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marked na. 4 Nails
1 Quarter of a yard, " 4 Quarters
1 Yard, 3 Quarters
1 Ell Flemish, 5 Quarters
i Ell English,
" E. E. 4 Quarters 1} inch
1 Ell Scotch,
" E. s. SQUARE MEASURE. 144 Square inches make 1 Square foot, marked ft. 9 Square feet
1 Square yard, 304 Square yards
1 Square rod or pole," 2724 Square feet
1 Square rod or pole, “ 40 Square rods or poles
1 Rood, 4 Roods
1 Acre, 640 Acres
i Square mile,
R. 1568160 = 10890 = 1210 = 40 =
6272640 = 43560 = 4840 = 160 = 4014489600 = 27878400 = 3097600 = 102400 = 2560 = 640 = 1
DRY MEASURE. 2 Pints
make 1 Quart, marked 4 Quarts
gal. 2 Gallons
i Peck, 4 Pecks
i Bushel, 36 Bushels
- ch. pts.
pk. 16 64 =
1 : 2304 = 288
144 NOTE. - This measure is applied to all goods that are not liquid and are sold by measure, as corn, fruit, salt, coals, &c. A Winchester Bushel is 18.4 inches in diameter, and 8 inches deep. The standard Gallon Dry Measure contains 2685 cubic inches.
ALE AND BEER MEASURE. 2 Pints make 1 Quart,
marked qt. 4 Quarts
gal. 32 Gallons 16 1 Barrel,
bar. 54 Gallons
66 1 Hogshead, 2 Hogsheads
"6 butt. 2 Butts
NOTE. – By a law of Massachusetts, the Barrel for cider and beer shall contain 32 gallons, but in some other States it is of different capacity. The Ale Gallon contains 282 cubic or solid inches.
Milk is sold by the Beer Gallon.
make i Pint, 2 Pints
" i Quart, 4 Quarts
1 Gallon, 42 Gallons
1 Tierce, 63 Gallons, or 14 Tierces 1 Hogshead, 2 Tierces
1 Puncheon, 2 Hogsheads
16 1 Pipe or Butt, 2 Pipes, or 4 Hhds.
NOTE. – The Wine Gallon contains 231 cubic inches. Water, wine, and spirits are measured and sold by this measure.
A cubic foot of distilled water weighs 1000 ounces Avoirdupois.
The English Imperial Gallon contains 2771 cubic inches, and weighs 10 lb. Avoirdupois, or 12 lb. 1 oz. 16 dwt. 16gr. Troy. There is no legal measure in the United States for tierce, hogshead, puncheon, pipe, or butt.
60 Seconds, or 60" make 1 Minute, 60 Minutes
of 1 Hour, 24 Hours
( 1 Day, Days
16 1 Week, 4 Weeks
16 1 Month, 13 Months, 1 day, 6 hours, or i Julian Year,
365 days, 6 hours, 12 Calendar months
66 1 Year,
Note. — The true solar year is the time measured from the sun's leaving either equinox or solstice, to its return to the same again. A periodical year is the time in which the earth revolves round the sun, and is 365 d. 6 h. 9 m. 14 sec., and is often called the Sidereal year. The civil year is that which is in common use among the different nations of the world, and contains 365 days for three years in succession, but every fourth year contains 366 days. When any year can be divided by four, without any remainder, it is leap year, and has 366 days.
But, 365 5 48 957 – 1 Solar Year. And, 365
14. = 1 Sidereal Year. The days in each month are as follows: -- January, March, May, July, August, October, and December have 31 days each ; April, June, September, and November have 30 days each; February has 28 days, excepting leap year, when it has 29.
60 Seconds, or 60!! make 1 Prime minute, marked 60 Minutes
1 Degree, 30 Degrees 12 Signs, or 360 Degrees, the whole great circle of the zodiac.
Note. — One ton of round timber, as usually surveyed, contains 50 % solid feet.
MISCELLANEOUS TABLE. A gallon of train oil
74 pounds. A stone of butcher's meat A gallon of molasses A stone of iron A tod A firkin of butter A firkin of soap A quintal of fish
100 A weigh A sack
364 A puncheon of foreign prunes
1120 A last
4368 A fother of lead
195 cwt. A barrel of anchovies
30 pounds. raisins
196 pork or beef
30 gallons. cider and beer herrings in England
32 " salmon or eels do.
42 66 8 bushels of salt, measured on board the vessel,
1 hogshead. 74 do. measured on shore,
3 hoops 40 casts 10 hundred 12 units, or things, 12 dozen 144 dozen
Section X. COMPOUND ADDITION. WHEN numbers are applied to things, the measure or value of which is expressed by different denominations, they lose their abstract character, and become subject to restrictions, imposed upon them by the denomination to which they are applied. Thus, when we say six cents, ten days, or three inches, we have not only the idea of number, but also the idea of a certain value or measure, which subjects the number in connection with it to certain limitations. And, when used in such connections, we call numbers denominate. Thus in 6 £. 4s. 7 d. the numbers 6, 4, and 7 are denominate numbers, so called, because they are applied to express each a particular denomination.
When now we have several numbers of different denominations, which we wish to add together, we call the process by which this is done Compound Addition ; which we define by saying,
That it consists in adding together two or more numbers of different denominations to find the sum total.
RULE. Write all the given numbers of the same denomination under each other; as dollars under dollars, cents under cents, fc. Then add together the numbers of the lowest denomination and divide the sum by the number which it takes of that denomination to make one of the denomination next above it, and set the remainder directly under the column that has been added. Carry the quotient to the column of the next denomination, and add as before, dividing by the number which it takes of this denomination to make one of the denomination next above it, setting down the remainder and carrying the quotient as before, and thus proceed till the column of the highest denomination is added, under which place its whole sum, and the numbers expressing the several denominations will be the sum total required.