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VIII. Enumerate and illustrate the several classes of purely logical fallacies.
IX. State fully the fallacy in the following syllogism and write a short note on the conclusion.
“ Induction is distinct from Syllogism;
THURSDAY, 13TH FEB., 10 A.M. TO 1 P.M.
1. What are the parts and functions of the Leaf ? Sketch and name ten ordinary forms of simple leaves.
II. Describe a cross-section of a woody dicotyledonous stem.
III. Give examples of ordinary occurrence in common life of six different forms of Fruit: and describe each.
State the distinguishing characters of Monocotyledonous
V. Illustrate by an example the scientific use of the terms, Genus, Class, Division, Species, Sub-class, Variety and Order. Which of them is indicated by the botanical title of a plant ?
VI. What are the characters of the Euphorbiaceae ? Name, in scientific and in common language, four ordinary Indian plants of this order.
VII. Enumerate the principal differences between the Iridaceæ and the Liliaceæ.
VIII. Explain the following :-alburnum, arillus, caryopsis, chlorophyll, diclinous, exserted, papilionaceous, syngenesious, tendril, mildew, nectary, gymnosperm.
THURSDAY, 13TH FEB., 2 to 5 P.M.
I. Three forces in one plane act on a rigid body. State the conditions of equilibrium. Three uniform rods CD,DE,EF of lengths a and weights W are
connected together by means of pivots rigidly attached to DE and passing through the other rods. A,G,B are points
in the same horizontal line such that AG= GB
strings of lengths a have their ends fastened to A,C and B, F respectively. A third string of length a.W 3 has its ends fastened to G and the middle point of DE. Prove that in the position of equilibrium, the tension of either of the
W equal strings is
the tension of the third string
2N 3 5 W
W7 and the pressure on either of the pivots
2 N 3
When will a body placed on a horizontal plane stand or fall ? A square PQRS stands with its base PQ on a horizontal plane. A triangle RQO is cut off from the square. If the remaining quadrilateral is just able to stand on PO, prove that PO : OQ:: 1 : 73
III. Define the coefficient of friction and find its value.
A uniform rod rests within a rough vertical circle. If the
length of the rod is equal to the radius of the circle and the coefficient of friction is unity, shew that in the limiting position of equilibrium the inclination of the rod to the horizon is tan -12.
IV. Two heavy bodies are connected by a string which passes over a smooth fixed pully : find the acceleration and the tension of the string
Two weights of 11 lbs. and 3 lbs. together pull a smooth
moveable pully of weight 1 lb. over a smooth fixed pully by means of a connecting string. A string passing over the moveable pully has weights 6 lbs. and 2 lbs. attached to its extremities. If after the moveable pully has ascend. ed through a space 6g, the 11 lbs. weight is detached and taken away without interrupting the motion, show that the remaining 3 lbs. weight will descend through a space 5g before beginning to ascend.
V. Find the range of a projectile on an inclined plane through the point of projection.
A ball of perfect elasticity falls from a point P above an inclined
plane, impinges against it at Q, rebounds and strikes it
8 P Q g Sin 2 2 a
a being the inclination of the
plane to the horizon.
VI. Two imperfectly elastic balls moving with given velocities impinge directly on each other : find the velocity of each after impact.
Two balls whose masses are as 9 : 4 and elasticity is
with equal velocity at right angles to each other, and their directions make equal angles with the line joining their centres. Prove that after impact they move in directions inclined to each other at an angle cot-17.
VII. A particle descends down a smooth curve under the action of gravity. Find its velocity in any position.
A particle is projected from the vertex of a parabolic arc
whose axis is vertical and vertex downwards, up the con.
cave side of the arc with a velocity N 23 ag, 4a being the latus rectum of the parabola. Show that the pressure on the curve at the point whose focal distance is 5a is
m being the mass of the particle.
THURSDAY, 13th FEB., 2 to 5 P.M.
I. “ If everything had a name, names would be useless.” Why, and in what sense ? What is the use of names ? What the character. istics of a good common name and the difference between it and a proper name?
II. What is Predication ? What the purpose of Aristotle's Predicables ?
Criticise the common
Square of Opposition.”
IV. Explain and illustrate the difference between Conversion and and Obversion.
V. What are the special canons and special fallacies of Hypothetical Inference ?
VI. What is the difference between the two following pieces of reasoning ?
(a.) All dogs kill hares,
This dog will kill that hare. (6.) All dogs have tails,
Somebody must have cut off this animal's tail.
VII. What is the meaning of " Necessity' in Logic ?
VIII. Why are the principles of Probability discussed in works on Logic ? Mention some applications.
IX. Criticise the following statements (within quotation marks) on logical grounds :(a.) “Not 5 per cent. of the criminals in our jails are
“ able to read. This shows the necessity of a sys
“tem of compulsory universal secular education.” (6.) “ The introduction of Penny Postage has increased the (c.)
revenue of the British Post-office. Therefore " the Government of India may reduce its rates or without loss.“
“ Maudsley in a recent work gives a physical explana
tion of certain moral phenomena. Calderwood beginning to criticise this theory speaks to the fol. lowing effect. “Mr. Buckle in his History of “ Civilisation derides Moral Philosophers because “ in spite of all they have done there has been no
progress in morals. He could not say so now in " the face of novelties like this."
“ It is common to say that what has been in the past
“ has always been more or less suitable to the time " and circumstances. Such encomiums on the past • need to be received with great misgivings. To “justify them fully, we must maintain, first that “ the good of mankind has been the chief motive “ of the founders and supporters of the actual in“stitutious of every age, and secondly, that men's
ingenuity of contrivance has always been on a “ level with their necessities.”—Bain.
THURSDAY, 13TH FEB., 2 to 5 P.M.
I. Describe " total reflection” of Light, and show its relation to the brilliancy of the diamond.
II. Enumerate the constituents into which prismatic analysis resolves a beam of solar light, indicating roughly the local and quan. titative relations of the components and stating their various effects, with the causes to which these are due.
III. What assumption underlying the graduation of thermometric scales is inconsistent with the actual phenomena of expansion by heat? How and to what extent is the error compensated in the case of the mercurial thermometer?
IV. Define Specific Heat and state its relations to condition and to atomic weight. What are the methods of determining the specific heat of substances ?