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CENT.ing confirmed solemnly in the council of Troyes, XI. '; 1. and subjected to a rule of discipline drawn up by

St BERNARD [a]. These warlike templars were to defend and support the cause of Christianity by force of arms, to have inspection over the public roads, and to protect the pilgrims, who came to visit Jerusalem, against the insults and barbarity of the Mahometans. The order flourished for some time, and acquired, by the valour of its knights, immense riches, and an eminent degree of military renown; but, as their, prosperity increased, their vices were multiplied, and their arrogance, luxury, and inhuman cruelty rose at last to such a monstrous height, that their privileges were revoked, and their order suppressed with the most terrible circumstances of infamy and severity, by a decree of the pope and of the council of Vienne in Dauphiny, as we shall see in the history

of the fourteenth century [b]. The reuto-. XV. The third order resembled the first in this nic order.

respect that, though it was a military institution, the care of the poor, and the relief of the sick were not excluded from the services it prescribed. Its members were distinguished by the title of Teutonic knights of St Mary of Jerusalem ; and as to its first rise, we cannot, with any degree of certainty, trâce it farther back than the year 1190, during the siege of Acca, or Ptolemais, though there are Historians adventurous enough to seek its origin (which they place at Jerusalem) in a more remote period. During the long and tedious siege of Acca, several pious and charitable


{a] See MABILLON, Annal. Benedict. tom. vi. p. 159.

[b] See MATTHEW PARIs, Histor. Major. p. 56. for an account of the commencement of this order. See also PUTEAN, Histoire de l'Ordre Militaire des Templiers which was republished with considerable additions, at Brussels, in 4to in the year, 1751. Nic. GURTLERI Historia Templariorum Miletun, Ane stelodam. 1691.



merchants of Bremen and Lubec, touched with CENT. compassion at a sight of the miseries that the be-p siegers suffered in the midst of their success, des voted themselves entirely to the service of the -sick and wounded soldiers, and ereeted a kind of hospital or tent, where they gave constant attendance to all such unhappy objects as had recourse to their charity. This pious undertaking was so agreeable to the German princes, who were present at this terrible siege, that they thought proper to form a fraternity of German knights to bring it to a greater degree of perfection. Their resolution was highly approved of by the Roman pontif CELESTINE III. who confirmed the-new order by a bull issued out the twenty-third of February, A. D. 1192. This order was entirely appropriated to the Germans, and even of them none were admitted as members of it, but such as were of an illustrious birth. The support of Christianity, the defence of the Holy land, and the relief of the poor and needy, were the important duties and service to which the Teutonic knights devoted themselves by a solemn vow. Austerity and frugality were the first characteristics of this rising order, and the equestrian garment [c], with bread and water, were the only rewards which the knights derived from their generous labours. But as, according to the fate of human things, prosperity engenders corruption, so it happened that this austerity was of a short duration, and diminished in proportion as the revenues and possessions of the order augmented. The Teutonic knights, after their retreat from Palestine, made theinselves masters of Prassia, Livonia, Gourland, and Semifallen ; but, in process of time, their victorious arms received several checks, and when the light of the reformation, arose upon Germany, they


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CENT. were deprived of the richest provinces which they

1 possessed in that country; though they still retain

there a certain portion of their ancient territo, ries [d].

Concerning the calamitoựs events that happened to

the Church during this century.

ern and

The state of I. THE progress of Christianity in the west the church. I had disarmed its most inveterate enemies? in the west

Stand deprived them of the power of doing much northern mischief, though they still entertained the same provinces. aversion to the disciples of JESUS. The Jews and

Pagans were no longer able to oppose the propagation of the gospel, or to oppress its ministers. Their malignity remained, but their credit and authority were gone. The Jews were accused by the Christians of various crimes, whether real or fictitious we shall not determine; but, instead of attacking their accusers, they were satisfied to defend their own lives, and to secure their persons, without daring to give vent to their resentment. • The state of things was somewhat different in the Northern provinces. The Pagans were yet numerous there in several districts, and wherever they were the majority, they persecuted the Christians with the utmost barbarity, the most unre,


[d] See RAYMUNDI DUELLII Histor. Ord. Teutonici, published in folio at Vienna, in 1727.-PETRI DUSBURG, Chronicon Prussie, published in 4to at Jena, in the year 1679. by CHRISTOPH. HARTKNOCHIUS.---HELYOT, Hist. des Ordres, tom. m. p. 140.--Chronicon Ordinis Teutonici in ANTON. MATTHÆI Analectis veteris ævi, tom. v. p. 621.658. ed. nov.-Privilegia Ordinis Teutonici in PETR. à LUDEWIG. Reliquiïs Manuscrip. tor. tom. vi. p. 43. ...iii



lenting and merciless fury [e]. It is true, théC EN T.

XII. Christian kings and princes, who lived in the p neighbourhood of these persecuting Barbarians, checked by degrees their impetuous rage, and never ceased to harass and weaken them by perpetual wars and incursions, until, at length, they subdued them entirely, and deprived them, by force, both of their independency and their superstitions.

II. The writers of this century complain grie- Its suffervously of the inhuman rage with which the Sara-ings in the cens persecuted the Christians in the east, nor can we questionthe truth of what they relate concerning this terrible persecution. But they pass over in silence the principal reasons that inflamed the resentment of this fierce people, and voluntarily forget that the Christians were the first aggressors in this dreadful war. If we consider the matter with impartiality and candour, the conduct of the Saracens, however barbarous it may have been, will not appear so surprising, particularly when we reflect on the provocations they received. In the first place, they had à right, by the laws of war, to repel, by force, the vio lent invasion of their country, and the Christians could not expect, without being chargeable with the most frontless impudence, that a people whom they attacked with a formidable army, and whom, in the fury of their misguided zeal, they massacred without mercy, should receive their insults with a tame submission, and give up their lives and possessions without resistance. It must also be confessed, though with sorrow, that the Christians did not content themselves with mak. C4.

. ing

[e] HELMOLD, Chronic. Sclavor. lib. i. cap. xxxiv. p. 88. cap. xxxv. p. 89. cap. xl. p. 99.-LINDENBROGII Scriptor. Septentrional, p. 195, 196, 201.-PETRI LAMBECII Res Ham. burg. lib. i. p. 23.


CEN T. ing war upon the Mahometans in order to de. Ey, liver Jerusalem and the holy sepulchre out of their

hands, but carried their brutal fury to the greatest length, disgraced their cause by the most detestable crimes, filled the eastern provinces, through which they passed, with scenes of horror, and made the Saracens feel the terrible effects of their violence and barbarity wherever their arms were successful. Is it then so surprising to see the infidel Saracens committing, by way of reprisal, the same barbarities that the holy warriors had perpetrated without the least provocation ? Is there any thing so new and so extraordinary in this, that a people naturally fierce, and exasperated, moreover, by the calamities of a religious war, carried on against them in contradiction to all the dictates of justice and humanity, should avenge themselves upon the Christians who resided in Palestine, as professing the religion which gave occasion to the war, and attached, of consequence, to the cause of their enemies and inva

ders? : Prester III. The rapid and amazing victories of the John de

great GENGHIZKAN, emperor of the Tartars, gave life. . an unhappy turn to the affairs of the Christians

in the northern parts of Asia, towards the conclusion of this century. This heroic prince, who was by birth a Mogul, and whose military exploits raise him in the list of fame above almost all the commanders either of ancient or modern times, rendered his name formidable throughout all Asia, whose most flourishing dynasties fell successively before his victorious arms. DAVID, or UNGCHAN, who; according to some, was the son, or, as others will have it, the brother, but who was certainly the successor, of the famous PRESIER JOHN, and was himself so called in common discourse, was the first victim that GEN


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