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bring forth a branchy, coarse stem. Home saved seed, , America. For no one would believe that our the product of Riga, will produce finer and better fibre enterprising and go ahead” people would ever than the direct Riya seed; but to use it more than two successive years will not be profitable for sowing. consent to follow the slow fashions which were Three bushels of Riga, or 21 of home saved, is the current in the days of King Cheops, or even of necessary quantity of seed required for an English Pliny; or that a Yankee would be stooping, for
days together, over a flax patch, pulling up the “ It is better to sow too thick than too thin, as with stalks one by one, while his neighbor was mowo thick sowing, the plant grows long and fine ; instead of which thin sowing produces a coarse branchy stem ing down a wheat field of a thousand acres, with with much seed, but a very inferior quality of fibre. McCormick's reaping machine; or the California After sowing the seed, cover it across with a seed express train was flying over the prairies, as it harrow, as this makes it spread more equally, and will be in ten years, at the rate of sixty miles an avoids i he small drills made by the teeth of the har.
hour. row. Lastly, roll it with a light roller. The seed should be covered about an inch deep. It is of the
Some plan must therefore be devised to remegreatest importance that the seed should be sown very dy this difficulty, either by cutting the stalk by even.”
the reaping machine, or by the invention and Such is an outline of the most approved me- adoption of some method of machine pulling. thods of flax cultivation in Europe. It appears Were there no other objection to cutting the probable that a modification of these instructions stalk, than the loss of the lower part of the fibre, would be desirable for this country; as at present this would be more than counterbalanced by the the quantity of seed sown per acre varies from facility of gathering vast tracts of the Flax. But to Å bushel, instead of 2 to 3 bushels, as Mr. though, for commoner qualities, this may be Deman suggests. The greatest profit would found to answer, and it is believed by many indoubtless be found to consist in a medium course; telligent persons among them Professor Wilby sowing 15 to 2 bushels per acre, the farmer son- that it will ultimately succeed, yet on the would secure a tolerably fine fibre, and yet with other hand there are graver objections to it. It additional care and cultivation he might increase is impossible to lay the stem with that degree of considerably the present average of seed. Such evenness, by the present reaping machine, which at least is the opinion of the most intelligent and is desirable for the after processes. Again, it is best informed parties in the western flax growing contended by one of the most practical authoriStates, with whom the writer has happened to ties on flax in this country—Mr. Galbraith, of converse.
Wisconsin—that the flax stalk being a hollow Presuming now that the flax has been sown, tube, closed at the roots by a cane-like joint, the harrowed, weeded, and far advanced toward the juices of the plant are preserved in it by pulling, maturity of the plant, let us glance at the me- which are lost by cutting the stalk above the thods hitherto followed in its after treatment. junction of the root. The object of the farmer being, in Europe, to It is fortunate however for American progress, save the fibre, and labor being cheap in these old that the same restless energy and enterprise countries, as well the crop being highly remune- which render our people dissatisfied with old rative, no other plan has been followed for gath- methods of procedure in such cases, seems also ering the stalk, than the old fashioned method to stimulate their inventive character, and perseof pulling it by hand. Thus in Ireland and Bel- vering ingenuity, to devise an improvement on gium, in these days of steam engines and electric them. In the case before us, this is happily telegraphs, reaping machines and threshing ma- seen; and several ingenious machines have been chines, the fields are still seen covered, in the already patented for pulling flax, which their intime of the flax harvest, with men, women and ventors believe will entirely accomplish the end children, laboriously pulling it up stem by stem, in view; and prove as valuable acquisitions to the precisely as they were wont to do in Egypt in fax grower, as the reaping machine has proved the days of the old Pyramid.
for the gathering of wheat or other grain. From On this point therefore we must lay aside all present appearances, more than one of these will European authorities, in this new country, where be found to answer the end in view; and we may labor is dear and land so cheap, and strike out a safely calculate on the perfection of these instrunew course for ourselves.
Warnes, Deman, ments before there will be any call for them in Dickson, the Irish Flax Society, all fail to furnish next year's crop.
ALPHA. any ideas of value on this important subject, nor
(To be continued.) does there
in them a thought or a suggestion, as to any other method of gathering the crop than by hand pulling. It is manifest however that this will never do, where labor is worth The Cincinnati Genius of the West tells the a dollar and a half a day in harvest time, and following story of consistent and frank fidelity to land can be bought for a dollar and a quarter an Temperance principles : acre. Indeed, were there no alternative than A gentleman cooper called upon a negro who this hand pulling, we might as well abandon owns a fine farm in Ohio, and wished to purchase here the whole enterprise of flax culture in some stave timber. Our colored friend inquired
A TRUE MAN.
for what purpose he wanted it. He received for and enlightened men who detest the slave-trade, an answer :- I have a contract for so many and are resolved, if possible, to keep it supwhiskey barrels.'
pressed; and who, although not taking as we do, Well, sir,' was the prompt reply, 'I have the the high ground that slavery itself is a national timber and want the money, but no man shall crime, and should be immediately abolished, are purchase a single stave or hoop-pole or a particle convinced of its inexpediency, and are resolved, of grain of me for that purpose.'
by ameliorating measures, to improve the system, Of course Mr. Cooper was not a little up in and, as they thus hope, ultimately to overthrow the back,' to meet such a stern reproach, got it.” mad, and called him a nigger.'
The narrative proceeds: . That is very true,' replied the other, “it is “In the city of Rio and its suburbs, about onemy misfortune to be a negro. I can't help that, third of the inhabitants are born in slavery, for but I can help selling my timber to make whis- whom, of course, no education is provided; but key barrels, and I mean to do it.'
elementary schools, not very good of their kind, are supported by the municipality, and thrown
open equally to the children of the poor whites A VISIT TO RRAZIL.
and of free blacks. Every parish or civil disNarratire of a recent Visit to Brazil, by John trict has its public school; but these not being
Candler and Wilson Burgess; to present an found sufficient for all who desire to be taken in, address on the Slave Trade and Slavery, is a Society, called the Imperial, under the patronsucd by the religious Society of Friends.
age of the Emperor, has been formed, to extend (Continued from page 176.)
primary instruction to what may be denominated Before leaving the city, our friends attended, the ragged population. Having brought over a by invitation, a meeting of the Society friendly bountiful stock of school lessons, in Portuguese,
as a gift from the British and Foreign School to the anti-slavery cause, of which the following Society, we added a number of New Testaments notice is given :
in the same language, and presented the whole to “On the evening appointed, we repaired to the this very useful Society. So acceptable was the hall in which they usually assemble, and had the donation, that the President and two members of gratification of meeting there the Viscount Bar- the Council took pains to meet us at Botafogo, to bascena, another nobleman, three public function thank us personally, and, through us, their friends aries, and twenty-eight other gentlemen,-thirty- in England, for the sympathy thus manifested five of us in all
. The President of the Society towards them in the great and good work; and delivered an address in Portuguese, sitting: the expressed to us, at the same time, a desire to Vice-President read an address in the same lan- maintain a correspondence with England, as to guage; and a member of the Committee another the best way of further promoting education in in French. The Viscount then explained to us Brazil. in English the nature and objects of their Society, Elementary instruction for the poor is at a low at the same time bidding us welcome to Brazil. ebb throughout the empire; but good schools are From his address, it appeared that the Society not wanting for young people whose parents can had been two years and a half in existence, and afford to pay handsomely for their tuition. We at first consisted of only 21 members, now it called at one of these schools, or colleges, as they numbers 215; which is some proof of a growth are called, presided over by an Englishman, who of right feeling ; indeed, such is the altered state gave refuge to George Pilkington when he visited of public feeling, that they now hold their meet- this country many years since on an anti-slavery ings with open doors ; five years ago, the Society mission. The act of hospitality thus afforded to would not have been tolerated. Its first object a fellow-countryman, cost him at that period was to oppose the African slave-trade; its next, much loss and trouble : his pupils were withto promote the immigration of white laborers, drawn, and his prospects became cruelly blighted. and to civilize native Indians; its final aim is to All is now changed; a better and a brighter day promote the abolition of slavery. We then gave has dawned on Brazil: he is now respected, and to the assembly a brief history of the present sought as a teacher; and can speak his mind state of our West India colonies, showing how openly and freely on slavery or any other subject. favorably emancipation had worked there, not- In corroboration of his statement as to the freewithstanding the great outcry to the contrary, dom of thought and speech now permitted in the and explained the manner in which that happy land, we can give one significant proof. We and blessed change had been brought about in found a copy of the Anti-Slavery Monthly ReEngland, through the prevalence of enlightened porter on the table of every news-room in each public opinion. Our estimable friend, Leopoldo, of the three great cities-in Rio Janeiro, Bahia, a chief in the custom-house, acted as our inter- and Pernambuco; which shows that open discuspreter. We left the assembly impressed with the sion on the subject of slavery is allowed: and we conviction that a good work is begun in the land, ourselves were never borne down or frowned and that Rio Janeiro contains a band of sincere upon, either in the Exchange room or anywhere
else. Public opinion is in favor of liberty of, and form a striking contrast to the prædial slaves, speech, and of the press.
who labor on the sugar-plantations, and who are Before leaving the capital we were allowed, in general a dejected race.
The enormous prethrough the appointment of our Ambassador, an ponderance of the blacks in Bahia, where they interview with Sauza Ramos, the present Minis- find constant employment among the merchants ter of Justice for the Empire, which proved and the shipping, has given, at times, great unhighly satisfactory. This gentleman gave us the easiness to those in power. Being mainly of one assurance which we had received from other nation, they speak a language of their own, which quarters, that the Government was resolved to their masters do not understand, and this faciliextinguish the slave-trade. On our expressing atates secret confederacies whenever they are dishope that the Brazilian people were also in earn- posed to form them. About twenty years since, est about its suppression, he replied that the some political party feuds disturbed the free poppeople supported the Government, and that the ulation : the blacks took advantage of the commotraffic, thus condemned both by the rulers and tion, and rose to assert their right to freedom. the ruled, would never be suffered to revive The city was alarmed; the balance was nearly again."
poised; and the military forces were but just From Rio Janeiro, our travellers proceeded by 400 or 500 blacks lost their lives. A sense of
sufficient to gain an ascendancy. In the conflict, sea to Bahia, the second city in the Empire for inferiority of condition, combined with physical trade and population, where they were hospitably strength, is the great uniter of mankind to deeds entertained without cost or care. An early object of daring. This feeling, and this latent power, was to visit the Archbishop of Bahia, the Pri- are both blended in the black population of
Bahia, and may, at some future period, introduce mate of all Brazil.
disorder and dismay. Some of the white in“We found him," says the narrative, "sur- habitants have trembled at the thought of it rounded by his clergy, at a sort of levee; but as already." soon as he understood that we were strangers The subjoined notice is interesting: seeking admission, he desired them all to with.
“Attended by our friend, the American Condraw, and gave us an immediate audience. Most sul, from whom we received many kind attentions, of the well educated natives of Brazil, especially we paid a visit to one of the Judges of the prothose who fill offices in church and state, are con- vince, and his son, who resides with him, and versant with the French language, and in this who is a representative in the Provincial Chamlanguage, though sometimes in English, our con- ber of Deputies. Whilst we were conversing versation was usually carried on. We expressed with the father,-a man of intelligence and an to the Archbishop our satisfaction at the noble ardent friend of public liberty,--the son, who stand he had taken in the Chamber of Deputies sat near the window, was attentively reading our against the slave-trade. He told us that he felt Address, a copy of which we had put into his himself allied to every Society, in every land, hands. When he had finished it, he came up to which had for its object the abolition of this / us and said, in a serious manner, and with appashameful traffic. He had received and read the rent emotion, "These are the true principles.: Address to Sovereigns from the Society of Friends and before we left he said to the Consul, “I will (a copy of which we had sent him from Rio,) and make this mission known in the journals.' The we might depend on his efforts to promote the reading of this Address had made a deep impresobjects it embraced. He was well pleased, he sion on his mind, of which we soon had a full said, that we had paid him a visit, and took leave proof, as, in a day or two after, a paragraph from of us courteously.”
his own pen appeared in one of the daily newsWe
may form some conception of the critical papers of the city, which we here copy. situation of that city from the following state- the Society of Friends of Great Britain, who
“There are now in this city two members of ments :
are come from Rio de Janeiro, and who, during “Out of the 125,000 inhabitants which Bahia their brief stay in the capital, have been collectcontains, seven-eighths are said to be blacks, and ing information on all the questions which bear nearly all of these are slaves, principally bozals, on Brazilian slavery. Messrs. John Candler and or newly imported negroes. In such a commu- Wilson Burgess have paid their compliments to nity, with a slave population so concentrated and His Imperial Majesty, and have presented to him, so superabounding, there cannut, one would sup- in the name of the Society which they represent, pose, be much systematic cruelty, or it would a Memorial, in which are unfolded the bitter lead to insurrection. The merchants assured us fruits of slavery, and principles of the purest relithat these city slaves are exceedingly well off; gion and the most eternal truth. These gentleand, except from the circumstance of their toil- men, who have left their country, their families ing under very heavy loads, which often excited and the comforts of their home, thus to peregriour compassion, we should suppose this assertion nate, have lifted up a sublime and disinterested to be true. They appear cheerful and even merry, banner, and certainly deserve the thanks and
benedictions of the whole community. Most | numbers and of extraordinary height and graceearnestly do we pray that the seed they scatter fulness, decorated the mountain sides and added in their travels on the ground we tread upon, to the interest of the foreground. On reaching may spring up in a day to come, and that, visited the top of the Black Mountain, the prospect was by the benign breezes of the Gospel, it may grow magnificent. We were now standing on an emup into flourishing and fruit-bearing trees!" inence six thousand feet above the plain, just at
“Not only was our visit thus kindly announced the point where in tropical regions the fir and and spoken of, but we had the gratification to the pine begin to be luxuriant, a forest of which find that through the solicitation of our Consul abounding in trees eighty and a hundred feet in at Bahia, the whole Address was published in height was spread out before us, through which, the daily official journal, which has a wide circu- or on its borders, we rode for several miles. At lation in the city and province. We were the particular passes or bends of the hills we caught more anxious to procure the insertion of this new objects of wonder. From one spot we traced Christian Address in the newspapers of Bahia, the lofty chain of the La Selle Mountains, rising inasmuch as that city was the chief seat and em- abruptly to a further height of twelve or fifteen porium of the African slave-trade, which had hundred feet above our heads; from another the lately flourished here in all its vigor. Every island of Gonave, far away in the ocean; from a possible influence had been used to extend it. third the plain of Jacmel extending from the foot Young boys and clerks in the warehouses were of the mountain to the sea; and from a fourth, induced to invest all the moneys they could save the hilly country about St. Mark and Gonaives, or procure, in these infamous speculations, and nearly a hundred miles distant by the common were thus all interested more or less in the suc- road, and which it would have taken us a three cess of the slave-merchant; they looked out with days journey on horseback to reach! The laughanxiety for the arrival of each successive slaver ing woodpecker was running with agility up the on the coast, and watched, with intense interest, tall trees in search of insects; and a bird called the lighting up of the distant bonfires on the the Musician, known only in these regions and islands and along the coast, that signalized to rarely seen, gave out its fine soft notes, like a them the important fact, that the slaves were flute, from the depth of the woods. landed and sold.”
We rode slowly along, enjoying the sights and (To be continued.)
sounds of nature so new and surprising to us, till we came to Fourcy, the hospitable habitation of
our friend the Senator. For the last three miles Among the many kind invitations we received of this interesting route, we had come down a was one from the Haytian Senator, B. Ardouin, gradual descent. The villa of the plantation to spend a day or two at his country villa on the stands on a neck of table land about 5100 feet Black Mountain, twenty miles from the city. above the sea, and is one of the finest spots imWe had often heard of Le Grand Ford—the aginable: here we dismounted and found a social awful abyss-the name by which the spot is de- domestic party for the day. Fourcy is a coffee signated on which his house stands; and we ac- plantation worked on shares; and it was delightcepted the invitation with much pleasure. ful to see the hearty good will manifested by the
Rarely does it fall to the lot of a traveller, in laborers to their beloved proprietor, who comes either hemisphere, to witness the beauty and but seldom to visit them, owing to the toil of the grandeur of natural scenery which met our eye ascent and the numerous state avocations that in this memorable journey. Rising at three detain him in the city. A number of them o'clock in the morning, we set out accompanied clustered round us to take charge of the horses, by the Senator and three other gentlemen-six and to perform the work of the house during our of us in all-attended by two servants. The stay; a superb second breakfast was prepared for waning moon had nearly set, but the stars shone us at noon; after which, we traversed the numebrightly and lighted our path for many miles, as rous by-paths that lead down the sides of the we slovly ascended the rough road to Petionville. mountains to the dells and ravines below, and As we rose gradually above the plains, grand and luxuriated, if we may so speak, in the wonders of beautiful prospects disclosed themselves on every creation. The exclamation of Wordsworth's Wanside : the city of Port-au-Prince with its nume- derer in his address to the author of Nature, rous shipping lay at our feet; on our right hand rushed to my recollection. was a chain of lofty hills green and well wooded ; "The mind that may forget thee in the crowd, and on our left the extensive plain of the Cul de Cannot forget thee here, where thou hast built Sac, sprinkled with sugar estates and enlivened For thy own glory in the wilderness." by the habitations of wealthy proprietors. The The mountains of La Selle, which overlook large lakes were conspicuous in the distance, and Jacmel and the sea, were at a distance of six beyond these lay a ridge of mountains that leagues from us, and between them and the spot stretched eastward as far as the eye could reach. where we stood were profound depths, (des Often did we stop to rest and gaze on the won- Grands Fond,) some of them awfully rugged and derful scenes around us. Palm trees in great rocky, and others filled with forests of Weymouth
SCENERY OF HAYTI.
pine; valleys ran between different ridges of the A rumor prevails that Russia has formed an allihills, in which were sprinkled numerous small ance with Dost Mahomed for the purpose of stirproperties, neatly fenced, where the owners re- ring up hostilities in India. Letters from Cabul side and cultivate provisions and coffee. The state that a Russian army has advanced within ten plantain, the banana, and the graceful Indian that the Khan of Kheva and the King of Bokhara
marches of Oogunge, the capital of Kheva, and corn, are the products of the region. The beau- have taken the field to resist it. tiful Fuchsia, cultivated as a green house plant The report that Schamyl had cut off 20,000 Rusin some parts of England, is here a parasite, sians in the Caucasus, is confirmed. which clings to the stems of slender trees, and The position which Austria will take in the afhangs down its crimson blossoms in rich profu- fairs of the East is yet undefined. sion; others of our elegant and tender garden
Prussia reserves to herself full liberty of action. plants grow wild by the road side. The Baytree land is not yet known.
What course will be taken by France and Eng. and the Ivy, so common in cold countries, mix with the forest trees peculiar to a tropical lati- capture of Shanghai by the insurgents on the 7th
China.- Intelligence has been received of the tude: the standard peach flourishes and yields of the 9th month last. good fruit; the apple thrives, and blackberries The imperial garrison was surprised by a band of a large size abound : here, in short, the pro- of the insurgents
, who gained possession of the ducts of the old and the new world blend to
city with little resistance. gether in strange luxuriance, and exhibit a ve
Fighting continued at Amoy, the imperialists getation remarkable in appearance and extraordi
making strong efforts to retake the city. There
was a report that Pekin had been captured, but it nary for its richness and beauty. The thermo- has not been confirmed. The late accounts of the meter ranged in the day time from 60° to 64° of progress of the rebellion are contradictory, but it Fahrenheit, and the evening and early morning appears certain that the insurgents have possession were so chilly as to render a cloak or some other of Keang.ping and other towns one hundred miles warm clothing necessary. The dinner table was
north of the Yellow river. abundantly supplied with soup, fish, fowl, ragouts, pinwall, arrived at New York on the 29th ult.
CALIFORNIA.-The steamship Illinois, from Asand roasted meat; numerous fine vegetables, Most of her news had been anticipated by the tarts, creams, and confectionary and a rich des United States. The fillibustering expedition by the sert; coffee concluded the day. Our hospitable Caroline to the Mexican State of Sonora had suchost showed the kindest attention to his guests, ceeded in evading the U. S. officers and had set such attentions as genuine courtesy dictates, and sail. She was supposed to be well provided with true politeness knows how to apply; and enter-all the arms and ammunition necessary for the actained and instructed us by conversation of no From Oregon the accounts are discouraging; Ag.
complishment of the designs of the party on board. common order.-J. Candler's notices of Hayti.
riculture was very backward, and the hatred cher
ished against the Indians by many of the settlers SUMMARY OF NEWS.
renders futile all efforts to preserve peace with FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE.-The U. S. Mail Steam- | them. ship Atlantic, from Liverpool on the 16th arrived From the Isthmus we learn that the Railroad is at New York on the 29th ult.
progressing. Passengers leaving New York on By this mail more reliable accounts have been the 5th inst. will be transported in the cars from received of the commencement of hostilities be- Aspinwall to Matachine. By that time the bridge tween the Russian and Turkish armies. It ap- across the river at Barbacoas will also be compears that the date formerly given was incorrect, pleted. and that the first battle began on the night of the Mexico.- Advices from the city of Mexico to Ist ult. and continued 28 hours, and that the vic- the 17th ult. have been received stating that letters tory by the Turks was more complete than was received there from Tepic dated 11th month 12th, represented in our former accounts. The Russian inform that 200 armed men from San Francisco outposts nearest the river were Poles, who not only had just landed from the brig Caroline, at the port failed to give notice of the approach of the Turks of La Paz, Lower California, had taken possession but even assisted them in the work of death. of the town, imprisoned the Commanding Gene
The only authentic account of any defeat having ral, and declared Lower California independent. been sustained by the Turks is that their force of They have a flag with two stars, supposed to 2000 men has been obliged to evacuate the island represent Lower California and Sonora. The news in front of the strong Russian position of Giurgero. created great excitement at Mexico. It is thought
It is reported that several Russian forts in Georgia that Santa Anna will take advantage of this exciteand the Caucasus have been captured by the Turks. ment to have himself proclaimed Emperor.
Disaffection has broken out among the Poles in DOMESTIC.—The Twentieth Anniversary of the the Russian ranks, four of whom had been sum- American Anti-Slavery Society was held in this marily shot at Bucharest.
city on the 3d, 4th, and 5th insts. A number of The national defence of Servia goes on with distinguished advocates of the cause from New great activity. District Inspectors go from village England and elsewhere were present. to village to see that every man is armed.
Congress convened at Washington on the 5th The Sultan, in his speech before the Grand inst., when 43 Senators were in attendance. Linn Council of Justice, declared that in the spring he Boyd was chosen speaker. will place himself at the head of his troops and The President's message has been delivered. It conduct, in person, the military operations against is a document of moderate length, occupying not Russia.
quite five columns in one of our daily papers.