« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
For Friends' Review.
number of murders; twice as many males, and FLAX IN AMERICA,
nearly three times as many females who know With some observations on the history of its cul- how to read; and that Munster has about 50
ture and manufacture in other countries, and cent. more, both males and females than Ulster, their prospects in our own.
who can neither read nor write. (Continued from page 108.)
Compared with Connaught, with an equal It has been seen that the province of Ulster number of inhabitants
the differhas always produced nine-tenths of all the flax ence in favor of Ulster is even greater, especially grown in Ireland. There is curious incidental in the ignorance of the population ; and though evidence at hand, of the remarkable effects of the number of murders are much less than in this branch of industry upon the morals and Munster, they are still 75 per cent. greater in prosperity of the inhabitants of that province, proportion to the whole number of inhabitants as compared with the other portions of Ireland. than in Ulster. One of the most active members of the Irish
The disparity in some respects is less, on comRelief Committee, at the time of the famine in parison with Leinster; though the number of 1847, published the following year, the result of persons per 100 acres, and the number of farms their investigations* into the condition of Ire- and families are all about 66 per cent. less than land, and the evils which had för so long a time Ulster; and the murders nearly three times as desolated that unhappy country.
great in proportion to the population. The object of the book was mainly to enlighten
It is true, that the province of Ulster, which the public mind as to the ruinous tendencies of embraces nearly the entire manufacture, as well a non-resident ownership, and other abuses aris- as culture of fax, in Ireland, is almost wholly ing from the existing unjust distribution of land- Protestant; and that many Scotch families have ed property in Ireland ; and it has had its effect, emigrated here from Glasgow, and its neighborin contributing to the passage of the celebrated hood; and it may be argued that these influences “ Encumbered Estates Bill,” which has greatly have contributed to the superiority of the poputended to relieve many of the evils it mainly lation. But neither Protestanism, nor immigratreats of. But two pages of the whole three tion, would have thriven without the attraction hundred and fifty, contained in the work, are of industry: and it is enough for our argument devoted to the consideration of its important to prove, that they all co-exist, and combine to linen manufactures, the attention of the author promote the general prosperity of the province. not being turned into that channel.
Before passing to another branch of the subYet there are in the appendix, a number of ject, let us glance for a moment at the progress accurate tables of the comparative condition of which has been made of latter years in
systemathe different provinces and counties of Ireland, tizing and extending the growth of flax. The as respects social and agricultural progress. And method which the Ulster farmer pursued, was it is remarkable that the province of Ulster, in
a very simple one. When the seed was to be almost all the statistics which relate to the phy- sown, or the harvest gathered, both men and wosical, mental or moral condition of the inhabi- men were agriculturalists and out-door laborers, tants, is very much in advance of all the other At all other seasons of the year, the wives and provinces or counties of Ireland. The annexed daughters of the family were engaged in the Tablet has been carefully compiled from the whole process of retting and preparing the tax, and list, which embraces too great a variety of details in plying the distaff or spinning-wheel ; while to be admissible here.
father and sons were toiling at the looms. An By this abstract it appears, comparing Ulster able bodied man could weave a web or piece of and Munster for instance, that although Ulster linen, containing fifty-two yards, in about sevenhas 11 per cent. less arable land than Munster, teen days, or at the rate of three yards a day. and 21 per cent. less stock per 100 inhabitants ; They looked to their potato crop, and their pis
, it has 20 per cent. greater population per 100 for the family subsistence; and to the small reacres, 45 per cent. more farms, 18 per cent. turns of the spinning-wheel and loom, for the greater number of families ; only one-fourth the ready cash to pay their rent, and to purchase
* Condition and Prospects of Ireland, by Jonathan clothing, sugar, tea, fuel and other articles of Pim, Dublin, 1848.
luxury or necessity.
Casey of Proportion | Proportion | Proportion Number of
Average Murder, Ho- of Murders who can read who can nei. + Arable Land. Persons for Total No. of Number of Value of
micide, lic. &c for Acres.
for 100 In. Jther read nor 100 Acres of Farms. Families. Stock for 100 in 10 yrs. 100,000 In. habitants.
write. Arable Land
Inhabitants ending 1841. habitants. Mole. Fem. Male. Fem. Leinster, 3,961,188 36.65 133,220 269,361 378£ 641 32.5 19.3 26.3 42.2 53.1 Ulster, 3,407,539 63.41 231,499 394,516 246 £ 300 12.5 23.8 35.3) 36,9 47.3 Munster, 3,874,613 51.82 162,386 331,995 3111 1189 49.6 Connaught, 2,220,960 60.27
11.6 13.2 55.8 72.2 155,201 239,169 248 £ 306 21.6
11.7) 11.2 65.8) 80.9
Notwithstanding, however, all the efforts of how agriculture and commerce, morality and the government and of individuals, the growth public enlightenment seem to have followed in of flax was decidedly on the decline in Ireland, its train, and flourished with its prosperity. It in 1828, when a circumstance occurred which has been seen that the last fifteen years have efhastened its resuscitation, by introducing the new fected more for its advancement, than the preelement of power spinning into the country. A vious one hundred and fifty years had been able large cotton factory, belonging to T. & A. Mul- to effect, with all the artificial aid of government holland, of Belfast, was consumed by fire in that patronage. year; and the owners concluded, in rebuilding In England and Scotland, the advances have the premises, to adapt them to the spinning of been even more marked and rapid : for without far. They sent their agents at once into the any previous organized protection, the trade has country, and bought up throughout Ulster all at once sprung up into an existence, which rivals the flax in the market towns, and from the far- in extent and vitality the long fostered industry mers, that suitable for their purpose. It was of Ireland. The power loom is far more geneat once evident that the material so purchased rally used in Leeds, Barnsley and Dundee for was the cheapest flax in the world; and by ma- instance, than in the neighborhood of Belfast. nufacturing it into linens, this firm realized a The number of yards produced, also, is nearly fortune in two or three years.
double; though the quality of the linen is not Their success attracted the attention of others, nearly so fine as the Irish, and hence the value and several large establishments followed. The on the whole is probably not greater. Barnsley Mulhollands, however, were not behind their is famous for her sheetings, and Scotland for her competitors, and increased their works, until they towellings, huckaback, napkins, table-linen, and now stand among the largest flax spinners in the other coarse fabrics, extensively imported into world. Finding the domestic material, thus pur- this country. chased in small quantities, so much more profita- In reviewing the history of the linen manuble than the imported flax, they have labored facture in Great Britain, there is another powermuch to introduce and extend its successful cul- ful agency visible in its present prosperity, betivation in all parts of Ireland, and they were sides the introduction of machinery;—the
power the originators of the “Flax Improvement So- of associated action. The complete division of ciety," before alluded to, as established in 1841. labor, and yet unity of intelligence, and harmony
These extensive spinning mills* soon created of purpose, which constitute the theory of the a demand for a much larger supply of fax than modern Factory System, have worked wonders Ireland could furnish, and in addition to their in the present day. It has multiplied many fold home purchases, they were obliged to import the power of man; and has changed the whole largely from Russia and Belgium. The firm of aspect of manufacturing art, from the making of Mulhollands alone, for several years, imported a pin, to the building of a locomotive. £10,000 (nearly 200,000 dollars) per annum, of It pervades also every department of the texforeign fiax, besides their purchases in Ireland. tile manufactures which have so largely contriThe regularity of the demand, however, and the buted to the wealth of Great Britain the past exertions of the Flax Society, to turn attention fifty years. Cotton, woollen, linen, silk, worsted, to the subject, reacted largely on the supply; are all spun and woven by square and rule. Is and one of this firm stated at a meeting of the a fine thread ordered—the manager turns a screw Association, in 1845, that they had not imported, and the spindle revolves sixty times a second inthat year, any ilax at all, having been able to stead of forty. Is a coarse fabric on the loomprocure their entire supply at home.
he adjusts the slay and shuttle, and fifty or sixty From this brief outline of the progress of the yards a day are run off, instead of twenty or flax culture and manufacture in Ireland, it will thirty. No external change is perceptible. Every be observed how rapid has been the recent deve- man, boy and girl are at their post, supplying the lopment of this branch of industry there; and demands, correcting the errors, or bearing away
proceeds of the dumb machinery's labor. A friend of the writer, Charles Hartshorne, who visited Europe on this subject in the early part of 1852,
Even while manufacturing was in its infancy, thus describes in a letter from Guilford, Ireland, one and still as its name imports, the labor of the of those large establishments; owned by Dunbar, Dick hand, this advantage of associated action was son, McMasters & Co.-" They employ 2000 hands known to the Continental nations; who were the in their buildings, and 3000 in out-door or house work. first to adopt a system in which they are now so They have a town of 5000 inhabitants, besides the Reavers and others in their employ in the country far behind their enlightened neighbors. Hear around. They have schools for all ages, churches for all our old friend, Andrew Yarrington, Gent., on denominations ; a hospital, and a large reading-room, in this subject; who is describing the superiority which almost all the magazines and a great number of of the German customs of training their children newspapers were open to every one. The mills are driven by 4 steam engines and a very
to productive labor. large water-wheel, to supply which, they erected at a « First there is a large room, and in the middle distance of eight miles, an immense reservoir covering thereof a little box, like pulpit. Secondly, there 160 acres, at a cost of £30,000 (about $150,000)." are benches built round about the room as there are
in our play houses; upon the benches sit two hundred | wise to introduce cotton table-cloths, and sheets children spinning, and in the box in the middle of the and dresses in the place of the domestic linen room sits the grand mistress, with a long white wand in her hand. if she observes any of them idle, she ones. Hence, the old habits of our forefathers reaches them a tap; but if that will not do, she rings have passed away, and flax and its manufacture a bell which by a little cord is fixed to the box, and for the past fifty years been almost forgotten. out comes a woman; she then points to the offender,
ALPHA. and she is taken away into another room and chastised.
(To be continued.) And all this is done without one word speaking. And I believe this way of ordering the young women in
GEOGRAPHY OF PLANTS. Germany, is one great cause that the German women have so little of the twit twat. And I am sure it
(Conluded fiom page 110 ) would be well, were it so in England. And it is clear The sargossa, which grows on the rocks about that the less there is of talking, the more there is of Jamaica, is often carried by the currents toward working. In a little room by the school, there is a the coast of Florida, and thence into the North woman that is preparing and putting flax on the distaffs ; and upon the ringing of the bell, and pointing American Ocean, where it lies thick on the surthe rod at the maid that hath spun off her fiax, she face of the sea. The fruit of the American cas. hath another distaff given her, and her spool of ihread sia is thrown annually on the coast of Norway, taken from her, and put into a box with others of the and frequently in so recent a state, as to vegetate, same size to make cloth.
Such are the “And observe what advantages they make of suit- when properly taken care of. ing their threads to make cloih, all being of equal double cocoas of the Molucca islands, which the threads. First, they raise their children as they spin sea carries annually to the distance of some hunfiner, to the higher benches. Secondly, they sort and dred leagues, and lands on the coast of Malabar. size all the threads, so that they can apply them to make equal cloths. Whereas, here in England, one
Ripe and fresh seeds from the West Indies are woman or good house-wife hath, it may be, six or right sometimes thrown on the coast of Norway. Those spinners belonging to her; and at some odd times she of Spain and France are found on the shores of spins and also her children and sorvants ; and all this Britain and Africa, and Asiatic plants on those thread shall go together, some for woof, some for warp of Italy. to make a piece of cloth. And as the linen is manufac
Wherever a traveller is able to compare the tured in England at this day, it cannot be otherwise.”
In this remarkable passage, which is extracted original growth of trees and shrubs, with the from the pamphlet before quoted, we have the sites they occupy on the sea-coast, he uniformly whole secret of the present anomalous position for floating on the water; that while some few
discovers that their seeds are admirably constructed of our own country, with reference to the Flax culture and manufacture. A hundred years ago,
seeds are contained in capsules, resembling botAmerica was
on a par with England in this tles, as those of the great gourd; others are inbranch of industry. Every farmer raised and crusted with a coat of wax, which enables them dressed his own flax, and his wife and daughters to float, as the berries of the flax-tree, or royal spun and wove it into linen fabrics, for domestic pimento of Louisiana ; that whilst á few are use, or for sale.* This custom is even within coupled together as double cocoanuts, and perthe recollection of thousands now living, who re
form their voyages, like the canoes of the South member on their fathers' farms to have seen the Sea islanders, many are inclosed in a kind of bony crop, and in their mothers' or grandmothers' shoes, that are notched on the under-side, and chimney corner, the old fashioned spinning-covered over on the upper with a piece resembling wheel.
a ship's hatch. These may almost literally be In the mean time, a great domestic interest called shoes of speed and silence; for they pass has sprung up in the growth and manufacture of over the surface of the billows, and journey on cotton, which has absorbed all the attention and by day and night, amid the raging of the ocean,
where no human foot would dare to follow them. capital of our country. The cheapness of the fabric drove linen out of many domestic uses ; subsists in nature. How all things act in concert;
It is beautiful to observe the harmony that and the farmer found he could make more money and each is subservient to the will of Him who by growing corn or wheat, and his wife by mak
made them! This is obvious in the natural world. ing butter and cheese, for the market, and buying calico or corduroy, for their clothing, than Happy would it be for us if it were equally so in by growing flax and weaving it. And they were There is no love and unity. Men tear and de
the moral! But in this, almost all is wrong. undoubtedly right in this conclusion, and were
vour one another: the most sacred ties are often An accidental evidence is before me at this mo- ruptured. Unhallowed tempers break up
the ment, in the life of Esther de Berdt, wise of President Reed, of Pennsylvania, compiled by Wm. B. Reed, of fairest portions of the globe. Religion can alone
peace of families, and ruthless war desolates the this city. Having ordered some finer articies of clothing from shed a blessed influence upon the scene, and this her friends in England, she says, (Nov. 14th, 1770,) influence often appears embodied, amid the hide“As to common articles of wear, the country will ous chaos, as some beautiful flowers on a timesoon be overstocked; vast quantities of goods come dismantled ruin. But it will not be always so ; already from New York and Maryland, and all the country people are spinning coarse linen which they and we look for new heavens, and a new earth, find their account in."
wherein dwelleth righteousness, when nation shall
For Friends' Review,
no longer lift up a sword against nation, neither is like the bursting out of the sun behind the shall they learn war any more.
cloud, to him who thinks he has no friend in the One thousand millions of human beings are wide world. The tear of affection, how brilliantly conjectured to exist upon this revolving planet. it shines along the path of life! A thousand But who can number the quadrupeds and birds, gems make a milky way on earth more glorious the fishes that pass along the paths of the great than the glorious cluster over our heads. waters, and the insect population that inhabit every leaf and open flower. Examine a map of the world. There are the Alps, and the Riphaan
IDLENESS. hills, and Caucasus, and the magnificent sweep of Many of the miseries and vices of manthe Andes. There are the Cordilleras and the hood proceed from idleness; with men of quick high hills of Tartary, and China. Yonder are minds, to whom it is especially pernicious, this the snow-clad mountains of the frozen region, and habit is commonly the fruit of many disappointbeneath them rolls the Arctic sea. Lower down ments and schemes oft baffled; and men fail in is Iceland, the cultivated fields of Britain, civi- their schemes not so much for the want of lized Europe, and burning Africa, the vast con- strength, as from the ill direction of it. The tinent of America, stretching from north to south, weakest living creature, by concentrating his the smiling plains of Mexico, Peru, and Chili; powers on a single object, can accomplish someturbaned India, and all the glory and luxuriance thing; the strongest, by dispersing his over of the East. Look again, but with the mental many, may fail to accomplish anything. The eye, for the visual organ can no longer follow it: drop, by continued falling, bores its passage dissimilar races of men are conspicuous in various through the hardest rock—the hasty torrent portions of the globe. One part is crowded with rushes over it with hideous uproar and leaves no fair men, in another are seen clear olive faces, in trace behind.-- Thomas Carlyle. another black. Some are swarthy, others of pale complexions. Their languages are various, and their modes of thinking widely different. Each
'The mind is never so sensibly disposed to pity contine nt, and every large island, has also its own the sufferings of others, as when it is itself subpeculiar kinds of quadrupeds, and birds, and in- dued and softened by calamity. —Gleanings. sects. The lordly lion, the boar, the antelope, the wild byson, the tusked elephant, the reindeer, the wolf, the bear, and arctic fox, have all their boundaries assigned them. The air is filled with answered him not.”—Ist Samuel, xxviii. 6.
« And when Saul inquired of the Lord, the Lord a winged population. The lakes and ponds, every
Hark! a loud and fearful lesson! sea and river, is stocked with fish and animated
Mortal, grave it on thy heart; beings, of strange forms and aspects. Myriads Listen to the voice of mercy, of insects, and creeping thing innumerable are Ere it from thy soul depart. seen walking in the green savannah, to them for- To the voice of duty hearken, ests of interminable length, and among
Be its mandates e'er so small; branched moss that clothes the roots and branches Each requirenient freely offered of high trees. And more than even these, every
To ihy heavenly Master's call, leaf that quivers in the sunbeam, and every flower
Yieldeth flowers of peace unfading, that drinks the dew of heaven, is in itself a world
Bound by silken bands of love; of animated life.
Addeth each another jewel
To the treasures stored above. Over the mighty whole, watches One who never slumbers, and whose ear is ever open to the
Every trial meekly suffered,
Every victory hardly won, prayers of his children. He is our Father, his
Tunes the heart-strings to the anthem, ere is perpetually upon us, the darkness of the
“Not my will, but Thine be done." night cannot hide from him, he spieth out all our But if thou refuse to listen ways. He will not overlook us in the thronged To the pleadings of thy God, city; nor need we fear to be forgotton in the most Wandering through the devious mazes, solitary place.
By his followers never trod,
• Be not deceived, God ne'er is mocked, , THE BRIGHT SIDE.
But as thou sowest thou shalt reap:" There is more sunshine than rain--more joy
Too late in terror thou mayst wake than pain--more love than hate—more smiles
From this long and fatal sleep. than tears in the world. Those who say to the
On the mountains of Gilboa, contrary, we would not choose for our friends or
Where no rain nor dew shall fall,
Seeking vainly fields of offering, companions. The good heart the tender feel- Thou for strength and help mayst call. ings, and the pleasant disposition, make smiles, love, and sunshine everywhere. A word spoken
And when too late thou seek'st to know
His long and oft resisted will, pleasantly is a large spot of sunshine on the sad Like Saul, thou mayst in anguish find heart, and who has not seen its effects? A smile Thy Saviour's voice forever still.
SUMMARY OF NEWS.
AUSTRIA.—The Minister of War has announced, FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE.—By the arrival of the that a reduction of the army would immediately Steamship Niagara, at Boston, on the 28th and be made by means of an extensive system of fur. of the Arctic at New York, on the 30th ult., Liver- loughs. This is received as conclusive evidence, pool dates have been received respectively to the that Austria will remain neutral, if possible. 15th and 19th ult.
RUSSIA AND TURKEY.- War between these Pow. ENGLAND.—The Queen and all the ministers had
ers seem almost inevitable. The Turkish Govern. returned to London. Prolonged cabinet councils ment has officially published a declaration of war had been held, but the proceedings had not tran- against Russia, and has given instructions to Omar spired.
Pasha, to demand of Prince Gortschakoff the eva. The Sheffield manufacturers have memorialized cuation of the Principalities, and to commence Government against war, and in aid of Turkey. hostilities, if, after a delay of fifteen days from the A large meeting in favor of Turkey has been held arrival of his despatch at the Russian head-quarin London.
ters, an answer in the negative should be returned. The cotton mills at Preston were to be tempora of Prince Gortschakoff be negative, the Russian
It is distinctly understood that should the reply rily closed by the owners in order to starve their operatives into submission. Great mortality from agents are to quit the Ottoman States, and that the Cholera having taken place in a district of the commercial relations of the respective subjects of town of Stockton, most of the inhabitants of the
the two governments shall be broken off. infected district had either fled or been removed. At the same time, the Sublime Porte will not This and other measures adopted, appear to have consider it just to lay an embargo upon Russian had a decided effect in checking the progress of merchant vessels, as has been the practice. Conthe epidemic.
sequently, they will be warned to resort either to The Peace Conference at Edinburgh had ad- the Black Sea or to the Mediterranean Sea, as they journed.
shall think fit, within a term that shall hereafter The Times says, that the Turkish manifesto be fixed. Moreover, the Ottoman government beis one of the strongest and most unanswerable ing unwilling to place hindrances in the way of State papers that has been issued during the commercial intercourse between the subjects of present century.
friendly powers, will during the war leave the FRANCE.—Two hundred political arrests were
Straits open to their mercantile marine. made at Paris, on the night of the 16th ult.
The Porte has further addressed a manifesto to Among them was M. Goodchaux, the Minister of the four Powers, but it had not been published. France under the Provisional Government.
It was also stated that the Turks intended comThe Moniteur publishes an Imperial Decree, Sea, and in Georgia. The Russians have about
mencing hostilities in the direction of the Black granting, until 7th month 31st, 1654, to foreign 80,000 men in those parts. coasting vessels conveying corn, rice, potatoes and dried pulse from the Mediterranean, the same pri
On the 27th ult., Schamyl issued from the mounvilege in French poris as French vessels.
tains with his forces, and broke into the Russian ITALY.—Manisestations of political agilation have
district of Dscharo, Bielokansk, where he made taken place in various parts of Italy.
an attack on the fortress of Vovysakatal. Gen.
Orbelian marched to meet the mountaineers, and, Considerable agitation prevailed among the refu. after hard fighting, which lasted till nightfall, sucgees in Piedmont, and the Government has felt it ceeded in driving them back. necessary to establish a supervision over them for their own good.”
A telegraphic despatch from Vienna announces
that advices had been received there, stating that Austria was strengthening all her coasts in Italy, Prince Gortschakoff had sent a reply to the deunder apprehension of an insurrection.
mand made by the Porte to evaeuate the PrinciA letter from Turin says that the Piedmontese palities within fifteen days. The answer was to Government had been requested not to admit Mr. the effect that he, the Russian Commander-inForesti, a naturalized American, as Consul for the chief, was neither authorised to commence hostiUnited States, alleging that he is a disciple of lities, to conclude peace, nor to avacuate the Mazzini.
Principalities; consequently, he would do neither Corn may now be imported into the Papal States, one nor the other. duty free, until the 2d month next.
This reply is interpreted as meaning that the The Papal Government has forbidden the export Prince will await orders from St. Petersburgh. of grain.
Servia has offered to the Porte a force of 20,000 Naples is threatened with a scarcity of bread- men, and the Scherif of Mecca has sent word 'that stuffs, and the government contemplates purchasing 30,000 Arab horsemen, perfectly armed, have sograin.
licited the favor of being allowed to march against Belgium.—The intrigues and increasing influ- Russia. Large numbers, also, of Hungarian and ence, in high places, of the reactionary party are Polish refugees in the United States and different beginning to excite alarm throughout the entire parts of Europe, have offered their services. kingdom, already alarmed by the prospect of an DESERET.-News from Deseret to 8th mo. 25th, eventful war, by the dearness of provisions and by have been received. John M. Bernhisel has been the discontent of the working classes.
elected Delegate to Congress. Russia.—The position which Prussia would take The Bishops of all the wards of the city of the in the present crisis, has been looked to with Great Salt Lake have reported unanimously in famuch anxiety. It is now understood that she has vor of walling in the whole city-the wall to be decided, not for neutrality only, but to use all her built of mud, mixed with straw or hay and efforts for the maintenance of peace.