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did not exclude death, no nor the pains of child-birth, nor the earning our bread by the sweat of our brow.
“ 2. To Adam was given dominion over the brutes. To Noah it was only said, “The fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast.' But notwithstanding this fear and dread, yet they frequently sting men to death, or bite and tear them in pieces. Whereas no such calamity could ever have befallen innocent Adam or his innocent offspring. (p. 187.)
“3. The image of God in which Adam was created, consisted eminently in righteousness and true holiness. But that part of the image of God which remained after the fall, and remains in all men to this day, is the natural image of God, namely the spiritual nature and immortality of the soul : not excluding the political image of God, or a degree of dominion over the creatures still remaining. But the moral image of God, is lost and defaced : or else it could not be said to be renewed. (p. 188.) It is then evident, that the blessing given to Adam in innocency, and that given to Noah after the Flood, differ so widely, that the latter was consistent with the condemnation or curse for sin, and the former was not. Consequently mankind does not now stand in the same favour of God, as Adam did while he was innocent. (p. 189.)
“ Thus it appears, that the holy Scripture both in the Old and New Testaments, give us a plain and full account, of the conveyance of sin, misery, and death, from the first man to all his offspring.
THE FIRST ESSAY.
Do the present Miseries of Man alone, prove his Apostacy
SECTION I. A general Survey of the Follies and Miseries of Mankind.
Upon a just view of human nature, (p. 359.) from its entrance into life, till it retires behind the curtain of death,
one would be ready to say concerning man, “Is this the u creature that is so superior to the rest of the inhabitants " of the globe, as to require the peculiar care of the Cre" ator in forming him ? (p. 360.) Does he deserve such an $ illustrious description, as even the Heathen poet has “ given us of him ?”
Sanctius hic animal, mentisq; capacius Altoe
A creature of a more exalted kind,
Beholds his own hereditary skies. 6 Now if man was formed in the image of God, certainly he was a holy and a happy being. But what is there like holiness or happiness now found, running through this rank of creatures ? Are there any of the brutal kind that do not more regularly answer the design of their creation? Are there any brutes that we ever find acting so much below their original chạracter, on the land, in the water, or the air, as mankind does all over the earth? Or are there any tribes among them, through which pain, vexation, and misery, are so plentifully distributed as they are among the children of men? (p. 361.)
“ Were this globe of earth to be surveyed from one end to the other, by some spirit of a superior order, it would be found such a theatre of folly and madness, such a maze of mingled vice and misery, as would move the compassion of his refined nature, to a painful degree, were it not tempered by a clear sight of that wise and just Providence, which strongly and sweetly works in the midst of all; and will in the end bring good out of all evil, and justify the ways of God with man. (p. 362.)
A particular View of the Miseries of Man.
* But to wave for the present the sins and follies of mankind, may we not infer from his miseries alone, that we are degenerate Beings bearing the most evident marks of the displeasure of our Maker ? (p. 363.)
“ View the histories of mankind, and what is almost all history, but a description of the wretchedness of men, under the mischiefs they bring upon themselves, and the judgments of the Great God! The seenes of happiness and peace are very thin set among all the nations: and they are rather a transient glimpse, here and there, than any thing solid and durable. (p. 364.) But if we look over the universe, what public desolations by plague and famine, by storms and earthquakes, by wars and pestilence! What secret mischiefs reign among men, which pierce'arid torture the soul! What smarting wounds and bruises, what pains and diseases attack and torment the animal frame!
“Where is the family of seven or eight persons wherein there is not one or more afflicted with some troublesome malady, or tiresome inconvenience? These indeed are often concealed by the persons whoʻsuffer them, and by the families where they dwells But were they all brought to:
gether, what hospitals or infirmaries 'would be able to contain them ? (p. 365.)
“What toils and hardships, what inward anxieties and sorrows, disappointments and calamities are diffused thro’ every age and country? Do not the rich feel them as well as the poor? Are they not all teased with their own appetites, which are never satisfied ? And their impetuous passions give them no rest. "What keen anguish of mind arises from pride, and envy, and resentment? What tore tures does ambition, or disappointed love, or wild jealousy infuse into their bosoms ? Meanwhile the poor, together with inward vexations and corroding maladies of the mind, sustain likewise endless drudgeries in procuring their necessary subsistence. And how many of them cannot after all, procure even food to eat and raiment to put on ? (p. 366.)
Survey 'man through every stage. See first what a figure he makes, at his entrance into life! This animal, says Pliny, who is to govern the rest of the creatures, how he lies bound hand and foot all in tears, and begins his life in misery and punishment.' If we trace the education of the human race, from the cradle to mature age, especially among the poor, who are the bulk of all nations, the wretchedness of mankind will farther appear. How are they every where dragged up in their tender age, through a train of nonsense, madness, and miseries ? (p. 367.) What millions of uneasy sensations do they endure in infancy and childhood by reason of those pressing 'necessities, which for some years they can tell only in cries and groans, and which either their parents are so poor they cannot relieve, or so savage and brutish that they will not? How wretchedly are these young generations hurried on through the folly and weakness of childhood, till new calamities arise from their own ungoverned appetites and impetuous passions? As youth advances, the ferments of the blood rise higher, and the appetites and passions grow much stronger, and give more abundant vexation to the race of mankind,
than they do to any of the brutal creation. And whereas the all-wise God, for kind reasons has limited the gratification of these appetites by rules of virtue; perhaps these very rules, through the corruption of our nature irritate mankind to greater excesses. (p. 368.)
6 Would the affairs of human life in infancy, childhood, and youth, have ever been in such a sore and painful situation, if man had been such a being as God at first made him, and had continued in the favour of his Maker? Could divine wisdom and goodness admit of these scenes, were there not a degeneracy through the whole race, which by the just permission of God, exerts itself some way or other in every stage of life? (p. 370.). ill. “ Follow
mankind to the age of public appearance upon the stage of the world, and what shall we find there, but infinite cares, labours, and toil, attended with fond hopes almost always frustrated with endless crosses and disappointments, through ten thousand accidents that are every moment flying across this mortal stage? As for the poor, how does the sultry toil exhaust their lives in summer, and what starving wretchedness do they feel in winter? How is a miserable life sustained among all the pains and fatigues of nature with the oppression, cruelty, and scorn of the rich ? (p. 371.)
6 Let us follow on the track to the close of life. What a scene is presented us in old age? How innumerable and how inexpressible are the disasters and sorrows, the pains and aches, the groans and wretchedness, that meet man on the borders of the grave, before they plunge him into it?
“ And indeed is there any person on earth, high or low, without such distresses and difficulties, such crossing accidents and perplexing cares, such painful infirmities in some or other part of life, as must pronounce mankind upon the whole a miserable being ? Whatever scenes of happiness seem to attend him, in any shining hour, a dark cloud soon casts a gloom over them, and the pleasing vision vanishes as a dream!