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for the better, excepting those which you say you have made in my favour, and in which I fear the public will too justly differ from you. Your partiality to me had carried you but too far before. I congratulate both you and Ireland most heartily upon the increasing fruits of your labours for the public good; for I am informed from all hands, that a spirit of industry diffuses itself through all Ireland; the linen manufacture gains ground daily in the south and south. west, and new manufactures arise in different parts of the kingdom. All which, I will venture to say, is originally owing to your judicious and indefatigable endeavours for the good of your country. You know the nature of mankind in general, and of our countrymen in particular (for I still think and call myself an Irishman), well enough to know, that the invitation by premiums would be much more effectual than laws, or remote considerations of general public good, upon which few people reason well enough to be convinced that their own solid private interest essentially depends. The Dublin Society, and, in particular, my good friends the bishop of Meath (Dr. Henry Maule) and Prior, have seconded you very well; and it is not saying too much of them to say, that they deserve better of Ireland than any one other set of men in it; I will not even except the Parliament."

Madden's premiums were annually distributed by the Society until the year 1757, when their separate payment appears to have been discontinued, their donor considering that they might be advantageously expended in the encouragement of agriculture, as we learn from the following letter, now published for the first time :

"Manor Waterhouse, 21st May, 1755. "Dear Sir-I have yours of the 17th for which I thank you, and I hereby desire you may print the self-same list of my premiums for the year 1755, that you printed in the year 1754, and I shall effectually make them good by God's blessing, as I have done for such a number of years. I conceived the glass house præmium was set down for the 5th of June, and I see it so in your printed list, and I again beg the good design may be encouraged, as it every way so well deserves. I hope Mr. Hawker* will act like himself, but I wonder he never called on my son or assisted him with his advice, and I wish, you would make him call on him at the Golden Stocking in Castle-street. I rejoyce the lord lieutenant goes on to sweeten and oblige all that apply to him, and I am told he will do all he can to remove any obstacle to our peace and ease, and I believe we shall have a calmer session than some feared, and that others hoped for, though some rough votes will pass or I am much misenformed. I am in pain for our squadron which is much weaker than the French, but I trust in God all shall end well, and that those disturbers of the world will be chastized into quietness.

One of the Society's clerks.

Your memorandum surprised me, but on examination I find you are right, and my son shall pay the twenty shillings though you actually writ for £3, and I drew for the sum you wrote for. I thank you, my dear friend, for your kind compliments of the season-blessed be God, I had a great congregation and a crowd of communicants last Sunday, which I pray God encrease not only among us but through the Christian world. I am thinking instead of the former præmiums for tillage (which I won't give as I did) to give in a better manner and will be of more extended influence, and that is in June next, to have it advertized by you and Mr. Maple (the former of which you shall have sent for your correction). That as the only way to encourage tillage is to form societys in the several counties,* so there is a gentleman who will give £20 a year while he finds it usefull to every such county, where such society shall be found not exceeding ten, and which apply to you and Mr. Maple before next October, every such society giving at least £25 per annum in præmiums, of their own money. I am loth to put my own name in print, which I am sick of, and therefore I would have it advertized by you and Mr. Maple, and I do hereby faithfully engage to you that I will make good all Í have promised. Pray consult Mr. Maple, with my best respects, on this, and let me have your opinions and advice on it at large. My dear and worthy friend, adieu. I am your most affectionate and obedient humble servant, SAMUEL MADDEN.

"I send you an advertizement ready drawn, which you will lay before the Society, and let me know their thoughts of it. I have sent it to a member, also lord Lanesborough."

At this distance of time it would be difficult to recapitulate Madden's multifarious benevolent and philanthropic acts. From his advocacy of the beneficial results derivable from exciting emulation by the incentive of gratuities, he acquired the sobriquet of " Premium Madden;" and Dr. Johnson is said to have declared, that "his was a name which Ireland ought to honor." In his seventy-second year, prompted by the dictates of friendship, he wrote a long poem on Dr. Thomas Leland's history of Philip of Macedon, and contributed a munificent subscription to the publication of that work, the author of which observes: "I am bound particularly to declare that I owe the warmest and sincerest gratitude to the friendship of the reverend Doctor Samuel Madden, a name which must be ever honored and revered in Ireland, while it feels the happy effects of his extraordinary zeal and generous public spirit.'

*About the year 1735, a number of gentlemen in the county of Limerick formed themselves into a society for the improvement of "tillage by English husbandry, and to encourage manufactures."

The following are the first lines of the poem referred to, which is more interesting for its slight autobiographical episodes than for any literary merit :

"Tho' past the bounds David to life assign'd,

I rhyme in this dark evening of the mind;

Tho' midst my books and groves, from courts retir'd,
Untun'd I sing, by Love alone inspir'd,

Still for a friend, disdaining cares and years,

While Health's gay smile his languid numbers chears;

While inbred comforts calm each peaceful day,

And sweet Content's dear blessings swell his lay;
While zeal for thine and ev'ry public good

Warms the weak line, and thaws his frozen blood;
Accept no venal bard's enfeebled song,
Whose life or verse can never serve thee long:
Who age endures, while with delight he spends
His fortune to promote the noblest ends:
Who, careless of his own, to thy just praise
By Philip rous'd this last remembrance pays;
Chanting like ancient swans before he dies,

And from this world of tedious trifles flies!"'

Dr. Madden's death occurred at Manor Waterhouse, on the last day of December, 1765; and so completely has his memory been forgotten, that even his descendants are unacquainted with the place of his interment. During his life time it was contemplated to perpetuate his memory as a national benefactor, by the erection of a statue, and to this project, which, it is superfluous to observe, was never executed, Thomas Sheridan alluded as follows in his public oration at Dublin in 1757, relative to the foundation of an academy for the instruction of the youth of Ireland :

"We have already one part of education (and that too a most essential one) in as high a degree of perfection, as perhaps could have been contrived by the wit of man. I mean that part which is obtained in the College of Dublin, from the time of entrance, to the time of taking a bachelor's degree. Nothing can be conceived more excellent than the first plan of that part of the system, in point of theory, and design; but in point of execution and practice, it has received uncommon life and vigour by the late admirable institution of premiums. Whose author, had he never contributed any thing farther to the good of his country, would have deserved immortal honour, and must have been held in reverence by latest posterity. But the unwearied and disinterested endeavours, during a long course of years, of this truly good man, in a variety of branches, to promote industry, and consequently the welfare of this kingdom; and the mighty benefits which have thence resulted to the community; have made many of the good people of Ireland sorry, that a long talked of scheme has not hitherto been put in execution. That we might not appear inferior in point of gratitude to the citizens of London, with respect to a singular honour paid to a fellow citizen, (Sir John Barnard) surely not with more reason, and that, like them, we might be able to address our patriot :

'Præsenti tibi maturos largimur honores.'

"If I have wandered a little from the point, it proceeded from a warmth of heart eager to throw in its mite of acknowledgement to our general benefactor; and I am sure there is not one here, who does not so far sympathize with me, as readily to pardon the digression."

Two three-quarter length portraits of Dr. Madden, painted in oils, are still preserved; one at the residence of his representatives at Hilton, County Monaghan; the other in the possession of John Madden, esq., of Roslin Manor, Clones; in both of these paintings he is represented in clerical costume, with full, flowing, curled dark hair, and a benevolent expression of countenance. The Dublin Society possess a white marble bust of their benefactor, and his portrait was engraved by John Brooks; by Spooner in 1752, ex marmore Van Nost;" and by R. Purcell in 1755, from the original, by Robert Hunter, an artist who was on terms of intimacy with Madden, some of whose papers came into his possession.

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Dr. Madden's sons were as follow: Thomas, who entered into holy orders, and died in 1758; Samuel Molyneux Madden, who in September, 1748, married Frances, daughter of Anthony Dopping, bishop of Ossory, and had issue a son and daughter, who died young; John Madden, hereafter noticed; Edward Madden of Spring grove, Co. Fermanagh, who died without issue in 1790, having married Charlotte, daughter of David Creighton, esq., of Crum, and sister to the first lord Erne; William Balfour Madden, barrister-atlaw, who died unmarried.* His daughters were: Mary, married to Thomas Hastings, archdeacon of Dublin; Lucy, married to Saunderson, esq., of Clover-hill, Co. Cavan; Alice; Jane; and Elizabeth, married to the rev. John Hawkshaw. Samuel Molyneux Madden, who succeeded his father, and died in 1783, bequeathed a fund to the University of Dublin, to be distributed in premiums at Fellowship examinations, the conditions of which bequest are specified as follows in the codicil of the donor's will, dated 7th of August, 1782 :"Whereas I, Samuel Molyneux Madden, have, in the body of my

The Maddens of Kilkenny descend from Dr. Samuel Madden's brother, John Madden, referred to at page 697; who obtained a fellowship in Trinity College in 1710, which he resigned in 1724, and obtained the deanery of Kilmore and rectorship of St. Anne's, Dublin. An anecdote of him and lord Ross will be found at page 260 of our present volume.

last will and testament, bequeathed all my estate and property, situated in the Corporation of Belturbet, immediately after the demises therein mentioned, to be employed in promoting virtue and learning in Trinity College, in the county of Dublin, subject to such regulations as I shall exposit and declare in any codicil to my said will. In pursuance of that my design I do hereby constitute and appoint the three persons immediately hereafter named to be trustees for the carrying into execution that design, That is to say: The right honourable James lord viscount Lifford, lord chancellor of Ireland, the most rev. and right honourable Richard Robinson, primate of all Ireland, and the right rev. Richard Woodward, lord bishop of Cloyne, humbly entreating those very worthy and highly respected persons to vouchsafe their protection and favour to a design so suited to their own excellent dispositions. I do further declare it to be my humble request and desire, that the vice-chancellor of Trinity College, for the time being, be one of the trustees and governors of the fund to be raised for the design and purpose aforesaid, and that the lord high chancellor of Ireland, for the time being, be one of the said trustees and governors, and the lord primate, for the time being, be also one of the trustees and governors of said fund, and to carry into execution my intent and design, as hereinafter mentioned. My will, intent, and request therefore is, that at every examination for fellowships in Trinity College, the whole produce of the said fund, during the preceding year, be given, in one undivided sum, into the hand of that disappointed candidate for the fellowships whom the majority of his examiners shall, by certificate in writing, under their hand, declare to have best deserved to succeed if another fellowship had been vacant. Provided always, that no premium thus provided be given to any disappointed candidate in any year wherein there shall not be at least two disappointed candidates at the examination, and also, provided always, that the provost and senior fellows of the College do not diminish the premiums which through their zeal to encourage learning they generously bestow on the disappointed candidates for fellowships at each examination. And whereas there are some years wherein there are not any examinations for fellowships held, no vacancy having happened in the College, I do hereby desire that the revenue of my estate and fund in every such year be laid out in government securities by my said trustees, and the interest of such government securities be added to the succeeding produce of the united fund aforesaid, and thus the premium be increased which shall be given to disappointed candidates in the succeeding years, and 1 do desire that this premium or bounty be confined to one only disappointed candidate for fellowships until the annual revenue of the fund arise to four hundred pounds, after which period the trustees aforesaid may appropriate the further increase of the fund towards the constituting a bounty for a second disappointed candidate, or rather for a premium for the best oration or essay in Latin on such subject as the College shall annually choose, as such encouragement is greatly wanted. And further, in aid of the said intended fund, as the present revenue of the estate in the Corporation of Belturbet is but £86 rent, I do hereby bequeath to the

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