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Mr. Charles Green and his brother when they visited the Museum during the state fair of 1907 informed me that flint arrows had been found near their home and invited me to explore the vicinity. At a point nearly north of Marquette on sections 32 and 33 of town 13, range 6, on the farm belonging to G. A. Reyner, is a point which corresponds geographically with the Irving description of the surrounding country, but there is no evidence of a ruin to be found near the place described. A few graves are in evidence on the surrounding hills, but no earthworks or chipped flints can be found in the valley where Irving says the village was situated. I explored the south bank of the Platte to a point two miles up stream from the Grand Island bridge, but could find no evidence of the old Choui village. It still remains to explore on down stream into Polk county.

Irving says they forded the river with the wagons and ox teams. He says that after traveling toward where Fullerton now stands for a few hours they came to a "lone tree” and refreshed themselves at the only stream they had found on the trip. This stream must have been Prairie creek, but the "lone tree" could not have been the historic Lone tree which once stood on the bank of the Platte river. The very early settlers in Merrick county may have seen a lone tree on the banks of Prairie creek north of Central City, at the roots of which a small stream flowed. There must still be considerable evidence of this Choui village on the surface unless it be swept into the Platte. As this stream has changed its banks but little in the later years, there is hope that the ruin may yet be found. Irving says it was situated at the base of a range of hills, fifty yards from the Platte.

You will find circular depressions about forty feet in diameter where this village stood. There should be broken flints and pieces of pottery scattered thickly over the surface. I shall continue my search for this ruin and will be very thankful for any information you may be able to give.

Living on the very bank of the Platte river about six miles southwest of Phillips is an interesting gentleman by the

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name of Charles White, but known throughout this vicinity as "Buckskin Charlie." He has a small collection of Indian implements and quite a variety of firearms and other curios. This gentleman is well posted on Indian history and tradition, having scouted with the Indians on the frontier nearly all his life.

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It has been a matter of interest that the exact location of the Choui village should be definitely determined, and a second trip was prompted by additional information secured from Mr. C. P. Peterson of Lincoln, after the foregoing was put in type. The general location was known to be on the bank of the Platte river, nearly due west from Osceola, but there exists no record of its discovery.

I have mentioned Ellsworth, who negotiated a treaty with the Choui band of Pawnees in 1833, and John T. Irving, who wrote of the trip, gave a good account of the surrounding country. George Catlin visited the village in 1833 and painted portraits of a number of the leading warriors, among which was the portrait of Shon-ka-ki-he-ga (the Horse Chief), who was head chief of the Choui (or Grand) Pawnees. The head chief of the Choui band was also head chief of the confederated band of Pawnees in later years, so this is doubtless the chief of the Pawnees in 1833.

Henry Dodge negotiated a treaty with this band at this village in 1835, and says the head chief was called Angry Man, while Irving does not mention the name of the chief at all. From the descriptions given by these early travelers the geographical surroundings may be recognized at this time. Just when the village was built is not known, nor is it known just when it was abandoned, but, from the authority at hand, I suspect it was not occupied in 1840. About that date the Choui band moved to the vicinity of the Loup river, near the other bands, as all the strength of the Pawnee tribe was necessary to resist the Sioux,

The ruin of the Choui village is in Polk county about eighty rods northeast from the end of the Clarks bridge over the Platte river. It lies in section 17, township 14 north, range 4 west. The land is owned by W. S. Headley, who purchased it in 1892. Samuel Baker bought the land from the railroad company in 1870, and broke out the field, which has been in cultivation ever since. The village occupied about forty acres. It was destroyed by their enemies before 1833 and rebuilt by the Pawnees. There is an abundance of charcoal intermixed with the soil on this village site. This shows that the village must have been destroyed by fire at last, although we have no record of it. A number of iron implements have been found and the charred ends of the tipi posts are still being plowed


No flint chips were noticed, which leads me to conclude that this village was built after the contact with white traders had been so close that practically all the members of the band used steel arrow points and knives. This condition was brought about very rapidly when once the red men saw the white man's implements. If the Choui band had occupied this village site before they discarded the flint, the whole surface would be strewn with flint chips, thrown off in making their arrows. The ruin seems destitute of potsherds. This seems to indicate that kettles made by white men had taken the place of the Indian-made pottery. The Pawnees had ample opportunity to procure white man's implements, as traders traversed the Platte valley even before the Lewis and Clark expedition of 1804.

The importance of this village ruin is found in the known condition in 1833. This is about as early as a written account of any village in the state is to be found. By studying the ruined conditions of this village, seen by travelers and described in 1833, we may determine the approximate age of other ruins. When I visited the ruin near Linwood I had nothing for a comparison. Now I have a much greater respect for that village ruin, which is doubtless older than this

Choui village. The discovery of this ruin gives us a basis of comparison which is very important.

A map of the village will be prepared, and we hope to do some excavating in the vicinity, in time.

January 1, 1908.





When the specimens bearing the first numbers were catalogued it was not expected that the museum would attain to a dignity beyond that of a simple workshop, and study specimens were given numbers the same as others. A number of specimens which had been catalogued were returned to the owners. This explains why so many numbers are left out."

It is not thought best to cumber the catalogue with insignificant specimens, and these numbers will be used for important specimens later on. Many specimens are stored for want of room to properly display them, and these are not included in this catalogue.


1-A nodule of flint found near the Nehawka flint mines, and presented by Isaac Pollard 'in 1901.

2-Nodule of flint in three pieces

from flint mines at Nehawka. 3-A chipped flint presented by E. A. Kirkpatrick, of Nehawka, found on the surface near Nehawka.

4-Chipped flint found near Nehawka, and presented by E. A. Kirkpatrick.

5 The largest chipped flint of which there is a record, being 23 inches long and 3 inches wide, was plowed up near Ful


lerton, and presented by Will
A. Brown.

8-Frontal bone from a grave
near Nehawka, exhumed in
1898, by E. A. Kirkpatrick.
9-Chipped tomahawk, found at

12-Chipped flint from Nehawka.
14-Chipped flint from Nehawka.
15-Knife of flint, Nehawka.
16-A flake of flint thrown off in
chipping, Nehawka.

18, 19-Chipped flints from Ne-

21-A core left after implementmaking chips are taken off the nodule.



A flint knife found at a depth of three feet on the floor of a lodge circle on the Griffith site. 29-Chipped flint from Griffith site. 40-Chipped tomahawk found on Griffith site.

54-Chipped flint from the Griffith site.

80-Flint presented by L. J. Griffith of Nehawka.

86-Mill, found on the Pollard site. 100-Chipped flint from Nehawka. 158-A "discoidal" found by Frank

Dunham on his lot in the town of Roca and presented by him. It may be a stone shaped by white men and lost.

159-Ax presented by J. L. Griffith. 160-Maul, presented by J. L. Griffith.

161, 162-Relics from the Chamberlain collection, known.

Source un

163-Ax, presented by James Fuller. 164, 165-Two ax heads from the

old Indian town of Aztalan in Jefferson Co., Wisconsin; the Winnebagos once lived near. 166-Bone implement presented by Will A. Brown of Fullerton. 168-A chipped rock, use unknown.

A number of these are found in Nance Co.

170-Chipped flint. 171-Stone ax found 3 miles north

west of Tecumseh; presented by W. R. Harris.

173-A "ceremonial" in pottery from Nance Co.; presented by Will A. Brown.

176-Iron implements used by In

dians; presented by Will A. Brown. 178-Arrow head presented by

John Meek of Douglas, found cn sec. 4. T. 7 N, R. 10 E. 179-Stone mortar found by W. A. Belfour of Unadilla.

181-Stone pipe, purchased; said to have been made by Sitting Bull.

182-Flints taken from the Cham

berlain Collection.

183--Stone maul presented by I.

W. Dunkleberger of Genoa. 184-Pottery handles which belong to Coffin Collection.

[blocks in formation]

Bluff, Neb., loaned by R. De
Witte Stearns.

223, 224, 225-Flints from Scotts
Bluff, loaned by Mr. Stearns.
227-Mill stone, presented by Mrs.
W. E. Dech of Ithaca.
228-Catlinite ornament, by Mrs.
W. E. Dech of Ithaca.
232-Flints presented by Wm. H.
Dech of Ithaca.

237-Maul presented by Mrs. Margaret Diddock of Thurston Co., found in a cache. 239-Arrow point from near Leshara, presented by Miss Esty. 240-Arrow presented by Nils Gibson, found near Swedeburg. 242, 243-Indian relics presented by Mr. Eggers of Yutan.

245-An 1820 copper cent, found at Yutan.

246-Button from Yutan. 251-Iron hoe used by Pawnees found near Leshara, by Eggers. 252-Ax as above.

253, 254-Iron Pawnee implements from Leshara, by Joseph Lamuel.

255, 256, 257, 258, 259-Indian implements from the McClain site, presented by Master Elmer McClain.

260-A large flint ceremonial. very fine, loaned by Mrs. Hannah Larson of Genoa.


262-Part of a pipe. 263-Pottery.


265-Bone fish hook, all of the Lar

son Collection.

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