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the said Pillory, and his crime to be written in paper, to be fixed upon his breast, and to be imprisoned during the pleasure of the house.'

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A Roman Catholic convent stood in Corn-market at the close of the seventeenth century, and at the same period we find notice of a house here called "the Frying Pan ;" also of a large old castle four stories high, the ground floor vaulted, and of "a large timber house, on the ground floor a kitchen and one lodging room, on the second and third three rooms each, and ou the fourth two garrets, being the sign of the George."

The Corn-market of Dublin was removed to Thomas-street in the year 1727, some years after which period we find the "Bear tavern" and the "Hibernian chop house" located in the old Corn-market, the former kept by Christopher Geshil, and the latter by Dalton Tench, who died in 1769. The noted James Napper Tandy, in early life, traded as anironmonger at No. 21, Corn-market; and in 1798 lord Edward Fitzgerald lay for some days concealed at the house of Bartholomew Gannon, linen draper, No. 22, in the same street.

During the latter years of the eighteenth century Cornmarket was chiefly inhabited by haberdashers, woollen drapers, and dealers in coarse linens; and it was difficult in passing through the street to evade the importunities of the "Pluckers in," who, as the name imported, were hired to induce purchasers to enter the shop of their employers.

The removal of the old gaol of Newgate, and the consequent opening of the street, together with the extensive alterations on its northern side, have completely changed the appearance of this locality, which, however, still continues to retain its old name, although more than a century has elapsed since it was used as the Dublin Corn-market.

ART. VI.-OUR ART UNIONS.

1. Report of Select Committee of the House of Commons upon Art Unions. London: 1844.

2. Seventeenth Annual Report of the Council of the Art Union of London. London: 1853.

3. Prospectus of The Irish Art Union.

Dublin: 1853.

IN the pages of THE IRISH QUARTERLY REVIEW we have, from time to time, deplored the non-existence of Art Unions in this country. It is, however, no longer necessary to raise the lament, for now in good truth we have two-"The Irish Art Union," and "The Royal Irish Art Union :" but as the Italian proverb says, "I beni ed i mali non vengono mai che in folla."

This is pre-eminently a utilitarian age. Any occupation that will not put money in the purse, is universally decried as childish-but be the pursuit what it may, if it only enriches it is, in consequence, noble. Many will, therefore, ask, what is the use of an Art Union? As preliminary to a few observations which we mean to offer upon our Art Unions, we commence by answering this question. The utilitarian will only need to be told, that by investing a pound or so in the speculation, he will have a reasonable chance of winning, by ballot, a picture or statue, worth twenty-forty-aye, a hundred times the value of his investment. This, we opine, will suffice for him. For others, less utilitarian, we would point to the multifarious writings upon Art, which must have, more or less, made the fact apparent, that a love for the ornamental, as well as the useful, is very general amongst mankind. Some races of men evince this much more than others-Southern and Eastern nations particularly-owing, perhaps, to their bright skies, pure air, and also the brilliant colors of the animal and vegetable kingdoms in those regions. Nations with an admixture of Celtic blood also exhibit this admiration for the ornamental and the picturesque, which is at the root of all love for Art, although in its higher manifestations it extends far beyond mere ornamentation. In Ireland there is a very general taste for Art prevailing amongst all classes-notwithstanding that the assertion may seem anomalous, when considered with reference to the present position of the Fine Arts in our island. Never

theless, persons very competent to arrive at just views on such subjects have been of this opinion; and it should be borne in mind, that a country in which the Arts can flourish must be both prosperous and wealthy. We would, however, point to the recent Great Industrial Exhibition, as affording an indication of the prevalent taste; other portions of the display were often thinly attended, but the Fine Arts Hall was always thronged. A portion of the English press, in fact, deprecated this very trait in the Exhibition, and deplored that the useful products seemed to be passed over, and all attention concentrated upon the mere attractive and ornamental; the Committee even were censured for giving undue prominence to the latter, at the expense of the former; the feeling was natural enough, for England's great point is her manufactures and useful inventions: she is a little deficient in taste and elegance, and hence some jealousy when these, (which she designates tinsel and frippery), obtain prominence. The love for Art being general, and the gratification of it expensive, Art Unions were introduced as a means of meeting the two requirementsas by numbers subscribing a small sum yearly, the loss of which was individually not regarded, several became proprietors of works of Art, otherwise beyond their means of acquirement. Such associations originated in Germany, whence they gradually extended to other countries. Upon their introduction into England, a new feature was added to them; the mercantile spirit was not sufficiently gratified by the chance of obtaining a prize picture or statue, and the certainty of possessing an engraving, was, in addition, held out as an inducement to subscribers; the effect was, of course, to diminish the number of prize works of Art, as the cost of engravings became a very large item-in fact, unless an enormous amount of subscriptions is obtained engravings absorb the greater portion of the sum, whilst their dissemination would appear the primary object of such societies. In the London Art Union, where the average amount subscribed yearly is about £12,000, the sum paid for engravings is, in proportion, less enormous. In the Art Unions heretofore established in Ireland, the largest portion received went for engravings, and in one, the National Art Union, it nearly engrossed the entire fund. Another advantage arising from Art Unions is, that in addition to being a direct means for the cultivation of public taste, they contribute powerfully to the advancement of the Fine Arts,

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in whatever locality established; and in Ireland this latter result is a desideratum, because the state and prospects of Art make the establishment of such associations peculiarly desirable; they are in every respect suitable to our circumstances, and consonant with our inclinations-evident from the support awarded to the Royal Irish Art Union; for no public institution in this country was ever more liberally and universally sustained, until but of this anon. England, Scotland, France, Belgium, Bavaria, Wirtemberg, Prussia, and other European States, have all schools of Art, known and appreciated outside their own boundaries; but Ireland has no school or position for its artists, save that position which several have honorably obtained as belonging to that of England. It is not thus in Scotland, although some years ago Art in that country was sufficiently backward-and to what is the result of its present advantageous position mainly owing?-To the establishment of the Association for the Promotion of the Fine Arts in Scotland-for so their Art Union is designatedthey set about the matter with the usual prudence and foresight of Scotchmen. They did not trouble themselves with unmeaning declamations about free trade in Art, or provoke a preposterous competition, like the frog and the ox, as was done in Ireland-but they were anxious to have works of Art to beautify and refine their homes, and if these works were painted by their fellow-countrymen, they felt the greater pride; they were naturally anxious that home productions should not be inferior to those of other countries, and thus their great object became the advancement of Scottish Art. To attain this, a rule was made limiting the purchases to the works of Scotchmen; they did not exclude others from the annual Exhibitions, but rather encouraged contributions from England and elsewhere, as incentives to the emulation of their own artists, and in this they were ably seconded by the Royal Scottish Academy-the Council of which used every exertion to obtain the loan of works, by artists of celebrity, from patrons and private galleries. The Scottish Art Union persevered in the course upon which they had resolved, undeterred by the interested clamor about exclusiveness, which was very loudly raised, and when by the wisdom of this procedure they had brought the Fine Arts of Scotland to a position capable of supporting healthy competion, the rule was rescinded as no longer necessary. What a significant lesson this

might have been for the Committee of the Royal Irish Art Union, but that the body was one upon which all experience was wasted.

The advancement of the Fine Arts, and the consequent cultivation of public taste, are, in fact, the great objects of Art Unions. It was because of their contributing to this, that the Legislature legalised such associations, exempting them from the operation of the Lottery Act, of which, at first, they were a direct infringement, tacitly connived at, however, because of the good they effected, as well as the disinterested views of their promoters; these concessions were abused, and various gambling associations sprung up, having very little connexion with Art. From the Appendix to the Fifth Annual Report of the Committee of the Royal Irish Art Union we extract the following, which sufficiently explains the abuses which led to the interference of the Government :

"The marked success that attended the introduction of the Art Union system in Edinburgh, London, and Dublin, for national and public purposes, induced several print-sellers and publishers, and others, to advertise schemes professing to be conducted for the furtherance of Art, but with a view altogether to their own private emolument. The principal of these were:

"Mr. Moon, of Threadneedle-street, who started a grand scheme for 20,000 subscribers, to be called the National Art Union-the able exposure of the substitution of old plates with new titles, and sundry other tricks, by the Athenæum and other papers of the day, made the plan fall to the ground, and Mr. Moon shuffled out of the project, throwing the odium on some of his subordinates.

"Mr. Boys, another publisher, got up also a distribution on his own account, purchased works from artists at rates best known to himself, and puffed off at high nominal prices as prizes to be raffled for, the purchasers of tickets getting a choice also of Mr. Boys' prints on hand.

"The great feature of Mr. Boys' plan was this he started his system at 10,000 tickets, at one guinea each, all that were not sold were to count as Mr. Boys', and being put into the wheel, with those sold, Mr. Boys won all, or most of his prizes back again, to begin a fresh pull on the public, getting rid of his dead stock of prints at the same time.

"A Mr. Gilbert, of Sheffield, bought an old plate, entitled 'May Day,' by Leslie, got it electrotyped, and set up an Art Union on his

own account.

"A Mrs. Mary Parkes advertised a raffle for an illustrated Bible, on the same principle, giving each subscriber a chance of prints from her large stock on hand.

"This mode of proceeding was not, however, confined to printsellers-furniture brokers and bird-stuffers, &c., &c., took up the

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