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cannot find out the way of its operation ? Are we not sure that food nourishes our bodies, and medicines relieve our pains? Yet we know not all the ferments and motions of those atoms, by which we are relieved and nourished. Why then should we deny that degeneracy of our nature, which admits of so full and various proof, though we are not able to account for every circumstance relating to it, or to solve every difficulty that may attend it?” (p. 92.)

QUESTION II.

How came Vice and Misery to overspread Mankind in all

Nations, and in all Ages? (p. 94.) “ HEATHEN Philosophers could never answer this: but Christians may, from the Oracles of God.

These inform us, that the first man was a common head and representative of all mankind : and that he by sinning against his Maker, lost his holiness and happiness : and exposed himself and his posterity (whom he naturally produced and whom he legally represented) to the displeasure of his Maker, and so spread sin and misery through his whole offspring. (p. 102.)

So St. Paul, As by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin, even so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned,' (Rom. v. 12.) All are esteemed in some sort guilty before God, though they did not sin after the similitude of Adam's transgression.' They did not commit actual personal sin against a known law as Adam did.

“This may more fully appear from the following partioulars.

“1. It is plainly taught us in Scripture, that God at first created one man and woman called Adam and Eve; and from them is derived the whole race of mankind : God hath made of one blood,' as the apostle observes, "all nations of men, to dwell on all the face of the earth.'

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2. “God created man at first in a holy and happy state, in his own likeness, and in his favour. (p. 160.) And God said, let us make man in our own image, after our own likeness,' (Gen. i. 26.) And that none of the brute creation might molest him, but all of them be for his service, he said, 'Let them have dominion over the fish, and the fowl, and the cattle.'-' So God created man in his own image.' And what this image consisted in, beside his spiritual and immortal nature, and his dominion over other creatures, we are told by St. Paul, where he speaks of the

new man, which,' says he, after Gød,' that is, after the likeness of God, 'is created in righteousness and true holipess' (Eph. iv, 24.). So Solomon assures us, God made man upright.' And Moses says, when God had finished all his creation, 'God saw every thing that he had made, and behold it was very good.' It was all according to his idea and his will, and well-pleasing in his sight. Man, the last of his creatures, as well as all the rest, was very good, was holy and happy,

3. “God originally appointed that Adam when innocent should produce an offspring in his own holy image: and on the other hand that if he sinned, he should propagate his kind in his own sinful image. The former is allowed. The latter may be gathered from Gen. v. 1-5, In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made he him :'-And Adam lived a hundred and thirty years' after his loss of the image of God, and begat a son in his own likeness, after his image,' that is, his own sinful and mortal image.

“ It is not to be supposed, that Moses in this brief history of the first generations of men, should so particularly repeat the image and likeness of God in which Adam was created, unless he had designed to set the comparison in a fair light, between Adam's begetting a son in his own sinful and mortal image, whereas he himself was created in God's holy and immortal image. (p. 162.)

4.“ God was pleased to put the man whom he had made upon a trial of his obedience for a season. He placed him

in a garden of Eden, (or pleasure,) and gave him a free use of all the creatures: only forbidding him to eat of the fruit of one tree, 'The tree of the knowledge of good and evil. For in the day (said he) that thou eatest of it, thou shalt surely die.' In which threatening were doubtless included all evils: death spiritual, temporal, and eternal.

(p. 163.

5. “ As Adam was under a law; whose sanction threatened death upon disobedience, so doubtless God favoured him with a covenant of life, and a promise of life and immortality upon bis obedience. (p. 164.)

6. “ Adam broke the law of his Maker, lost his image and his favour, forfeited the hope of immortality, and exposed himself to the wrath of God, and all the punishments which he had threatened : in consequence of which he was now painfully afraid of him in whom he before delighted: and foolishly endeavoured to hide himself from the presence of the Lord.' (p. 168.)

7. “ Adam after his sin propagated his kind according to the law of nature: not in the moral image or likeness of God, not' in righteousness and true holiness,' but in his own sinful likeness, with irregular passions, corrupt appetites and inclinations. (p. 170, 171.) : To this degeneracy Job manifestly refers in those expressions, "What is man that he should be clean, or the son of man that he should be righteous! Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean? Not one.' And David says the same thing. Behold I was shapen in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me.'

“ This is not a hyperbolical aggravation of David's early sins and propensity to evil from his childhood. But the text is strong and plain in asserting sin some way to belong to his very conception, and to be conveyed from his natural parents, which is a different idea from his actual sins, or propensity to sin in his infancy. It shews the cause both of this propensity and of his actual sins, which operated before he was born. So that if original pravity be

stances, even in their infancy and childhood, as well as when they grow to years of ripe understanding. (p. 86.)

“ And methịnks when I take a just survey of this world, with all the inhabitants of it, I can look upon it no otherwise, than as a grand and magnificent structure in ruins: wherein lie millions of rebels against their Creator, under condemnation to misery and death: who are at the same time sick of a moral distemper, and disordered in their minds even to distraction. Hence proceed those numberless follies and vices which are practised here; and the righteous anger of an offended God visible in ten thousand instances. Yet are there proclamations of divine grace, health and life sounding among them; though very few take any notice thereof. Only, here and there one attends to the call, and complies with the proposals of peace. His sins are pardoned and healed. And though his body goes down to the dust for a season, his soul is happy with God: while the bulk of those criminals, despising all the offers of mercy, perish in their own wilful madness! (p. 89, 90.)

“ What is the chief temptation that leads some men to deny so glaring a truth? Is it that they cannot give a satisfactory account of some of the difficulties that attend it? Nay, many even of the heathen philosophers believed it, from their own experience, and their daily survey of mankinds though they were utterly at a loss, how to account for it. And what if we could not assign a sufficient and satisfactory reason for it? Or shew how this spreading degeneracy began, or how it came to take place so universally? What if we were still at a loss to explain how all this guilt and misery came upon us, must we therefore deny the things which we see and hear, and feel daily? (p. 91.)

“ Can we account for all the secret things in the creation of God? And must we deny whatever we cannot account for? Does any man refuse to believe, that the infinite variety of plants and flowers, in all their beauteous colours and forms, grow out of the same earth, because he does not know all the springs of their vegetation?' De men doubt of a loadstone's drawing iron to itself, because they

cannot find out the way of its operation ? Are we not sure that food nourishes our bodies, and medicines relieve our pains ? Yet we know not all the ferments and motions of those atoms, by which we are relieved and nourished. Why then should we deny that degeneracy of our nature, which admits of so full and various proof, though we are not able to account for every circumstance relating to it, or to solve every difficulty that may attend it?” (p. 92.)

QUESTION II.

How came Vice and Misery to overspread Mankind in all

Nations, and in all Ages (p. 94.)

1

“ HEATHEN Philosophers could never answer this: but Christians may, from the Oracles of God.

These inform us, that the first man was a common head and representative of all mankind : and that he by sinning against his Maker, lost his holiness and happiness: and exposed himself and his posterity (whom he naturally produced and whom he legally represented) to the displeasure of his Maker, and so spread sin and misery through his whole offspring. (p. 102.)

So St. Paul, “As by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin, even so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned,' (Rom. v. 12.) All are esteemed in some sort guilty before God, though they did not sin after the similitude of Adam's transgression. They did not commit actual personal sin against a known law as Adam did.

«. This may more fully appear from the following partioulars.

«1. It is plainly taught us in Scripture, that God at first created one man and woman called Adam and Eve; and from them is derived the whole race of mankind : God hath made of one blood,' as the apostle observes, .all nations of men, to dwell on all the face of the earth.'

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