to stir up the Cretans against Cassius Greek, to intercede with his disciple. them. Philip at first gained an inconsiderable Archelaus could not prevail upon him to modeadvantage in a naval engagement; but the next rate his demands; the Rhodians, therefore, bar. year was defeated with the loss of 11,000 men, ing created Alexander, a bold and enterprising while the Rhodians lost but sixty men, and At- man, their prætor, equipped a fleet of thirty-three talus seventy. After this he carefully avoided sail, and sent it out under Mascus, an expecoming to an engagement at sea either with At- rienced naval officer, to offer Cassius batile. talus or the Rhodians. The combined feet, in Both fleets fought with incredible bravery, and the mean time, sailed towards Ægina in hopes the victory was long doubtful; but the Rhodians, of intercepting him: but, having failed in their overpowered by numbers, were at length forced purpose, they sailed to Athens, where they con to return home, two of their ships being supk cluded a treaty with that people; and, on their and the rest much damaged. This was the first return, drew all the Cyclades into a confederacy time that the Rhodians were fairly overcome ia against Philip. The allies, however, wasted a naval fight. Cassius, who had beheld it from their time in these negociations; and Philip, a neighbouring hill, having refilted his fleet, having divided his forces into two bodies, sent which had been no less damaged than that of the one, under the command of Philocles, to ravage Rhodians, repaired to Loryma, a stronghold of

the Rhodians on the continent. This castle he where he landed his troops, j'ovisions, and wartook by assault; and hence conveyed his land like stores, in spite of the opposition made by forces, under Fannius and Lentulus, over into the Saracens, who then united against the comthe island. His fleet consisted of eighty ships mon enemy. As Villaret foresaw that the capiof war and above 200 transports. The Rho- tal must be taken before he could reduce the dians no sooner saw it appear, but they went out, Island, he instantly laid siege to it. The inhabagain to meet the enemy. The second engage- itants defended themselves obstinately; upon ment was far more bloody than the first; many which the grand master thought proper to turn ships were sunk, and great numbers of men the siege into a blockade; but soon found himkilled on both sides. But victory once more self so closely surrounded by the Greeks and declared for the Romans, who immediately Saracens that he could get no supply either of blocked up the city of Rhodes both by sea and forage or provisions. But having at length obland. As the inhabitants had not had time to fur- tained this by means of large sums borrowed of nish the city with sufficient provisions for a siege, the Florentines, he came out of his trenches and some of them fearing that, if it were taken either attacked the Saracens, with a full resolution by assault or by famine, Cassius would put all either to conquer or die. A bloody conflict enthe inhabitants to the sword, as Brutus had sued, in which a great number of the bravest lately done at Xanthus, privately opened the knights were killed; but at length the Saracens gates, and put him in possession of the town, give way, and fled to their ships; upon which which he nevertheless treated as if it had been the city was immediately attacked and taken. taken by assault. He commanded fifty of the The Greeks and other Christians had their lives chief citizens to be brought before him, and sen- and liberties given them, but the Saracens were tenced them to die; others to the number of all cut to pieces. The reduction of the capital twenty-five, who had commanded the feet or was followed by that of all the other places of army, because they did not appear when sum inferior strength throughout the island; and, in moned, he proscribed, and commanded the Rho- four years after their landing, the whole was subdians to deliver up to him all their ships, and jugated, and the conquerors took the title of the whatever money they had in the public treasury. Knights of Rhodes. He then plundered the temples; and is said not For many years those knights continued the to have left one statue in the whole city, except terror of the Saracens and Turks, and sustained that of the sun; boasting, at his departure, that a severe siege from Mahomet II., who was comhe had stripped the Rhodians of all they had. pelled to abandon the enterprise ; but at length From private persons he extorted above 8000 ihe Turkish sultan Solyman resolved at all events talents.

to drive them from it. He attacked the city with On the death of Cassius, Marc Antony restored a fleet of 400 sail, and an army of 140,000 men. the Rhodians to their ancient rights and privi- The trenches were soon brought close to the leges, bestowing upon them the islands of counterscarp, and a strong battery raised against Andros, Naxos, Tenos, and the city of Myndus. the town; which, however, did but little damage. But these the Rhodians so oppressed with taxes Unfortunately for the besieged, their continual that Antony, though a great friend to the repub- fire caused such a consumption of gunpowder lic, was obliged to divest her of the sovereignty. that they began to feel the want of it; the perfiFrom this time to the reign of the emperor Claudius dious d'Amarald, whose province it had been to we find no mention made of the Rhodians. That visit the magazines, having amused the council prince, as Dion informs us, deprived them of with a false report that there was more than suftheir liberty for having crucified some Roman ficient to maintain the siege. Solyman therefore citizens. However, he soon restored them to thought it now advisable to sel his numerous their former condition. Tacitus adds, that they pioneers at work, digging of mines, and, ashamed had been as often deprived of, or restored to, and exasperated at his ill success, called a genetheir liberty, by way of punishment or reward ral council, in which he made some stinging for their different behaviour, as they had obliged reflections or his vizier, for having represented the Romans with their assistance in foreign wars, the reduction of Rhodes as a very easy enteror provoked them with their seditions at home, prise. To avoid the effects of the sultan's resentPliny, who wrote in the beginning of Vespasian's ment, Mustapha proposed a general assault on reign, styles Rhodes a beautiful and free town. several sides of the town at once. This wa: iinBut Vespasian obliged it to pay a yearly tribute, mediately approved of, and the time appointed for and reduced the whole island to a Roman pro- the execution of it was on the 24th. Accordingvince. The pretor who governed it resided at ly the town was assaulted at four different parts, Rhodes, as the chief city under his jurisdiction. after having suffered a continual fire for some time

The island continued subject to the Romans from their artillery. But the Rhodians were no till the reign of the emperor Andronicus; when less diligent in repulsing them with their cannor Villaret, grand master of the knights of Jerusa- aná other fire arms, melted lead, boiling oil, &c. lem, then residing at Cyprus, finding himself The Turks at last, alike beset by the fire of the auch exposed to the attacks of the Saracens, artillery and the arms of the Rhodian knights, resolved to exchange that island for Rhodes. were forced to abandon the attack with a consiAndronicus the eastern emperor possessed little derable loss. In these attacks there fell about more in it than a castle : nevertheless he refused 15,000 of Solyman's best troops, besides several to grant the investiture of the island to Villaret. officers of distinction. Solyman was so disThe latter, therefore, without spending tin in couraged by his ill successes that he was on the fruitless negociations, salied directly for Rhodes, point of raising the siege, and would have ac

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