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CE N T. and remains still in force in our times; thougli
xili , the true sense of soine of its articles has occasionPART II.4
e d disputes between the emperors and pontifs [k]. I wo popes VII. CallixTUS did not long enjoy the fruits raised at the same of this peace, to which he had so much contritime to the buted by his prudence and moderation. He depontificace.
parted this life in the year 1124, and was sucIn ceeded by LAMBERT, bishop of Ostia, who as
sumed the title of HONORIUS II, and under whose pontificate nothing worthy of mention was
transacted. His death, which happened A. D. D E 1130, gave rise to a considerable schism in the
church of Rome, or rather in the college of cardinals, of whom one party elected to the papal chair, GRIGORY, a cardinal deacon of St Angelo, who was distinguished by the name of INNOCENT II. while the other chose for successor to HONORIUS, PETER, the son of Leo, a Roman prince, under the title of ANACLETUS II. The party of INNOCENT was far from being numerous in Rome, or throughout Italy in general, for which reason he judged it expedient to retire into France, where he had many adherents, and where he sojourned during the space of two years. His credit was very great out of Italy ; for, besides the emperor LoTHARIUS, the kings of England, France, and Spain, with other princes, espoused warmly the cause of INNOCENT, and that principally by the influence of St BERNARD, who was his intimate friend, and whose counsels had the force and authority of laws in almost ail the countries of Europe. The patrons of ANACLETUS were fewer in number, and were confined to the kings of Sicily and Scotland; his death, however, which happened A. D. 1138, terminated the contest, and left INNOCENT in the
[%] It was disputed among other things, whether the consecration of the bishop elect was to precede or follow the collation of the regalia ? See Jo. WILH. HOFFMAN. ad concordatust Flenrici V. et Callisti II. Vitemberg. 1739, in 4to.
, &c. 55 entire and undisputed possession of the apostolic C E N T. chair. The surviving pontif presided, in the party year 1139, at the second council of Lateran, and about four years after ended his days in peace .
D. Succession VIII. After the death of INNOCENT, the Ro-
of the ponman see was filled by Guy, cardinal of St Mark, tifs, frum who ruled the church about five months, under th the title of CELESTINE II. If his reign was short, cent to the it was however peaceable, and not like that of his end of this
century. successor Lucius II. whose pontificate was disturbed by various tumults and seditions, and who about eleven months after his elevation to the papacy, was killed in a riot which he was endea„vouring to suppress by his presence and authority. He was succeeded by BERNARD, a Cistertian monk, and an eminent disciple of the famous St BERNARD, abbot of Clairval. This worthy ecclesiastic, who is distinguished among the . popes by the title of EUGENIUS III. was raised to that high dignity in the year 1145, and during the space of nine years, was involved in the same perils and perplexities that had embittered the ghostly reign of his predecessor. He was often obliged to leave Rome, and to save himself by fight from the fury of the people [m]; and the same reason engaged him to retire into France, where he sojourned for a considerable
time. [l] Besides the ordinary writers of the papal history, see JEANDE LANNES, Histoire du poniijicai du Pape Innocent II. Paris.
[m] There was a party formed in Rome at this time, whose design was to restore the Roman senate to its former privileges and to its ancient splendor and glory; and for this purpose, to reduce the papal revenues and prerogatives to a narrower compass, even to the tithes and o. laiions that were offered to the primitive bishops, and to the spiritual government of the church, attended with an utter exclusion from all civil jurisdiction over the city of Rome. It was this party that produced the feuds and seditions to which Dr MOSHEIM has an eye in this eighth section.
CE N T. time. At length, exhausted by the opposition PART 1, he met with in supporting what he looked upon
as the prerogatives of the papacy, he departed this life in the year 1153. The pontificate of his successor CONRAD, bishop of Sabino, who, after his elevation to the see of Rome, assumed the title of ANASTASIUS IV, was less disturbed by civil commotions, but it was also of a very short duration; for ANASTASIUS died about a year and four
months after his election. The con- IX. The warm contest between the emperors tween the and the popes, which was considered as at an emperors end ever since the time of CALLIXTUS II.
was unhappily renewed under the pontificate of js renewed under fre- ADRIAN IV. who was a native of England, and
ar- whose original name was Nicolas BREAKSPEAR. and Adri- FREDRIC 1, surnamed Barbarossa, was no sooner
seated on the imperial throne, than he publicly declared his resolution to maintain the dignity and privileges of the Roman empire in general, and more particularly to render it respectable in Italy; nor was he at all studious to conceal the design he had formed of reducing the overgrown power and opulence of the pontifs and clergy within narrower limits. ADRIAN perceived the danger that threatened the majesty of the church, and the authority of the clergy, and prepared himself for defending both with vigour and constancy. The first occasion of trying their strength was offered at the coronation of the emperor at Rome, in the year 1155, when the pontif insisted upon FREDERIC's performing the office of equerry, and holding the stirrup to his Holiness. This humbling proposal was at first rejected with disdain by the emperor, and was followed by other contests of a more momentous nature relating to the political interests of the empire.
These differences were no sooner reconciled than new disputes equally important arose in the year
1158, when the emperor, in order to put a stopc en T. to the enormous opulence of the pontifs, bishops, p h . and monks, which increased from day to day, Lara enacted a law to prevent the transferring of fiefs, without the knowledge or consent of the superior or lord in whose name they were held [n], and turned the whole force of his arms to reduce the little republics of Italy under his dominion. An open rupture between the emperor and the pontif was expected as the inevitable consequence of such vigorous measures, when the death of ADRIAN, which happened on the first of September, A. D. 1159, suspended the storm . X. In the election of a new pontit, the cardi- A dispute
arises in nals were divided into two factions. The most the elecnumerous and powerful of the two raised to the tion or a pontificate ROLAND, bishop of Sienna, who as-tit. sumed the name of ALEXANDER III. while the opposite party elected to that high dignity OCTAVIAN, cardinal of St Cecilia, known by the title of Victor IV. The latter was patronised by the emperor, to whom ALEXANDER was extremely disagreeable on several accounts. The council of Pavia, which was assembled by the einperor in the year 1160, adopted his sentiments, and pronounced in favour of Victor, who became thereby triumphant in Germany and Italy; so that France alone was left open to ALEXANDER, who accordingly left Rome, and fled thither for safety
[n] This prohibition of transferring the possession of fiefi, from one to another, without the consent of the supreme lord, or sovereign, under whom they were held, together with other laws of a like nature, was the first effectual barrier that was opposed to the enormous and growing opulence and authority of the clergy. See MURATOR Antiq. Ital, medii ævi, tom. vi. p.
[o] See the accurate and circumstantial account of this whole affair that is given by the illustrious and learned Count BUNAU, in his History of Frederic I. wrote in German, p. 45. 49.73. 99. 105. &c.
CEN T. and protection. Amidst the tumults and com XII. i motions which this schism occasioned, VICTOR
died at Lucca, in the year 1164, but his place was immediately filled by the emperor, at whose desire Guy, cardinal of St Calixtus, was elected pontif under the title of PASCAL III.' and acknowledged. in that character by the German princesassembled in the year 1167, at the diet of Wurtzbourg. In the mean time ALEXANDER recovered his spirits, and returning into Italy maintained his cause with uncommon resolution and vigour, and not without some promising hopes of success. He held at Rome, in the year 1167, the council of Lateran, in which he solemnly deposed the emperor (whom he had, upon several occasions before this period, loaded publicly with anathemas and execrations), dissolved the oath of allegiance which his subjects had taken to him as their lawful sovereign, and encouraged and exhorted them to rebel against his authority, and to shake off his yoke. But, soon after this audacious proceeding, the emperor made himself master of Rome, upon which the insolent pontif fled to Benevento, and left the apo. stolic chair to Pascal, his competitor.
XI. The affairs of ALEXANDER seemed to take soon after a more prosperous turn, when the greatest part of the imperial army being consumed by a pestilential disorder, the emperor was forced to abandon Italy, and when the death of Pascal, which happened in the year 1168, delivered him from such a powerful and formidable rival. But this fair prospect soon vanished. For the imperial faction elected to the pontificate JOHN, abbot of Strum, under the title of CalLIXTUS III. whom FREDERIC, notwithstanding his absence in Germany, and the various wars and disputes in which he was involved, supported to the utmost of his power. When peace was, in a good measure, restored to the empire, Frederic