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Vines should be planted. These should not be annuals alone, but hardy vines such as grow over the fences, both wooden and stone. It will need some hard work for the teacher and not all can be accomplished but a good beginning may be made and in the second year much can be added to the first and the school will be deriving the benefit from the first year.
Janitor. It is absolutely necessary that the school building be kept in good condition. There should be a good janitor. Too often, this work has to be done by a young boy or by the teacher herself. Even in the latter case much care should be taken to have the school room clean. Floor should be well and often swept.
Windows should be clean, seats dusted and all corners well cleaned. The floor should be wel! washed once each term, at least. Boiling water should be turned into the corners and into the cracks of the floor. Much sickness may be prevented in this way.
3. Ventilation. One might say, without thought, that the matter of ventilation of the country schools is a matter of little importance. I have found that this is one of the most important things to attend to and often the most difficult. Windows should be lowered from the top and never raised at the bottom so that the draft will strike upon the heads of the pupils.
Usually in the country schools no way has been provided for properly ventilating the room. The windows may be lowered slightly from the top or a board placed under the lower sash. The door may be opened a little and at recess time, the fire should be started up and doors and windows opened for a short time. I find that there are more colds in the rural schools in the winter than in the village schools. While some of
this is due, no doubt, to the long distances that the pupils have to ride, I think that most of it comes from allowing cold drafts of air to strike upon the heads of the pupils.
4. Water Supply. Too little attention is given to the drinking water. In many places there is good, pure spring water nearby but often this is not the case. The teacher should examine the spring to see that it is well cleaned or if the water is brought from one of the houses nearby, it should be pure water. See that the water bucket is clean. Well washed each day. Do not allow it to stand in the school room. Have a clean sponge to clean out bucket and cups. The pupils should be urged to furnish individual cups but if this cannot be done, the cups should be well washed and and scalded. I believe that much of the sickness in country schools comes from the water supply or the germs from water pail or cups.
Out House. Another source of disease and sickness comes from the out house. This should be kept clean. Oftentimes the teacher seems to wish to avoid this but it is a part of her work and cannot be too well cared for. Toilet paper should be provided, every thing kept clean and sweet about the building.
Morals. I think that it is often thought that the morals of the country schools are low. I do not believe this to be true. I think that the hearts and minds of our country boys and girls are far purer than those of the city. Life in the country is simple. The child comes to school untouched by the many vices of the crowded village and city schools. The teacher is confronted with far less complex problems in the country than in the city. Hearts are open and easily ap
pealed to and touched. Suggestions are more readily taken. All is new to the country boy and girl and many of the things which are simple to the village boy are entirely new to the country boy. The country boy does not look for a motive in everything that his teacher does or wishes to have him do. Hearts are open to the truth. Lessons of right and noble things touch him more easily.
It goes without saying that the life of the teacher, morally, should be above reproach. This guide, this uplifter, this educator cannot allow herself to do things which she does not wish her pupils to do. Too often all of the good influence of the teacher is thrown away by one thoughtless evening. Watch your boys and girls carefully. Be tactful. Enter into the life and plans of the older ones. Make yourself a citizen of the community as long as you remain there. Be helpful in the home where you board. Seek to uplift it by your own kindness, and thoughtfulness. Really interest yourself in the school, in the boys and girls, in the homes, and you will find that you will be so needed in the place that your services will be in demand and you will wish to remain until you are called to a larger field for which you are fitted through the earnest, painstaking work which you have done in the smaller field.
DEPARTMENT OF SECONDARY EDU
GREEK IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS.
WILLIAM C. COLLAR, HEAD MASTER OF THE ROXBURY
The staple of liberal education in the countries of western Europe for more than three hundred and fifty years, and for two-thirds as long in this country, has been the study of the Greek and Latin languages.
It is true that this dominance of the classic languages has not met with universal and unquestioning acquiescence. It has been opposed at almost every period by many thoughtful and educated men, particularly in France, where, within a hundred years the autocracy of the classics has repeatedly provoked hostile legislation.
But our concern in this paper is with Greek. What is its present status, and what is the trend ? Ever since the revival of learning and everywhere Greek has been subordinated to Latin. It has been begun later in the schools, it has had a smaller allotment of hours, it has been less rigorously insisted upon, and it has been studied by far fewer persons. Germany has long been, of European countries, the stronghold of classical study, but in only one class of its schools does Greek forin part of the curriculum. There are two signs that even in Germany Greek is not holding its own. The removal of the exclusion from certain departments of the university study of those who have not been
prepared in Greek, and the relatively more rapid growth of the non-classical schools.
In the French Lycees the fortune of Greek has varied, being now included and now excluded, with its hours now increased and now diminished. Finally, by the legislation of 1901, Greek is excluded from the first part of the course and made optional in the last part. This, if it does not mean the ultimate extinguishment of Greek, probably marks the beginning of a decided decline. If we turn to England the same tendency is manifest. Since the report of the royal commission on the great schools of England in 1864, modern subjects, that is, history, science, and modern languages, have successfully asserted their claims and have, though grudgingly, been allowed recognition, where once Latin and Greek reigned with absolute sway.
Let us look at our own country. So many of our colleges require Greek for admission, that the total effect is that of offering a high premium for the continuance of Greek, and even more than that. The direct offer of a liberal subsidy would hardly be so efficacious. In other words Greek is in this country a highly protected study. Drop the college requirement, and can anyone doubt that the number of Greek students in our schools would greatly diminish? The class admitted to Harvard college in 1901 numbered 570. All of this number necessarily offered at entrance either Latin or Greek, or both, but as soon as the necessity of pursuing either of these two languages was removed, all but 192, or more than 66 per cent took advantage of the opportunity to drop both. Harvard encourages the offering of advanced Greek at entrance by no longer requiring Greek composition of those