Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

presses action, and consequently is a verb. Other instances will readily suggest themselves-as the word that, which may be either a relative pronoun, a demonstrative pronoun, or a conjunction, according as it is placed; also the words, bar, count, court, crop, calm, deal, desert, grave, tender, spring, stock, &c. &c.

It may be remarked here, that, besides the ordinary parsing according to the regular order of the words, it is desirable that the pupil should be accustomed from an early period to examine the structure of sentences, that he may be enabled to compose for himself in after life as occasion may require. Among other things which he should be called upon to notice are the divisions of a proposition or assertion into its members, the subject, the attribute, and the verb, or, in technical language, the subject, the predicate, and the copula. Thus, in the assertion, "The apple is sweet," the word apple is the subject of the assertion; the word sweet that which is asserted respecting the apple, which is therefore called the predicate; and the word is the verb or word which makes the assertioncalled also the copula, because it connects the subject with the attribute or predicate. In other cases, the frequent conjunction of the copula with the predicate must be pointed out, as in the sentence, "Labour fatigues," where the verb fatigues contains both. The distinction of sentences into simple and compound should also be mentioned, the former being those which include but one set of the terms above referred to, as "The man walks;" the latter as those which include two or more sets of terms-for example, "The time when I shall arrive is uncertain," where two assertions are made, viz., that "I shall arrive," and that the time of my arrival is uncertain." In carrying out this method of analyzing sentences the teacher will also be able to show his pupil the distinction between the grammatical and the logical ele

ments of a sentence. Those who are desirous of obtaining the necessary information for such lessons are recommended to read carefully pages 23 and 24, and other parts, of Hunter's "Text-Book of English Grammar," published by Messrs. Longman. The following lesson, it is hoped, may also afford some suggestions as to the manner in which the parsing and analysis of the structure of a sentence may be carried out in an advanced class.

LESSON ON GRAMMAR.-ANALYSIS OF A SENTENCE. "The prince who thus mounted the throne of England was one of the greatest men of the age."

The

Is the sentence simple or compound?

Why compound?

1. The prince was one of the greatest men,

2. He mounted the throne of England.

What is the subject in the first clause?
What the verb, or copula?

What the attribute, or predicate?

&c.

In the second clause what is the nature of the verb?-Transitive.

What generally follows a transitive verb? - An object.

What is the object in the present instance ?

What is the grammatical subject to the verb was?—
The word Prince.

What is the logical subject?—The phrase, "The
prince who thus mounted the throne of England."
What may the additional words be called with regard
to the grammatical subject ?-Adjuncts.
Point out the adjuncts in the predicate.

Etymological and Syntactical Parsing of the Sentence.
The definite article belonging to the noun prince.
Examination.-What is an article? How many
articles are there? By what names are they

called? What is the meaning of definite? indefi

nite? How many forms of the indefinite article are there?

When is a used, and when an?

prince Common noun, third person, singular number, masculine gender, nominative case to the verb was. Exam.-Define a noun. What is a proper noun? What a common? Why is "prince" common? Define person. Why is "prince" the third person? Define number. Why is "prince" singular? What is its plural? What is the rule for forming the plural? What are the exceptions? Define gender-masculine, feminine, neuter. What is the feminine to "prince"? Define case -nominative, possessive, objective. What nouns are nominative? How is the possessive formed ? How do you distinguish objectives? Why do you refer to the verb ?

who Relative pronoun, third person singular (to agree with its antecedent "prince,” according to rule of syntax, which says "pronouns must always agree with their antecedents "), nominative case to the verb "mounted."

thus

Exam.-Define a pronoun. How many kinds of pronouns are there? Why is "who" relative? When is who the nominative to the verb ? If whom were used what would occur between the relative and the verb? Give examples of the uses of who and whom,

The man who saw me.

The man whom I saw.

An adverb of manner, qualifying the verb mounted.
Exam.-Define an adverb. What are the principal

classes of adverbs? Do adverbs qualify any other
parts of speech? Give instances.

mounted A regular verb transitive, indicative mood, past tense, third person, singular number, agreeing with its

nominative who.

the throne

of

Exam.-Define a verb. When is a verb regular ? When irregular? When transitive? When intransitive? Define mood. How many moods are there? Name them, and explain the meanings of their name by their use. Why is mounted the indicative?

Define tense. How many tenses are there? What

are the two? How is future time expressed? Why is mounted the past? How do you know the number and person of a verb? Conjugate the verb to mount in the indicative mood, past tense. The definite article belonging to the noun throne. Common noun, third person, singular number, neuter gender, objective case, governed by the transitive verb mounted.

Exam.-What other words govern the objective
case? (For further examination see the word
prince.)
Preposition.

Exam.-Define a preposition. What is the literal
meaning of the word? What are prepositions
placed before?

England Proper noun, third person, singular number, neuter gender, objective case, governed by the preposition of.

was

one

of

the

Exam.-Why is it a proper noun? Are proper nouns ever made plural? When they are made plural what do they become? Give an instance, designating all persons who are called John by the phrase "The Johns." What sort of noun is

John ?

Irregular intransitive verb, indicative mood, past tense, third person singular, agreeing with its nominative prince. (See examination on the verb mounted.)

A numeral adjective, used pronominally.

A preposition.

The definite article.

greatest An adjective, superlative degree, qualifying the noun

men

of

the

age.

man.

Exam.-Define an adjective. How are adjectives inflected? Are they changed like nouns on account of number? Mention an adjective pronoun which is so changed. What are the rules for forming the comparison of adjectives? What adjectives are irregular? What is the positive state of the adjective greatest?

Common noun, third person, plural number, masculine gender, objective case, governed by the preposition of.

See examination on former nouns-Does men form its plural according to rule ?

A preposition.

The definite article.

Common noun, third person, singular number, neuter gender, objective case, governed by the preposition of.

CHAPTER VII.

ON TEACHING WRITING.

THE ordinary method of teaching to write is by imitation. A copy, well written, is placed before the pupil, who is required to imitate the forms therein exhibited, and to produce, as far as he is able, a fac-simile of the whole by a purely mechanical process.

In some parts of Switzerland and Germany it was, and possibly is now, the practice to teach children to write before they learned to read, the educators in those countries attaching great importance to the strength of the faculty of imitation in young children. With us writing usually commences simultaneously with reading.

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »