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official reports from the Land Office, Congress, French navy, who had accompanied Commander and the State Department. The statement given Inglefield, being sent with dispatches to Sir Edin the Census Report of 1852, of the Territory ward Belcher, was driven off from the shore, with of the United States is 3,230,572 square miles. two men, on a floe of ice; and while reconnoi
Mr. De Bow remarks upon the foregoing table tring from the top of a hummock, was blown by as follows :—“The territorial extent of the Re- the gale into a deep crack in the ice, and perished public is, therefore, nearly ten times as large as by drowning. His two companions, after being that of Great Britain and France combined ; driven about without food, for thirty hours, were three times as large as France, Great Britain, enabled to land and rejoin their company: Sir Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, Belgium, Hol- Edward Belcher had wintered in Wellington land and Denmark together; one and one-half Channel : it was his intention to return to Beechey times as large as the Russian Empire in Europe; Island.
Captain Kellett wintered at Dealy one-sixth less only than the area covered by the Island : and it was a party from his vessel that fifty-nine or sixty empires, states and republics discovered the dispatch from Commander Mcof Europe; of equal extent with the Roman Em-Clure which led to a knowledge of the position pire, or that of Alexander, neither of which is of his vessel, the Investigator, which was last said to have exceeded 3,000,000 square miles. seen on the 6th of August, 1850, and which, as
The area of all the States of Europe is given now appears, was frozen in the ice on the 24th as 3,681,832 square miles. The areas of the of September, 1851. The dispatches received different countries on this continent are given as from Captain McClure are very voluminous, and follows:
have not yet been published in full. Captain
Square Miles. McClure, it will be remembered, went in comU.S. by detailed estimate, 3,306,865 mand of the Investigator in the early part of British America,
3,050,398 1850, under Captain Collinson, of the Enterprise, Mexico,
to Behring's Straits. Captain Collinson having Central America,
203,551 failed to penetrate the pack-ice, returned to Russsian America,
Hong Kong, where he wintered: but Captain Danish America (Greenland) 380,000 McClure took the responsibility of disobeying
the order of Captain Kellett, the chief officer on Total area of North America, 8,373,618 that station, and pushed onward with the deter
The shore line of the United States, as fur- mination to force a passage to the northeast. On nished by the Coast Survey office, is as follows: the 5th of August, 1850, he rounded Point Bar
row, the northeastern extremity of Behring's
Straits, and then bore east, keeping near the bars, sounds,
shore : and on the 21th he reached Point War
ren, near Cape Bathurst; and on the 6th of 6,828
September arrived at Cape Parry. From this point high land was discovered, which was taken possession of, and named Baring Island; and two
days later other land was discovered, and named Estimated population of the United States at Prince Albert's Land. The Investigator sailed eertain periods since 1701 :
up a narrow channel running between these two, 1701,
and had nearly passed through, when, on the 8th 1749,
of October she became fixed in the ice, and re1775, (including 500,000 slaves,) 2,803,000
mained stationary during the winter. Parties
were sent out to explore, and it was soon ascerARCTIC EXPEDITION.
tained that the channel opened into Barrow The most interesting intelligence of the month Straits-thus establishing the existence of the from Great Britain is the receipt of dispatches Northwest Passage. During the spring the from the Arctic Expedition, announcing the dis- coasts were explored, and various tribes of Esquicovery of the Northwest Passage. The honor of maux were discovered. On the 14th of July, the achievement belongs to Captain McClure, of 1851, the ice opened, and the ship was again the ship Investigator, which had been absent for afloat, and the effort was made to pass through three years, and concerning which very serious the strait. The progress, however, was arrested anxieties began to be entertained. The news on the 16th of August by strong northeast winds was brought by Capt. Inglefield, of the Phænix, driving large masses of ice to the southward. who was the bearer of dispatches from Sir Ed- Thus baffled, Captain McClure boldly resolved on ward Belcher and Captain Kellett, as well as returning through the straits and passing north from Commander McClure himself.' The trans- of Baring's Island, which he succeeded in doing, port Breadalbane, which accompanied the Phe-reaching the north side on the 24th of Septemnix, was crushed in the ice off Beechey Island, ber. On the night of that day his vessel was on the 21st of August; but no lives were lost. again frozen up, and up to the date of Captain On the 18th, M. Bellot, a lieutenant of the McClure's last despatch, April 10, 1853, she had
Ocean lina in steps of 10 mileg.
crast. Guil po.
2,281 3,467 12609
702 2,217 2,247
719 3.846 11.213
not been liberated. In April, 1852, a party VISIT TO THE PRISONS.-- It is seldom that the crossed the ice to Melville Island, and deposited Editor of the Review has had occasion or oppora document giving an account of the progress of tunity to notice the visits of any ministers of our the Expedition, and also of the position of the Society to that neglected and outcast portion of Investigator.
The document was discovered by the community who occupy our prisons and peniCaptain Kellett's officers, only a few days before tentiaries. Yet, when we call to mind the declaCaptain NcClure had made arrangements for de
ration of our Saviour, that he came, not to call the serting his ship. Lieutenant Pim was immediately directed to open a communication with the righteous, but sinners to repentance, we can party, which he succeeded in doing; and on the scarcely fail to conclude that our prisons which cer7th of April, Captain McClure crossed the ice, tainly contain a large share of the most depraved and had an interview with Captain Kellett. The class of the community, might be reasonably exlatter had sent a surgeon to the Investigator, pected to constitute a field in which his ministers with instructions to have the crew desert the would sometimes find it their duty to labor. vessel, unless there should be twenty of them in It is understood that there are now confined in good health and willing to remain for another the two prisons, on Coates street and in Moya
It will thus be seen, that although the mensing, from 1200 to 1300 prisoners. Some of existence of a Northwest Passage has been esta- them under sentence for various periods of time, blished, it has not yet been made. No trace of and others awaiting their trial on different charges. Sir John Franklin has been discovered by any of Now it is presumable that a great majority of these, these expeditions.-Harper's Magazine.
while at liberty, were seldom seen at places of FRIENDS' REVIEW.
worship, and consequently their opportunities of hearing the gospel preached were very rare;
and PHILADELPHIA, TWELFTH MONTH 10,1853. that they were still rarer of hearing it from the
lips of ministers of our Society. This opportuOur readers will find in the present number, a nity has been recently offered to the occupants of condensed account of the solution of the great these prisons by a female minister, a member of nautical problem which has exercised the ingenu- the Western District in this city, who has found ity and hardihood of navigators, from the days of her mind engaged to remember the prisoners, and Edward VI , to our own time. It is ascertained that carry the message of the gospel to those who may a passage, sometimes navigable, exists between be ready to conclude that no man careth for their Behring's Straits and Baffin's Bay, but so obstruct
souls. ed with ice that it has not yet been traversed in
As from the arrangements of the prisons, the one continuous voyage. It is, however, very ques
prisoners could not be collected in a single room, tionable whether this passage, which has cost so
but continued in their cells, their visitors had to great an expenditure of treasure and of life to dis- take seats in one of the large corridors, where cover, will eventually prove of any commercial the prisoners in the adjacent cells could be adadvantage. The Strait where Captain McClure dressed, though not seen by the friend, or her has been so long frozen up, offers a discouraging companions. The hopes, the invitations, and the connection between the Atlantic and Pacific promises of the gospel, were in this manner offeroceans. One great object of the late explorations ed to the invisible audience, in the soft accents of in these arctic seas, remains unaccomplished. The a minister, who was to them equally invisible. fate of Sir John Franklin and his company con
In order to make these exercises available to all, tinues unknown.
five visits were paid to the penitentiary on Coates When we reflect on the amount of treasure and street, and three to the Moyamensing prison. life, which has been sacrificed in search of a It is not the business or the design of the editor North-West passage from the Atlantic to the Paci- to prescribe the fields of labor in which Friends fic, and the slender prospect of benefit derivable in the ministry ought to engage. We may howfrom its discovery, we may reasonably regret that ever indulge a hope, that some of this class will so much has been expended and endured to so little be stimulated by the example above noticed, purpose; yet how trifling must that amount ap- closely and seriously to examine, whether it may pear when compared with the expenditures and not sometimes fall within the sphere of their duty sufferings produced by national conflicts, even to go and do likewise. when prosecuted to a very limited extent! All the men who have perished in these Northern explorations, from Sir Hugh Willoughby to Sir John MARRIED, -At Friends' Meeting, Salem, Iowa, Franklin, would hardly be missed among those on the 23d of Eleventh month, John Collatt. of
Richmond, Indiana, to Maky R. Crew, daughter who found their fate in the Russian expeuition of of Walter and Sarah Crew, members of Salem 1812.
Monthly Meeting of Friends, lowa.
Died, -At his residence, in Fairfield, Maine, In alluding to two eminent men-one a minison the 28th of Tenth month last, Zacchers Bower- ter in our religious society, the other William man, a highly esteemed minister, member of Sid- Wilberforce-he remarks : ney Monthly Meeting, in the 90th year of his age. He was on a religious visit to a neighboring meet
“There seems to have been a striking coinciing, when he was attacked with a distressing af- dence in the minds of these pious individuals on fection of the spinal nerve, and was enabled with a very important part of Christian experience: much difficulty and suffering to reach home. His that they themselves were nothing, but that mind was preserved clear, his heart being made Christ was every thing—their stay, their staff
, to rejoice and bless the Lord his Saviour. He ex- and their only hope of salvation. I believe it pressed his belief that the Lord, in his adorable not unfrequently happens that the most favored mercy, had forgiven all his sins, and that a mansion was prepared for him.
religious characters, previous to their putting off
mortality, are thus unrobed of all that formerly At St. Alban’s, Maine, while at work in his garden, of a disease of the heart, on the 26th distinguished them from their brethren; and of Tenth month last, Moses Hawks, an esteemed with no other covering than the simple vesture elder of St. Alban's Monthly Meeting, aged 66 of humility, which may long have been as a sackyears.
cloth underneath, wait the coming of the Lord In Cranston, Rhode Island, on the 14th of to clothe them with the wedding-garment, and Tenth month last, of a distressing illness of two thus render them adınissible into His marriagemonths, which she bore with Christian patience chamber.” and resignation, CATHARINE M., wife of Amos C. As in ancient day “they that feared the Lord Earle, in the 39th year of her age. A member of spake often one to another, and the Lord hearkGreenwich Monthly Meeting.
ened and heard it,” it appears to have been a pe- At his residence, on the 22d of Tenth month culiar joy to him to commune with his fellowlast, aged 62 years, John Hill, a valuable minister, and member of Pelham Monthly Meeting, Canada believers, and he speaks of the visits of such as West.
“one of those circumstances wherewith, under At Springdale, Cedar County, Iowa, on the the denomination of helps,' a gracious Provi9th of Eleventh month last, Lydia H., daughter dence from time to time, and as he sees our need of Samuel and Ann C. Cappoc, in the 17th year of them, relieves our wilderness journey. These of her age, a member of Red Cedar Monthly helps are various both in kind and degree; for Meeting
our great Alchymist can transmute even the least Of typhoid fever, after an illness of more occurrence into gold or a jewel. Thus since you than nine weeks, on the 7th of the Eleventh left us, I have received another of these favors month, at the residence of her father, Josiah Mc- by an interesting communication from our muMillan, in Clinton County, Ohio, SUSANNAH McMillan, in her 17th year, a member of Centre tually beloved J. and H. ; and again I have deMonthly Meeting.
rived much comfort from the remembrance of At his residence, in Salem, Iowa, on the this verse in Proverbs, “In the fear of the Lord 17th of Tenth month, Elisha S. Brown, M. D., in is strong confidence and his children shall have a the 30th year of his age, a member of Salem place of refuge.' Monthly Meeting of Friends, Iowa.
“When we are fording the current of adverNear Salem, Iowa, on the 1st of Eleventh sity, which in its windings, often intersect our month, Hasnah, wife of Charles Blackledge, a path, even such little incidents as these somemember of Salem Monthly Meeting of Friends, times prove like stepping stones, on which we Iowa.
can place our feet awhile, and, if not without - of dropsical affection, which she bore pa- fear at least without dismay, calmly survey the tiently for some years, at her residence, in Clinton surrounding waters. But alas ! such is the temcounty, Ohio, on the 22d of Tenth month, in the 59th year of her age, ABIGAIL, wife of Jesse Lundy, perament, such the unworthiness, and such are a valuable member of Center Monthly Meeting.
the weights we have to carry, that it is difficult
for some of us, as I believe thou wast to thy cost MEMOIR OF JONATHAN HUTCHINSON.
made sensible of in our little meeting, to keep (Continued from page 156.]
our heads above water. May it please Ilim who “Words fitly spoken are as apples of gold in prayed that Peter's faith might not fail to interpictures of silver” – beautiful in application and cede for us! Here is my sheet anchor." enduring in value. The correspondence of this
To Father in the church abounded in these precious Thou inquirest of my health and spirits. gems, enlarging the hearts and enlightening the The first, I am thankful to say is good, and I am spiritual views of the seekers after Truth. He told I look well for my age, (nearly 74); of the could behold with gladness the good part in last
, what shall I say? A monument of mercies others, who were not of the particular fold in innumerable! a brand plucked out of the fire! I which he felt it his great privilege to be em- ought to be ashamed to complain. If I know braced in religious profession, and towards them myself I am ashamed to murmur; yet if steerhe thought himself qualified at times to applying clear of both I might simply describe-truth this language : “When I meet a man of a pure would certainly exclude bousting. The scenes mind my own is at rest.”
and changes, temporal and spiritual, of which in
the course of my checquered pilgrimage, I have for none belongs to it; and still more to make been a witness and a partaker, with the reflec- the heart of the righteous sad, by bearing about tions arising out of them, do at times press so with me a visible expression of my own cares. heavily upon me as in opposition to all my striv- Perhaps it might not be too much for me to say, ing and better feelings, to make me tremble. that, as sackcloth has on various accounts long Here I should say, that my friends are kind and been the covering of my spirit, this homely garmy children affectionate; and that therefore ment, though meant to be secret, may sometimes mine is an insulated sorrow. Well, be it so ! in unintentionally and unknown to myself, be seen the hour of my conversion, in that eventful hour, through the veil of flesh, that transparent veil, I was commanded to be patient in adversity of which, in allusion to fine threads of mortality Moreover, I know that I cannot have one pain at last giving way, it has been beautifully obmore of body or mind than I have deserved. I served, one gentle sigh may rend, and introduce am also very desirous that
sins may go be- us into an entirely new state of things, a purely forehand to judgment, so that my sufferings may spiritual world.” terminate with the present life; and can I ex
(To be continued.) pect all this without enduring many tribulations? What then remains but prayer for resignation and for ability to bear them?
FLAX IN AMERICA, “Thou my dear friend wilt, I am sure thou With some observations on the history of its culdost, pray for me. The mercy of God in Christ ture and manufacture in other countries, and Jesus is not only a darling theme with me, but
their prospects in our own. I trust I may with reverence and humility add,
(Continued from page 172.) here is my rock and refuge in affliction ; when In an early part of this essay, it was stated but I need not dilate believing as I do that on that Flax is cultivated largely, in the Western this point we and thy dear companion have one States, for the sake of the seed only; the stalk common faith and hope.
and its fibre being entirely wasted. An accurate “In my morning meditation the words Thy personal investigation since that time, has fully rod and thy staff they comfort me,' were brought confirmed the statements then made with regard to my mind; and on turning to the precious to the extent of the Flax-seed crop. In Ohio it Psalm which contains them, my heart was some
was considered by the principal contractors for what tendered; and I believe my eyes would, if the seed, which they use for the manufacture of they could, have wept; but there is a state in oil, that 80,000 acres is a very moderate estimate which those fountains seem sealed
for that State. are denied the consoling relief of tears. Now in The published reports of the Agricultural this description, I hope there is no murmuring; Board of Ohio have also just been issued, and for I can truly and sincerely say at the end of it, form an additional evidence on this subject.
Good is the Lord in all and through all that They estimate the number of acres of Flax cultihas befallen us ;' although, as his ways are higher yated in 1852, in Miami county, at 15,000, and than our ways, and his thoughts than our
in Preble county 14,000, from the returns furthoughts, He may,
and often does deal very in- nished. The whole number of counties in Ohio scrutable with us.
is 87, and in most of these Flax-seed is alluded “Although during the first era of my life up to as being an important crop; but in no other to about twenty, no human being could, I think, cases do the figures appear to be given. Albe more fond of society and its pleasures, yet the though the two counties above named are most turnings and windings of my path since that day largely engaged in this cultivation, yet in Monthave not only led me into a mental wilderness gomery, Darke, Delaware, and several other but have very much reconciled me to all I find counties, it is one of the principal crops ; and there; so that being much alone is neither dis- linseed oil mills are scattered all over the State. couraging nor disagreeable to me. On the con- An intelligent partner of one of these establishtrary, when I hear, and now and then get a ments estimates the crop of Ohio for the year view, as I did lately, at a Lincoln electioneering, 1853, at 100,000 acres. Yet in all this State it of the mighty stir in the great and busy world, has not appeared that any flax-fibre has been I solace myself with such thoughts as these :
saved, or prepared for the market; and an enOh! solitude, the man who thee foregoes,
quiry of the leading forwarding houses in CinWhen lucre hires him, or ambition stings, cinnati, and other principal towns of Ohio, has Shall never know the source whence all true gran. not resulted in any information on the subject. deur springs.”
In Ireland, on the contrary, for many years the To
farmer turned his whole attention to the preser“At our last parting thou thought I vation of the fibre, and neglected entirely the looked rather anxious and depressed; I am not care of the seed. This habit arose, in the first aware that this was more the case then, than I place, from a false impression which formerly expect may pretty often happen. I should re- prevailed, that the two objects were incompatible gret giving an appearance of gloom to religion, 'with each other; it being believed that to pro
cure the finest flax, and the highest profit from where long experience has developed the most the crop, the plant must not be allowed to go to profitable manner of growing it. Perhaps there seed. Even when this prejudice was corrected, is no plant which is more sensitive to such attenand it was found that the maturity of the flax tion, on the part of the farmer, than flax. Its rather improved than injured the fibre, they roots strike downwards to a considerable depth, were still unable to gather the seed by the old almost in a straight line; and hence its growth method of threshing, without materially injuring is peculiarly dependent upon the proper preparathe stalk of the plant, and thus losing more than tion of the soil. they would gain.
In Ireland and Belgium it is usual to plough The Flax Improvement Society of Ireland ac- the ground in the early winter, and again very cordingly devoted much time and attention to thoroughly before sowing the seed in the spring. the discovery and introduction among the farm. It is also harrowed and rolled, and when prepaers, of a new mode of rippling, or gathering the red for the finer kinds of flax, it presents all the seed, which would avoid the injuries to the fibre appearance of a flower garden. By this careful which threshing occasioned. In their published attention to loosening and pulverizing the soil, report for the year 1844, they thus speak of the they are enabled to sow the seed very closelypartial accomplishment of their labors :
say two or three bushels to the acre; and thus “A prejudice had formerly prevailed against saving
while they obtain a very fine light fibre, which the seed from an idea that it would injure the quality is unbroken by the low branching which results of the fibre. This had been heightened by an injudi- from a coarse or rank growth of the plant, they cious manner of rippling, by which the ends of the flax also gather much larger crops of the seed than were considerably frayed and injured. Through the printed documents which your committee issued, and
we obtain in America; although the general especially by the practical instruction of the society's opinion here, is that a loose sowing will yield the agriculturists, the farmers were taught the proper most seed. manner of rippling. This season (1844), almost every- The next most important subject of attention, where through the country, a large portion of the is the quality and cleanliness of the seed. It is crop of seed has been saved; and the flax-fibre has not been at all deteriorated, when the operation was pero riorates by repeated sowing:
a curious property of the flax plant that it deteformed with care. Your committee have reason to
Hence it is usual believe that fully one-sixth of the flax grown in Ire- to change the seed every second season, importland this season has been rippled.”
ing each year enough to raise seed for the crop By this extract it will be seen that, within ten of the ensuing year. Thus in Belgium they imyears, five-sixths of all the seed grown in that port Riga seed, and in Ireland, either Russian, country was wasted. At the present time more Belgium or American seed; which they sow in than nine-tenths of all the flax-fibre grown in the small patches to obtain the material for the folUnited States is equally neglected; the object of lowing season's operations. By this means the the farmer being fully answered by securing the plant is kept in a much more healthy condition ; very portion of the crop, so long deemed in Eu- the crop is larger, and the fibre finer and more rope unworthy of attention.
valuable. This fact is either unknown or totally We have then clear evidence that while, in disregarded in this country; and it will be nethe agricultural districts of America, the flax cessary to adopt the experience of the old world crop, when grown for the seed alone, is consid- in this respect, if we expect to compete with them ered worthy of extensive cultivation, by the side in the character of our flax or linen. of their wheat and corn ; in the old countries of Another important matter is the cleanliness of Europe, on the other hand, it was found to yield the seed, which should be carefully examined a satisfactory profit over their high rents, tithes, before being sown: and to save the trouble of and taxes, when raised with sole reference to the weeding afterwards, it is much better to sift it fibre. We have also the high testimony of the clear of all weed or grass seeds before sowing: Irish Flax Society, that these objects are not at If this be done, and the ground also prepared, all incompatible; and that either crop may be there will probably be very little need of an after secured without injury to the other. It may, weeding; though in Europe it is usual to go over therefore, be fairly considered that the first pro- the ground once, after the flax has attained a position which it was one of the objects of these height of 3 or 4 inches, and carefully remove the articles to prove, is sufficiently established :-weeds which have appeared. In later stages of “That there is no branch of industry more likely its growth this is unnecessary, as the plant is to be remunerative to the American farmer, than strong enough to take care of itself; and is rethe growth of Flax."
markable for its property of killing out weeds. In comparing the returns of the flax crops in Mr. Deman, who has been already alluded to as America and Europe, one is principally struck having been employed by the Irish Flax Society with the small quantity, both of seed and fibre, to instruct the farmers of that country in the procured in this country from an acre of land proper methods of growing the crop, thus touches This arises from the superior cultivation and care on these subjects. which is bestowed upon the crop in those coun
“Riga seed is peculiarly adapted to produce a good tries where its value is properly appreciated, and quality of fibre. Dutch and American seed are apt to