12 £. 3. d. gr. In this example, we multiply the 48£. by 48. 12 2. 20, because it takes 20 shillings to make a 20 pound ; and to this product we add the 12s. in the question. Then we multiply by 12, because it takes 12 pence to make one shil ling; and to the product we add they 11671 pence in the question. We then multiply by 4, the number of farthings in a penny, and to 46686 the product we add the 2 farthings, and the work is done. From the above example and illustration, we deduce the following RULE. Multiply the highest denomination given by the number required of the next lower denomination to make one of the denomination next above it, and add to the product thus obtained the corresponding denomination of the multiplicand. Proceed in this way, till the reduction is brought to the denomination required by the question. Note 1.- To multiply by d, we divide the multiplicand by 2, and to multiply by d, we divide by 4. Note: 2. — The answers to Reduction Descending will be found in the questions of Reduction Ascending. 2. In 127 £. 15s. 8d. how many farthings? 7. If a silver tankard weigh 3lb. lloz., how many grains will it be ? 8. How many scruples in 231b. apothecaries' weight? 9. If a load of hay weigh 3T. 16cwt. 2qr. 18lb., how many ounces will it be? 10. Required the number of drachms in a hogshead of sugar, weighing 2T. 17cwt. 3qr. 161b. 1502. 13dr. 11. In 57yd. how many nails ? 16. How many inches from Haverhill to Boston, the distance being 30 miles ? 17. How many barleycorns will it take to reach round the world ? 18. In 403m. 7fur. 35rd. 2yd. Oft. Oin. Ibar. how many barleycorns ? 19. In 413Le. 2m. 2fur. 38rd. lyd. Oft. 7in. how many inches ? 20. In 144m. lfur. 8rd. lyd. Ift. how many feet? 25. The surface of the earth contains 196563942 square miles. What would it be in square inches ? 26. Required the number of feet in 10A. 3R. 38p. 6yd. 5ft. 72in. 27. In 2R. Op. 24yd. 3ft. how many inches ? 28. In 1A. BR. 34p. 27yd. 4ft. 54in. how many inches ? 29. In 17 cords of wood, how many inches ? 30. In 19 tons of round timber, how many inches ? 31. How many cubic feet of wood in 128 cords? 32. In 4899hhd. 4gal. 3qt. how many quarts ? 33. In 1224 tuns 1p. 1hhd. 19gal. Iqt. Opt. lgi. how many gills? 34. How many pints in 790p. Ohhd. 58gal. Oqt. Ipt. ?" 35. In 460 butts 1hhd. 3lgal. of beer, how many gallons ? 36. In 36hhd. 26gal. 3qt. lpt. how many pints ? 37. In 16 tons of round timber, how many inches ? 38. How many seconds from the deluge, it being 2348 years B. C., to the year 1836 ? 39. How many days did the last war continue, it having commenced June 18, 1812, and ended Feb. 17, 1815 ? 40. How many pecks in 676 chaldrons ? REDUCTION ASCENDING. EXAMPLE. Ans. 79£. 195. 94d. 4)76789 We first divide by 4, because 4 far12) 19197 Iqr. things make a penny. We then di. vide by 12, because 12 pence make a 20) 1599 9d. shilling. Lastly we divide by 20, the 79 £. 19s. 9 d. number of shillings in a pound. From the preceding illustration and example, we deduce the following RULE. Divide the lowest denomination given by the number which it takes of that denomination to make one of the next higher; so proceed, until it is brought to the denomination required. Any remainders occurring in the successive divisions will be of the same denominations with the dividends to which they respectively belong. Note 1.- To divide by 51, we multiply the multiplicand by 2, and divide the product by 11 ; to divide by 161, we multiply by 2 and divide by 33; and to divide by 272], we multiply by 4 and divide by 1089. Note 2. — The answers to Reduction Ascending are the questions in Réduction Descending. Note 3. – When we divide by 11 or 33, and there is a remainder, we divide that remainder by 2 to get the true remainder; and, when we divide by 1089, we must divide the remainder by 4. 2. In 122672 farthings, how many pounds ? 25. How many square miles in 789,103,900,894,003,200 square inches? 26. In 478675 square feet, how many acres ? 18. In 40 many tons of round timber in 1313280 cubic barleycorp 19. Irow many cords in 16384 cubic feet? 23. How many tuns of wine in 9877001 gills ? COMPOUND REDUCTION. 1. In 57£. 155. how many dollars ? Ans. $ 192.50cts. 2. In 67 £. 14s. 9d. how many crowns at 6s. 7d. each? Ans. 205cr. 58. 2d. 3. How many pounds and shillings in 678 dollars ? Ans. 203£. 8s. 4. How many ells English in 761 yards ? Ans. 608E. E. 4qr. 5. How many yards in 61 ells Flemish? Ans. 45yd. 3qr. 6. How many bottles, that contain 3 pints each, will it taketo hold a hogshead of wine ? Ans. 168. 7. How many steps, 2ft. 8in. each, will a man take in walk. ing from Bradford to Newburyport, the distance being 15 miles ? Ans. 29700. 8. How many spoons, each weighing 2oz. 12dwt., can be made from 5lb. 2oz. 8dwt. of silver ? Ans. 24. 9. How many times will the wheel of a coach revolve, whose circumference is 14ft. 9in. in passing from Boston to Washington, the distance being 436 miles ? Ans. 156073397. 10. I have a field of corn, consisting of 123 rows, and each row contains 78 hills, and each hill has 4 ears of corn ; now if it take 8 ears of corn to make a quart, how many bushels does the field contain ? Ans. 149bu. 3pk. 5qt. Opt. 11. If it take 5yd. 2qr. 3na. to make a suit of clothes, how many suits can be made from 182 yards ? Ans. 32. 12. A goldsmith wishes to make a number of rings, each weighing 5dwt. 10gr., from 3lb. loz. 2dwt. 2gr. of gold ; how many will there be ? Ans. 137. 13. How many shingles will it take to cover the roof of a building, which is 60 feet long and 56 feet wide, allowing each shingle to be 4 inches wide and 18 inches long, and to lay one third to the weather? Ans. 20160. 14. There is a house 56 feet long, and each of the two sides of the roof is 25 feet wide; how many shingles will it take to cover it, if it require 6 shingles to cover a square foot ? Ans. 16800. 15. If a man can travel 22m. 3fur. 17rd. a day, how long would it take him to walk round the globe, the distance being about 25000 miles ? Ans. 11144424 days. 16. If a family consume 71b. 10oz. of sugar in a week, how long would 10cwt. 3qr. 161b. last them ? Ans. 160 weeks. 17. Sold 3 tons 17cwt. 3qr. 18lb. of lead at 7d. a pound; what did the lead amount to? Ans. 254£. 10s. 2d. 18. What will 5cwt. lqr. 10lb. of tobacco cost, at 4,1d. a pound? Ans. 11£. 4s. 3d. 19. What will 7 hogsheads of wine cost, at 9 cents a quart? - Ans. $ 158.76. 20. What will 15 hogsheads of beer cost, at 3 cents a pint ? Ans. $ 194.40. 21. What will 73 bushels of meal cost, at 2 cents a quart? Ans. $ 46.72. 22. A merchant has 29 bales of cotton cloth ; each bale contains 57 yards ; what is the value of the whole at 15 cents a yard? Ans. $ 247.95. 23. A merchant bought 4 bales of cotton ; the first contained 6cwt. 2qr. 1llb.; the second, 5cwt. 3qr. 161b. ; the third, 7cwt. Ogr. 71b. ; the fourth, 3cwt. lqr. 171b. He sold the whole at 15 cents a pound; what did it amount to? Ans. $ 385.65. 24. A merchant having purchased 12cwt. of sugar, sold at one time 3cwt. 2qr. 11lb. and at another time he sold 4cwt. lgr. 15lb. ; what is the remainder worth, at 15 cents per Ans. $ 67.50. 25. Bought 4 chests of hyson tea ; the weight of the first was 2cwt. lqr. 71b. ; the second, 3cwt. 2qr. 15lb.; the third, 2cwt. Oqr. 2016.; the fourth, 5cwt. 3qr. 1716. ; what is the value of the whole, at 371 cents a pound ? Ans. $ 589.121. 26. Purchased a cargo of molasses, consisting of 87 hogsheads; what is the value of it, at 33 cents a gallon ? Ans. $ 1808.73. |