« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
DIED, On the 13th ult., in the 75th year of her bon; the mission was called Dolores, in age, Ann MIFFLIN, a valued member and elder of memoration of the sufferings of the Virgin; and the Southern District Monthly Meeting in this city: it became the parent of many others in the same
Very early in life she was deprived by death of both her parents, and exposed to many of the
country. temptations incident to gay life. In this unpro
The good fathers appear to have settled quietly tected situation, she was mercifully cared for and down, and to have found little difficulty in their watched over by the Father of the fatherless; and, labor of love. They erected a church, with dwelyielding to the tendering visitations of his love, lings around it for themselves and attendants, was strengthed to turn her back upon the plea- and the natives built their huts in squares at a sures and fashions of a vain world, and taking little distance. Not far off, a secular settlement upon her the yoke and cross of Christ
, to deny was likewise attempted, but proceeded the length herself and follow Him in the way of his leading of only a few houses. It was called Yerba Buena, As she grew in years she increased in religious stability and watchfulness, and became a useful after an herb of that name found on the hills, and exemplary member of Society, to the services and esteemed for its medicinal qualities, as well of which she devoted much of her time.
as used by way of a substitute for tea. The first She possessed excellent natural abilities, a cul- settlers there were from Mexico, excepting a tirated literary taste, a purity and refinement of mind seldom surpassed, and a gentle and amiable Russian, who, being left behind by a Russian disposition. These being regulated and sanctified ship, cast in his lot with theirs. But the town by Divine grace, and adorned by a meek and is not worth talking about yet—the Mission drew humble spirit, rendered her society peculiarly in- every kind of prosperity to itself
. Soon after teresting, while her conversation, though cheerful its organisation, says an authority, it flourished and sometimes vivacious, was marked by a scrupu- rapidly, realising all the hopes of its founders. lous avoidance of even the appearance of evil, The Indians placed the most devout confidence and of whatever would lessen the reputation of in the Padres, embracing readily the new religion, another. Maintaining, to the close of life, a circumspect and consistent walk, she gently and and acquiring with it many of the arts of civilicalmly descended to the borders of the grave,
sation. They continued to live apart in small realizing in a remarkable degree the humble hope, communities, employing themselves in tilling the which she expressed to a friend sometime before earth and other sabors under the direction of the her decease, that when the present scene closed missionaries; and for their work, of eight hours to her, it would be in a peaceful calm.
in the day, they received from them food, trinkets At his residence, near Richmond, Ind., on-and rum. At various times, parties of Inthe 11th of the 5th month, 1853, SAMUEL M. WAL- dians were provided with the proper means, and Lis, after a short illness, aged about 38 years. A dismissed by the missionaries, that they might member of White Water Monthly Meeting.
pursue an independent life. But we are told the Of the measles, 16th of 4th month last, at attempt invariably failed, and that the natives his residence in Green County, Ohio, WILLIAM sooner or later returned to seek the protection Creek Monthly Meeting, in the 54th year of his and guardianship of the Padres, after wasting age. He left a large family and numerous friends their cattle and other stock. Some idea may be to mourn his loss.
formed of the extent of those operations, from
the fact, that there belonged to this mission, at At his residence, near Burlington, Warren County, Ohio, on the 6th of 6th month, JOHN SPRAY, and 30,000 sheep. In 1810, the number of
one period, 20,000 head of cattle, 3000 horses, a member and elder of Cesar's Creek Monthly Meeting, in the 63d year of his age.
Christian baptisms had reached 3896; and in 1831, the period of greatest prosperity, the whole
number had amounted to 6883. From this date, THE FORTUNES OF SAN FRANCISCO.
a declension took place, which was greatly acceleOn the southern shore of an inlet of the Pacific, rated by the Mexican Revolution, in 1836, when the Spaniards, some time in the latter part of the the cattle and property were destroyed, and the last century, erected a Presidio or fort, consisting Indians driven off by political disturbances. From of a square court enclosed with mud-walls pierced 1831 to 1819, the number of baptisms was only for musketry. Within these walls were some 468. Of the entire list, it is computed that small dwellings for the soldier settlers, while the nine-tenths were Indians, and the remainder centre of the area was kept clear for their exer- Californians, or immigrants, and their descendcise. This fort, which fell long ago into ruins, ants, principally from Mexico. was destined to play rather an important part in In 1839, the secular town, if that can be called the world's history. In the year 1776, two wan- a town which contained only a few scattered dering missionaries, natives of Spain, but last houses, was planned and laid out by Captain John from Mexico, landed in the bay; and under the Vioget; and in half a dozen years it contained 150 protection of the military station, they founded inhabitants. About this time, when the war à Mission at some little distance, and set to the between America and Mexico had commenced, work of civilising and Christianising the native there began to flock to it some American adventribes around them. The names of these indi- turers, and in two years the population was inviduals were Francisco Palou and Benito Cane-creased by several hundreds. At the beginning
of 1847, this slowly-moving town, whose ambi- | town-lands rose from 50 to 100 per cent. A lot tion was confined to agricultural pursuits, changed bordering on the water, which had been offered its name. Instead of Yerba Buena, it was now for 5,000 dollars, and refused by everybody, sold San Francisco; and although its houses were but the next day for 10,000 dollars. In the same huts of one or two rooms, built chiefly of adobes, month, the first brick-building was erected. All it was ordained that no hogs should be allowed sorts of ambitious projects were talked of; a tem. to run at large, and no firearms be discharged perance society-a lyceum-an hospital-a theawithin the distance of a mile, under the pain of tre. A chaplain to the city' was installed—a a fine of five dollars, and twenty dollars for the city which now polled the not very extravagant offences respectively. In this memorable year, number of 317 votes at an election of councilmen. the last of rural labor, and slow but steady pro- Before the year closed, the mining adventurers, gress, six members of council were elected by who had returned home for the winter, found 200 votes, a semi-monthly mail was established that some very remarkable changes had taken to some southern points, and a small steam-boat place. Lots of land they had left selling for made a successful expedition round Wood Island. 2000 dollars, had risen to 15,000 dollars; and
In 1848, the province was formally ceded by houses they could have rented for 20 dollars a Mexico to the United States; and almost simul- month, were now charged at 100 dollars. taneously a feverish feeling, connected with me- In February, 1849, the arrival of the first tallic riches, broke out in the small community. steam-ship in the mail-service set the citizens Quicksilver-mines were dreamed of; copper was wild with rapture and exultation; but in a few said to be discovered somewhere; saltpetre, sul months, the harbor was crowded with vessels of phur, limestone, coal-all, in turn, had their all kinds, and immigrants landed in thousands. seers and prophets; silver, at length, became the Then came the launch of a little iron steam-boat,
a rage the whole country was believed to be un- and her experimental trip to the Sacramento. derlaid with the precious ore. Gold was then On this occasion, she brought back a number of hinted at-talked of-trumpeted; but wise men salmon from the golden river, some of which sold laughed at the splendid illusion. Louder and for forty-five dollars apiece. This vessel was soon louder
grew the buzz, till the laugh was drowned followed, on the same route, by other steamers, in the noise ; and then, almost on a sudden, there and the expeditions of the miners were shortened was no sound heard in San Francisco. Stores from seven days to seventeen hours. closed, and empty houses everywhere met the Great fortunes are sometimes made in a manner eye. The population had almost wholly ebbed not very cleanly; and even so it happened with away; and of the numerous placards of American this city, which was called suddenly forth by the industry, the only one prominent in the town magic of gold, from the foundation of mud. In was this: Highest price paid here for Califor- the following winter, which chanced to be as wet nian gold. The temporary suspension of trade as our last winter in England, all San Francisco and business was soon followed by the most ex- was a quagmire. To remove the mud was imtraordinary activity. Adventurers from all na- possible; but the inhabitants tried to make it of tions, and merchandise of all kinds, began to a thick enough consistence to admit of passage, pour into the town, on their way to the mining by laying down upon the streets a layer of brushregion. Buildings that had been vacated, were wood and rubbish. But layer after layer disapfilled with newly-arrived gold-seekers, hurrying peared in the unfathomable abyss, and with it, to the mines. Storehouses were in demand for now and then, an unfortunate mule. When men mercantile purposes; and labor, which had been were adventurous enough to attempt crossing, but one or two dollars a day prior to the discovery they sometimes owed their lives to their neighof gold, was not to be had at any price. Car- bors. Tradition tells of one person who actually penters often refused fifteen and twenty dollars disappeared under these circumstances. The inà day. Schools and churches were forgotten; tersection of Clay and Montgomery Streets being and if public meetings were held, the object was a principal thoroughfare, was the scene of many to fix the value of gold-dust, or to make plans interesting and exciting incidents. To cross on for testing it. In August, immigrants began to foot became completely impossible, until a subarrive at the rate of 500 a month. In the mid- merged footway was constructed with bags of dle of September, the harbor was described as beans, damaged rice, bundles of tobacco, and a crowded with shipping, the wharves lined with general assortment of spare merchandise. Over goods and merchandise, and the streets filled with this invisible bridge, experienced navigators might a busy throng. Fifty persons, it was computed, succeed in making their way; but wo to the unspent the night without the cover of a roof.' skilled wayfarer who, in attempting the path,
In September of that year, a grand event oc- deviated from the subaqueous line of march! In curred in the history of San Francisco.
This the dearth of business and amusements, many was the arrival in the port of the first square- citizens found agreeable employment in watching rigged vessel; and no sooner was it known that the progress of their fellow-men through the she was actually discharging her cargo, than difficulties of travel, and rendering assistance in goods of all kinds fell prodigiously in price, and desperate cases. New comers often landed from
shipboard rigged in their Sunday's best, and with which two more were added in the following year. boots brightly polished, intending to strike the There were likewise seven churches in the city. natives with surprise by such tokens of high civili- The harbor was crowded with large vessels from sation; but scarcely had they touched terra firma, all the great ports in the world; but once there, when they made the discovery, that terra firma return was impossible. The crews deserted in a was not there; and they were glad to get back body, and rushed to the mines; many of the to the ship, with the loss not only of Day & Mar-ships were dragged upon the beach at high-water, tin's polish, but of the boots themselves, which and converted into storehouses: one of them bethey were constrained to leave deep buried in the came a large hotel. Another singular feature of streets of San Francisco!
the city was formed by the Chinese immigrants. Another curious trait of the Golden City. 'In At a grand funeral procession, commemorative of those days,' says our authority—the mushroom the death of the American president, Taylor, a citizen is talking of 1849!— before the recent body of those curious-looking citizens attended improvements in the delivery of letters, the post- in their national costume, and ever since they office exhibited the most curious scenes on the have exhibited great interest in all public dearrival of the mails from the Atlantic states. monstrations, parading with banners and music. People crowded by hundreds into the long lines, One of the most remarkable of these occasions, to march to the windows in quest of letters from was the celebration of the admission of California home. Desperate efforts were made to secure a into the American Union in 1850. place near the window, in anticipation of the In 1851, the streets were paved with wood in opening of the office. Men rose from their beds such a way as to defy the mud, and they were in the middle of the night for this purpose. It begun to be brilliantly lighted, when one of the was a common practice to provide a chair, and usual conflagrations occurred, which ate out the hitch up, step by step, as the procession slowly heart of the city, the centre of business, leaving advanced, whiling away the time with cigars and only straggling outskirts. But this proved a other appliances. Persons were exposed for benefit rather than a misfortune, for it roused in hours to the most drenching rains, which they earnest the extraordinary energies of the people; bore with heroic fortitude, rather than relinquish and the burned district was speedily covered with their post. Men of speculative views, who ex: houses, pretty nearly fire-proof. For this reason, pected no letters, secured advanced places, and the fire of last November was comparatively a then sold them, sometimes for as much as eight mere trifle: the damage was only 100,000 dollars, or ten dollars.
while that of the former couflagration was comIn those days, too, the dress of the city was puted by millions. The following is a picture of picturesque in its infinite variety—comprehend the city as it now stands :ing jackets, bangups, Spanish wrappers, serapes, •The city of San Francisco stands on a narrow blankets, bear-skins; boots with red or green tops, neck of land between the bay and the ocean, horsemen's boots, miner's boots, fishermen's boots; fronting eastward on the bay, and having the and a splendid choice of hats, of which the most ocean five miles on the west. The bay extends popular was the California slouch-convertible at southward some fifty miles, parallel with the sea, will into a pillow, a basin, a handkerchief, or a bas- from which it is separated by a narrow strip of ket. When female immigrants, however, began to land, varying from five to twenty miles in width. fock into the city, the picturesque declined, and The city is on the extreme point of this promonthe gold-seekers sent off in a hurry to Broadway tory. Its site is handsome and commanding, for models of costume. Two theatres sprang up, being on an inclined plane, half a mile in extent, with crowds of drinking and gambling houses; from the water's edge to the hills in the rear. and the citizens, being now in the broad path of Two points of land— Clark's Point on the north, city civilisation, amused themselves with concerts, and Rincon Point on the south, one mile apartballs, dinner-parties, and military suppers. By project into the bay, forming a crescent between this time, San Francisco had extended into the them, which is the water-front of the city, and country, and absorbed into itself the Mission of which has already been filled in and covered with the reverend Padres.
buildings to the extent of half a mile. Those In 1819, occurred the first of eight or nine points, and the lofty hills north and west, upon conflagrations, which have, from time to time, up which the city is rapidly climbing, afford a most to last year, reduced a considerable portion of the extensive and picturesque view of the surroundcity to ashes. About the same time, the first ing country: There are scarcely to be found step was taken to extinguish the Golden City with more charming and diversified prospects than are a debt, which speedily amounted to a million and presented from these heights. Taking your stand a half of dollars. In January, 1850, three females on Telegraph Hill, to the north of the city, and arrived from Sydney; and being unable to pay looking eastward, you see the spacious bay, eight for their passage, they were publicly sold for five miles in width, crowded with ships from all months by the captain of the ship. They fetched quarters of the globe; and the fertile coast of fifteen dollars each. In this year, there were six Contra Costa beyond, with its new city of Oakdaily newspapers published in San Francisco, to land, behind which rise hill on hill
, to the Red
the west, you
wood forests on the summits. Towering over of education, rather than to press them forward these, is the conical peak of Mount Diabolo, at a beyond their ability to understand and acquire distance of thirty-five miles. To the north, is to advantage. the entrance from the
almost beneath your Copies of the Moral Almanac were freely disfeet; and Saucelito, six miles distant, at the foot tributed in both schools, and several dozens of of the opposite hills. The northern arm of the the New Testament were kindly furnished by the bay also stretches away till lost in the distance, Bible Association of Friends, at a low rate, which studded with smoking steamers on their way to were sold to scholars at the same price. the numerous points on the Sacramento and San The order of both schools has been well susJoaquin rivers. Turning to the south, you look tained, and the improvement of the pupils down the busy city, whose tumultuous din rings creditable. Numerous individuals visited the steadily in your ear-the Mission Dolores, in a schools during the past winter ; the interest thus charming little valley beyond, backed by graceful manifested conjointly with that of the menibers hills—the southern arm of the bay lost in the and managers, acts, we believe, as a stimulus to horizon-and the dim and distant coast-range of the scholars. mountains running parallel on the east. Facing At the close of the schools much heartfelt
narrow strait through thankfulness was expressed by the scholars for the which the restless ocean ebbs and flows, and into benefit they had received; and they were enwhich the sea-breeze sweeps daily with its chil. couraged to be diligent in improving what they ling but purifying mists-the Golden Gate—the had already acquired. One of them stated that Presidio--the Fort—the great ocean beyond.'
he had saved a considerable amount of money Finally, the extracts we have given throughout by being able to keep his own accounts; another this article are from the preface to a Directory was thankful he could read the scriptures; and published in January last—a directory of 9000 another that he could do his own writing. Many names and addresses for this city, which, half-a- of them spoke of the schools in a manner gratidozen years ago, consisted of a few straggling fying to the managers present. huts; and which now, as we learn from the cen- In conclusion, the managers are induced to sus of last year-received since writing the above believe that the liberality of individuals contribut-contains a population of 34,876 souls. Of this ing to the funds of the association, and their own number, only 5154 are females. The foreign services are profitably expended in this praiseresidents amount to 16,144 males, and 2710 worthy, though humble institution. females; the remainder, with the exception of a Signed by direction and on behalf of the Board hundred negroes and mulattoes, being citizens of of Managers. ,
FRANCIS Bacon, Clerk. the United States. Verily, there are few episodes Philadelphia, 3d mo., 1st, 1853. in the history of the world more remarkable than
Officers of the Association. the fortunes of San Francisco.* - Chambers's Secetary. -Charles J. Allen. Journal.
Treasurer.—John C. Allen.
Managers.-Nath. H. Brown, William H. REPORT ON ADULT COLORED SCHOOLS.
Burr, William L. Edwards, Francis Bacon, AnTo the Association of Friends for the free In- Woolman, Samuel Allen, Wm. L. Baily.
thony M. Kimber, Edward Sharpless, Samuel struction of Adult Colored Persons, the Managers report: That the schools for men and women were
THE MAUVAISES TERRES OF NEBRASKA. opened in the building on Raspberry street, on the 4th of 10th month last, and continued
The traveller who enters the Territory of Neuntil the 25th of Second month, when they were braska from the Great Bend of the Missouri, and closed for the season.
takes the direction of Fort Laramie along the valOn the evening the schools were opened, 32 ley of the White River, finds himself passing men and 36 women were admitted; the whole over a fine high prairie country, luxuriant with number entered during the season was 348; viz. unshorn grasses, and gay
with uncultured flowers. 131 men and 217 women.
Suddenly, from one of the terraced elevations The average attendance for the term of five which slowly and gradually uplift the prairie to months, was 50 men and nearly 52 women, con- the spurs of the Rocky Mountains, the calm motrasting favorably with that of former years. notony of the landscape is broken by an abrupt
The course of instruction has been, as heretofore, depression of from one to three hundred feet generally rudimental, endeavors being made to below the level of the surrounding country. ground the pupils thoroughly in the rudiments fore him stretches a vast valley, the width of
which is estimated at thirty miles, and which The population of the whole state is 264,435. reaches westerly to the foot of the Black Hills, a The capital invested in mining operations is 13,897,447 distance of nearly ninety miles. He looks out dollars, of which gold-mining has about one-third. The capital employed for all other purposes is upon a dreary waste, scantily clothed with grass, 41,061,933 dollars.
and rough and ridgy with tall, irregular, prisma
BY JOHN G. WHITTIER.
tic and columnar masses of rock, rising splintered together with many other remarkable and novel and abraded, into every conceivable form, to the varieties of animal life, roamed over these lands height of from one to two hundred feet. at a period so remote that the mind staggers It is as if
, by some great convulsion of Nature, under the effort of computation. Geology asthis vast and dismal tract had suddenly sunk from cribes the date of their existence to a time when, the great prairie level, leaving its bony articula- of all which now constitutes Europe and Asia, tions of rock standing thickly over it, like the only a few scattered islands, slowly rising from a ribs of some gigantic skeleton, from which the wide waste of ocean, were visible; when Mount flesh had fallen.
Ætna and the plateau of Sicily were still deep Seen in the distance, those rocky piles, so tall
, under the tertiary Mediterranean sea; when the so vast, so multitudinous, intersected by labyrin- Alps and the great sub Himmalayan range of thine passages, their turreted walls, truncated Northern India were yet unformed; when, on pyramids, and sharp, clustering spires, rising into this continent, the now inland mountain chains light from the black masses of their shadows, were the seaboard of the Atlantic, whose waves assume the appearance of artificial structures—a washed the great Mississippi valley, and beat wild night-mare dream of Cyclopean architecture against the bluffs of Vicksburg. These fossil -Aanking buttress and lofty arch, shaft, colon- deposits are exciting a great degree of interest in nade, and spire—the Petrea of the Western wil the scientific world; and already, during the prederness—a silent city of the dead-stretching out sent season, three expeditions, one of them comto the horizon's line on the right hand and on posed of European savans, have left St. Louis, the left, and westwardly in endless succession of to renew the investigation of these mysteries, and towers and mural escarpments, to the grim back- decipher their marvellous record of the history of ground of the Black Mountains.
our planet. “So thickly," says the geological surveyor of The Mauvaises Terres, notwithstanding their this wonderful tract, in his report to Congress, great extent, occupy in reality but a small por“are these natural towers studded over this ex- tion of the beautiful Territory of Nebraska. traordinary region, that the traveller threads his Close around their waste and desolation, way through deep, intricate passages, not unlike “ Spreading between the streams are wondrous beautisome quaint old town of the European con- ful prairies, tinent.
Billowy bays of grass ever rolling in sunshine and “One might almost imagine oneself approach- Bright with luxuriant clusters of roses and purple
shadow, ing some magnificent city of the dead, where the
amorphas. labor and genius of forgotten nations had left Over them wander the buffalo herds, and the elk, and behind them a multitude of monuments of their
Over them wander the wolves and the herds of riderart and skill.
less horses, “On descending from the heights, however, and Fires that blast and blight, and winds that are weary proceeding to thread this vast labyrinth and inspect in detail its deep, intricate recesses, the And over all is the sky, the clear crystalline heaven, realities of the scene soon dissipate the illusions Like the protecting hand of God inverted above them.” of distance. The castellated forms which fancy The promise which this country holds out to had conjured up vanish, and around one, on the emigrant is, it must be owned, greatly abated every side, is bleak and barren desolation." by the proceedings of the late session of Congress
The whole region is, in fact, one of savage and on the bill for its organization as a Territory of irremediable desolation. The curse of sterility the United States. That bill was rejected in the broods over it-treeless and pathless—a maze of Senate, after a brief debate, disclosing the setinnumerable defiles, choked with debris, and over- tled hostility of the Southern members to any hung with ash-colored walls of rock.
increase of free territory. The delegate of the For the geologist, however, this melancholy Nebraska settlers was told by one of these gentract has no lack of interest. It is rich in fossiltlemen, that he had “ rather see the whole terriremains of animal races long extinct, and here- tory sunk than organized as free soil.” There is tofore unknown. Grim secrets of an early world, reason to believe that the territorial organization unshapely and monstrous forms of rudimental has been delayed for the purpose of enabling life, present themselves in some localities, at every slaveholders, with their slaves, to obtain a footturn. The enormous Palocotherium, which form- hold in Nebraska. That the Government would ed a connecting link between the tapir and the countenance such a design to the extent of its rhinoceros, the horse and the hog-one specimen power there is little doubt; and thus, what naof which measured five feet along the range of tural causes have done to a portion of the terriits teeth-the Archiotherium, uniting in itself tory, may be inflicted upon the whole by the the characters of the pachyderous, plantigrades, folly and wickedness of men. The tide of free and the digitigrades, foreshadowing in its singular emigration is now rapidly rolling across Iowa, and combination the hog, the bear and the cat—the filling up the great bends of the Missouri. It sinall rhinoceros Nebrascensis, bearing a marked remains to be seen whether that emigration shall resemblance to the living babyrousa and pecarry, pause on the confines of Nebraska, and, recoiling