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needs, to place him firmly on his feet as a teacher before a school.

The normal school idea has focused the thought of educational thinkers upon the nature and scope of public school education ; upon the study of human nature to discern and state the principles of education ; upon the aim, motive, method, and product of the process of teaching; upon the principles of school government; upon the practical study of the child; upon the adaptation of the course of study to the living needs of the pupil; upon the topical arrangement of subjects for teaching, study, and class exercises ; upon the proper heating, lighting, ventilation, sanitation, and decoration of school buildings; in short upon every phase of the professional training of teachers.

The present condition of the normal schools of New England is the product of all the struggle, thought, toil, sacrifice, consecration, faith, hope and ability that has been given to these schools in the past. All the history of this past gives strong assurance of future progress. We have only to emulate the example of their founders to carry them on to the full accomplishment of their mission.

The normal school is still in its youth, and is working its way onward to a vigorous manhood. God speed the day when the whole vision of the Prophet shall be fulfilled in regard to the teachers of the land, —“And the breath came into them and they lived and stood upon their feet an exceeding great army."

DISCUSSION OF THE QUESTION: “THE INCREASING DIFFICULTY OF SUPPLYING THE DEMAND FOR GOOD TEACHERS.

ELLA L. SWEENEY, ASST. SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS,

PROVIDENCE, R. I.

There is a shortage of teachers in the schools to-day for the following reasons: First. Longer and more expensive preparation is required of those who would be teachers. The teachers in the grades to-day must have a reasonable acquaintance with all departments of knowledge which contribute towards the life of the child. Effort of the most serious character is demanded. Requirements have increased until to-day only those possessed of a vigorous physical constitution and a strong purpose are able to secure the preparation. There is a great demand upon the nervous energy of the teacher. There must be constant alertness and unbroken strain.

Second. There is a lack of social recognition. This question of quality and position of teachers is a present day problem. Low wages put the teacher at a social disadvantage. She cannot afford a social standing. She cannot afford the time, strength nor clothes necessary. She is too tired, too poor to occupy a social position.

Third. There is a lack of financial recognition. The compensations presented do not tempt to the teaching profession. The teacher should be paid enough so she could have good literature, art, music,

see theatrical representations, fine scenery, mingle with the world's best people, see other lands. She should be paid enough so she could continue her study, so that her confidence could be strengthened, her personality be broadened and her life refreshed. She should be able to take advantage of all proper opportunities for self-improvement. There should be a living wage increasing with age and experience.

Fourth. The conditions of appointment do not attract. There should be appointment and promotions by some means that should stimulate the teacher's efforts and preserve her self-respect. Political influences are disposed to meddle. We should devote our energies to securing legislation that will expel the politician.

Fifth. Other professions are freer from absurd and petty exactions in the matter of mechanical uniformity and routine.

Sixth. Tenure of office for teachers during good behavior and efficiency is expedient and desirable.

Seventh. There should be a pension when age and infirmity render the teacher no longer able to perform active service.

Eighth. The teacher must be recognized as an educator and accorded a voice in decisions of educational policy.

When these conditions have been met, then and then only shall we have drawn to the teaching profession, women of the right mental calibre.

FURTHER DISCUSSION OF THE ABOVE

SUBJECT.

F.

H. BEEDE, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS. NEW

HAVEN, CONN.

Every year it is becoming more and more difficult to secure satisfactory teachers. This is due to two causes : First, the growing demand for better teachers, and second, the opening up of a large number of positions to many young women who would otherwise become teachers. A generation ago teaching was about the only occupation which was attractive to selfrespecting young women. This is entirely different now and it is safe to say that there are scores of occupations which are competing with teaching for the services of reputable young women. This is especially true of all lines of commercial work. Only a few days ago a Superintendent of Schools in a New England town told me that a young woman who had just graduated from the Commercial Department in his High School entered a business office the following week at a salary of Fifteen Dollars a week, while one who was to become a teacher expected to get not more than seven or eight dollars a week. This situation is one that exists practically in many places. It is largely a matter of supply and demand. Commercial positions are paying very good salaries, while teachers' salaries, except in the larger cities, are generally low. In the long run, people get what they pay for. Leaving out those exceptions which exist to every rule, you cannot secure competent teachers at Seven Dollars or Eight

Dollars a week. The practical lesson from all this is that our Normal Schools should make every effort to send out into the teaching profession a class of well trained, well educated and cultured young women; that the salaries of teachers should generally be increased; and that school committees should make all the conditions for the teachers' work such as to attract into it the best class of young women.

GENERAL SESSIONS.

EDUCATION FOR LEADERSHIP.

WALTER BALLOU JACOBS, BROWN UNIVERSITY,

PROVIDENCE, R. I.

The study of mob-psychology—the way in which men act in crowds—has been a fruitful field alike for psychological and for sociological investigation. The phenomena for which an explanation is sought are by no means new or only recently observed. Panic fear took possession of ancient armies just as panic seizes speculators in the modern stock exchange. Such acts of men are unreasoned, though not by any means always unreasonable. Men are brave and generous, as well as cowardly and selfish, by a common impulse. The Greeks gave such acts a mythological explanation. They spelled Panic Fear with capital letters, believing that a spirit passed over men and possessed them. remained for M. Tarde to show that the real explana

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