« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
A RELIGIOUS, LITERARY AND MISCELLANEOUS JOURNAL.
PHILADELPHIA, TWELFTH MONTH 17, 1853.
EDITED BY ENOCH LEWIS.
obtained from the Bible Society in London,
which books were to be obtained from their agent PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY SAMUEL RHOADS, at Stavanger, to whom the Friends there were to No. 50 North Fourth Street,
account for the produce of sales, whether at rePHILADELPHIA.
duced prices or otherwise. Price two dollars per annum, PAYABLE IN ADVANCE,
From a letter to a Friend in London, on transor six copies for ten dollars.
mitting the answers to the queries, the following Postage on this paper, when paid quarterly or yearly remarks are extracted : in advance, 13 cents per annum in Pennsylvania and 26 “There is a very inadequate supply of the eeats per annum in other States.
Holy Scriptures amongst them,* the price being
too high for many of them to obtain a proper SOME ACCOUNT OF THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF supply for themselves or their young people. THE SOCIETY OF FRIENDS IN NORWAY. They are much interested in the perusal of (Continued from page 195.;
Friends' books; but their supply of them, in 4th mo. 1st, 1813. Elias Tasted's letter of their own language, is extremely scanty. A list this date introduces to the notice of Friends of is subjoined. They have been liberally supplied Newcastle, the young man already mentioned, with Friends' books in English, but only Elias who was about twenty-three years of age, and Tasted can read them; except Osmund Sorensen, was desirous of acquiring a better knowledge of who can read a little. Imperfect as these means the English language, Endre Jacobsen Dahl, are, they have been resorted to, much to their whose marriage has been noticed. He remained edification. When we consider the evidently inat Newcastle three months, made good progress, creasing number of serious enquirers into the and was much beloved by the Friends there for principles of the Society, they do appear to have his pious frame of mind, and amiable conduct. a strong claim upon the attention of the Meeting When the time came for his return home, he for Sufferings, whether more ample and effectual took his passage in a small vessel, where he was aid should not be afforded them. in imminent danger of being lost, by the vessel “It appears that Friends and their views are being run down in the night by a Scotch ship, often adverted to in the provincial newspapers, and sunk. The five persons on board with much and much that is erroneous is mixed ир with dificulty escaped in the boat, and reached the such notices. vessel which had occasioned the accident, and “ It does not appear that they have any fragwere brought back to Sunderland, from whence ment in their language respecting George Fox; E. Dahl rejoined his friends at Newcastle, and and the few Barclay's Apologys which they have soon afterwards got safe home.
are lent about from hand to hand. In the above letter, E. T. mentions the receipt "The Tracts, lately printed by the Tract Asof the Yearly Meeting's epistle, “which has been sociation in London, in the Danish language, are often read to Friends and others. We now hold well understood, and are very useful. our meetings in our little new-built meeting “ From what we know of the Friends of Stahouse; and we have many more attending our vanger, they appear to be a tender spirited peomeetings than before. Our meetings are mostly ple, well worthy of encouragement. The books held in silence; but after meeting, we sometimes in the Danish language, now in their possession, read in Friends' books, with which Friends and are as follows:others are well satisfied. Here is a little dis. “ About eight copies of Barclay's Apology. training for the school tax, and priest's tithes. “ Penn's Key, printed there. ELIAS TASTED.”
“Christopher Meidel on Baptism and the SupWhen Endre Dahl returned home, he was per-100 on hand. liberally furnished with a number of Friends' “On Silence and Watchfulness, by Richard books by the Meeting for Sufferings, and a good Phillips-printed at Bergen. number of Bibles and Testaments at the expense
• Friends of Newcastle monthly meeting subscribed of a few Friends of Newcastle Monthly Meeting about sixteen pounds to remedy this deficiency in At the instance of Josiah Forster, a grant was books, especially the Scriptures.
“ Allen's Carnal and Spiritual State consi- | as the greatest of his mercies. O! happy day dered.
for that soul who knows him thus, through all “ Memoir of Thomas Chalkley—a Tract, by his dispensations. You know these things ; but the London Association.
the love I feel constrains me, as a partaker of the “ On the Love of God, by do. do.
sufferings, and of the unity which we have in “On the Teaching of the Holy Spirit. Christ.
“ On the Holy Scriptures, and the Duty of “At our last two months' meeting, there came reading them, by Hans Ericksen of Christiania. seven Friends here, who desire to be members ;
“Whether any thing can be done to obtain and some of them are well known to us, and felt relief for them in reference to oaths, and for near to us in the bond of unity. But, in our their affirmation to be in all cases accepted where youthful days, there are many difficulties and an oath is required, is a subject worthy of the dangers to be encountered; and there are few consideration of the Meeting for Sufferings. Your fathers amongst us. Many believe our princiaffectionate friend,
ples to be right; but the way of the cross is too “Newcastle, 5th mo. 5th, 1813."
hard for them. The following extract will show that they “I
hear that Lucy Stead (of Sunderland) is continued liable to sufferings
ill. Thou must give my love to her. She has " 3rd mo. 2nd, 1844. Affliction and distress had a deep concern for our help and welfare, for are as necessary for our humiliation, even as out- many years ; frequently writing to us, and evincward bread is needful for our bodily sustenance; ing her love in various ways." (He also desires and happy are they who can abide in patience, his love to several other Friends by name.) during these seasons of creaturely abasement. It “Some time ago, I gave forth a paper, which is such who will be happy in the end. All this, was published, concerning the sufferings of our miy dear friend, I am aware thou knowest. I Friends, addressed to the magistrates and priests. have many things in my heart to say to thee in It has been generally read to the satisfaction of my own case; but I cannot find words for it in the people. The following is a translation of your language. I often feel tenderly for you, the said paper. See next number. and also for my friends here, and desire that all “I think the increase of our members is from of us may be kept subject to the grace of God. twelve to twenty-four in two or three years; and Then, I hope, we will, from time to time, feel the two months' meeting is kept as usual. something of his mercy; and then we shall love “I hear our dear and beloved Friend, William him for his goodness, through all.
Allen, is gone to his long home. His memory “I am among the poorest of his flock : it is is very precious to me, and I hope to many; through poverty of spirit that the kingdom is to and I believe he rests in peace with the Lord. be received. Something of this poverty is the “I hope thou wilt remember me when thou experience of Friends here. I believe they will bowest down before the throne of grace. Thy learn obedience by the things which they suffer. sincere Friend,
« Elias TASTED." The people generally are kind, and speak well of the Society; the magistrates, also, are kindly
THE COTTON CULTURE IN ALGERIA. disposed; but there is one of our Friends, who, by the law, is required to pay, until he bring his A Paris correspondent of the New York Couchild to the baptism, for the first week as much rier furnishes some interesting information in reas two shillings and sixpence English, and dou- lation to the efforts that have been made by ble every week after. His name is Halversen France to cultivate cotton in Algeria. In 1851 Micalsen."
there were only six or seven acres devoted to the 6th mo. 26th, 1844. In this letter, Elias culture of cotton throughout the whole colony; Tasted very feelingly alludes to the death of and this year, (1853,) there are 1730 acres. The William Backhouse, and makes some instructive Government is quite sanguine upon the subject. remarks on the event. “ It was a hard blow to One of the oldest cotton-manufacturers in France, us; and what
it not be to his dear family in a letter addressed to the Moniteur, makes this and Friends in your parts ? But we must believe statement : that what God, in his wisdom, has appointed, he “The cottons produced in Algeria from the will execute to his own honor and praise. All seeds of Georgia sea-island cotton have preserved who know him as a God, know him as a Father the qualities of the good American article, the of mercy. Even when it feels to his children as strength, fineness, and length of staple. These though he was taking their life away, yet a secret cottons, as well those of the province of Oran as hope is felt, even in the time of deep humiliation, those of Blidah, would sell to-day in the Havre that he will eventually favor them with a true market at from 700 to 900 francs the 100 killosense that their life is hid with Christ in God. grammes. The better qualities of these will spin Happy are all those who hold out in patience, up to the No. 300,000 metres, (328,000 yards,) passing through death to life. These magnify that is to say, absolutely the finest thread, the the mercy of God to their souls, giving glory to wants of manufacture hardly ever exceeding him, and celebrate his praise for the least as well | 250,000 metres. What proves that the sea-island
cotton of Algerian production has not degenc-| Leone lie along 4000 miles of coast, beginning rated, is the fact, that this cotton has yielded from beyond the Senegal in the north, to the Porseeds which, planted in Algeria, have produced tuguese settlements south of the line. They excottons comparable for fineness, length, and tend to the interior throughout the whole course strength of staple, with the best American speci- of the Niger, from its sources in the mountains mens sent to the Exhibition of London.” behind Sierra Leone, to its estuaries, comprising
Mr. Feray concludes his letter by strenuously Timbuctoo, the emporium of African commerce, advising that the culture of cotton, and especially and the vast provinces subdued by the fanatical of the long staple (sea-island) cotton, be hence- Mohammedan Fulas, and numerous small tribes forth encouraged by all possible means. The cul- who appear to have floated down the large volume ture of the short staple cottons may, he thinks, of waters to settle on the delta. At Sierra Leone be advantageously deferred yet some years, until are also found those who have wandered over the the pressing call for the long staple shall be satis- trackless Sahara from the very borders of Egypt, fied, and experience shall have indicated in what and those who have inhabited the islands of lake portions of the territory of Algiers the latter can- Tchad, in the centre of Africa, or borne office in not be successfully cultivated. He recommends the powerful kingdom of Bornu, or fought in also, most emphatically, that the culture in Alge- bloody battles with the warriors of Darfur. Even ria, if it is ever hoped to compete successfully the deep recesses of Southern Africa have furwith American production, be left free. The nished their tribute to the motley population of planter must not be harassed and controlled by the British colony. There are those now casting governmental regulations. Intelligent self-inter- their nets into the Atlantic, who, in their youth, est, he wisely argues, will promptly indicate and sported on the shores of the Indian ocean, and insure the adoption of the best methods. looked across the Mozambique. From that part
It is not without interest to mention, in this of the southern continent which has hitherto connection, the fact, that Count Choiseul, Consul been a perfect blank in the maps, there are those of France at Charleston, S. C., has recently pre- in Sierra Leone who can tell of their native towns, pared and sent home to his government an inter- which require a day or more to traverse from end esting and valuable paper upon sea-island cotton, to end; of broad and deep rivers; of nations of giving information upon this subject collected tall and strongly built warriors; of savage canniduring the many years of his residence in Charles- bals; and of peaceable and generous nomadic ton, and personal intimacy with the sea-island hunters. And they are all ready to tell of the planters
. M. de Choiseul" has given particular wants of Africa's hidden millions of immortal instructions relative to the planting and treat- souls. Their breasts heave with emotion when a ment of the cotton from the sowing of the seed to friendly question is made respecting their fatherthe packing of the cotton for shipment. The pa- land: they eagerly supply the information, and per was forwarded by authorities here to the go- | appeal, often in fervid language, and with moving vernor-general of Algiers, who has caused its pub- eloquence, to those who possess the best gift of lication for the common benefit of the colonial God to a fallen world. And shall they plead in planters.
vain, in the very spot where they may have been
brought together, the asylum of liberated AfriAFRICAN LANGUAGES.
cans, freed from the
grasp of the oppressor, and
settled in a quiet home by the powerful arm A Timneh and English Dictionary has been of Great Britain ?-shall they plead in vain for prepared, as well as grammars of the Vei and that second boon, which shall make them and Bornu languages. S. W. Koelle has collected their country “free indeed ?”'-- Abstract of the specimens of languages from the natives of dif- Report of the Episcopal Church Missionary Soferent countries in Africa who have been brought ciety, 1853. into the colony of Sierra Leone. The results of the investigation into these languages are of an astonishing kind, and unfold such a view of the multitudinous inhabitants of that vast continent, A striking contrast is contained in the followand of the variety of their languages, as to fill the ing statements, which we find in the Economist. mind with new thoughts of the greatness and dif- “ The United States army numbers about ten ficulty of the work which lies before the Chris- thousand men, and they cost the country, last tian church in the evangelization of Africa. year, eight million two hundred and thirty-five They show that in Sierra Leone there are one thousand two hundred and forty-six dollars for hundred and fifty-one distinct languages spoken, pay, subsistence, clothing, &c. That is to say, besides numerous dialects. These languages have eight hundred and twenty dollars per man, or, if been arranged under twenty-six groups, but there we deduct the militia expenses, eight hundred still remain fifty-four unclassified languages, more dollars per man. It would puzzle any one to tell separate and distinct from each other, and from of what service were those men, living uselessly
than the languages of Europe are from in barracks and old forts, eating three meals per
The natives represented at Sierra l day, and turning out occasionally to touch their
THE TWO ARMILS.
c rest, each other.
caps to their officers. The Illinois Central Rail-, when it was being exhibited in Paradise Square, road army numbers ten thousand men also, and long, long ago. they receive from the company three million This was an elephant, however, that had lived seven hundred thousand dollars per annum; in before the days of Wombwell. Long before return for which they labor twelve hours per day King Alfred had laid the foundation stone of upon a work which gradually stretches through University College, or the Fellows of St. John's the most fertile plains, connecting the great lakes had begun to enclose the nightingale-haunted with the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, and ulti- groves of Bagley Wood, did this elephant, in mately with the Gulf of Mexico."
company with others of his class, fearing no The prospective building of the Great Central protector, roam over the tract of land on which Railroad of Illinois alone, has added to the wealth the undergraduate now lounges, looking about to of that state, in the appropriation of wild lands, see how he may spend paternal moneys. Times the sum of forty millions, within a strip of but are changed, and we ought to be thankful for it. twelve miles in width; and the actual construc- Great would be the annoyance suffered by the tion of the road will bring to a ready market mil- white-throated M. A., who in eighteen hundred lions of acres of land now owned by the general and fifty-three should suddenly have bis ideas government, which, were the road not constructed, disarranged by the apparition of that great leviawould lie waste for years to come. The federal than on the top of Heddington Hill. There is government employs ten thousand men, at the no danger of that now; it is certain that these expense of eight millions of dollars, to carry about elephants are dead and gone, but at the same muskets. The Central Railroad Company, em- time it is not less certain that they died and went ploying ten thousand men at less than four mil- the way of their flesh in the neighborhood of lions of dollars, confers a vast property upon the Oxford; and not about Oxford only, but throughState, upon the Federal Government, and upon out nearly the whole of England. In the streets thousands of farmers. Year after year the govern- of London the teeth and bones of elephants are ment spends its millions of dollars, effecting no- frequently turned up by the pick axes of men thing, producing nothing, and resulting in no- digging foundations and severs. Elephants teeth thing but the turning loose of superannuated sol- bave been found under twelve feet of gravel in diers, made paupers by a life of idleness, to prey Gray's Inn Lane. They have been found too at upon the industrious during the remainder of a depth of thirty feet. In digging the grand their existence. The Illinois Company, by three sewer near Charles street, on the east of Waterloo years expenditure, establishes seven hundred place, Kingsland, near Hoxton, in eighteen hunmiles of iron rails through prolific farms, many of dred and six, an entire elephant's skull was disthem owned by the persons whom they employed covered, containing tusks of enormous length, as to build the road; men of industry, rigor, wealth, well as the grinding teeth. In the Ashmolean and intelligence. The United States, in thirty Museum at Oxford, there are some vertebra and years, have spent three hundred millions of dol- a thigh-bone of an enormous elephant, which lars, enough to build a track to the Pacific; and must have been at least sixteen feet high ; tbese they have nothing to show for the money but bones are in the most delicate state of preservasome old forts, guns, tattered uniforms, and de- tion. They were found at Abingdon in Berkmoralized veterans.-Evening Post.
shire, about six miles from Oxford.
Near the same place-Damely, at Lulbamduring the digging of a gravel pit, not very long
ago, there were found some "giant's bones, Not many years ago there were discovered by that were indeed human, and must have belonged some laborers who were digging in the gravel in to a man of considerable size. This discovery front of St. John's College, Oxford, some "giant's made a sensation at the time; and, to quiet the bones.” They were carefully placed in a wheel- agitation and the scandal raised thereby, a corobarrow, and trundled off to the Professor of Ge- ner's inquest was held in due form over the ology, who had the reputation in that town of skeleton, ending in a verdict, honestly arrived at giving the best price for all old bones. The dis- by twelve true and lawful Berkshiremen. Upon coverers presently returned to their fellow-work- subsequent examination by competent authori. men, with information that the doctor had de ties, the mysterious skeleton was pronounced, cided the bones to be, not bones of giants, but of most decidedly, to be that of an old Roman, who elephunts, and that he had given them (although had been buried with all his arms and military there was no brag about it in his windows) two accoutrements near the camp to which he had sovereigns more per pound than they could ob- probably belonged, and of which the remains are tain at any other house.
still to be seen on the two bills called the DorBut how came an elephant to have been buried chester Clumps. Little did his comrades think in the middle of the street? The oldest inhabitant when corering him up with gravel, how their deat once decided, that although the doctor had as parted friend would be disinterred and “sat usual his own book-learned theory, the elephant upon." was one that died in Mr. Wombwell's menagerie With the elephant's bones found at Abing
don were mixed fragments of the horns of several; the wolf destroyer—for the museum contained kinds of deer, together with the bones of the wolves' bones in abundance. Fine patriarchal rhinoceros, horse and ox; showing that those old wolves they must have been that run upon creatures co-existed with the elephant, and that them. Many a fine old English deer, all of the they formed a happy family. There were car- olden time, they must have run down and denivorous races also then existing. We have only voured on the Mendip bills, their cry resounding to go further down the Great Western Railway through the valleys and over the dales where from Oxford, and getting out at the Weston- now the screaming whistle and rush of the exsuper-Mare station, ask the way to Banwell Bone press train startles timid sheep, who live in a Caves. There may be found evidence enough of land where their great enemy exists only as a the former existence of more rapacious animals fossil. than elephants or deer. The caves are situated Then, again, in those old days there were foxes at the western extremity of a lofty grass-colored living in a country that contained no hounds, range of hills. The hills contain ochre, calamine who ground down their teeth to stumps that (carbonate of zinc), and lead. Some years ago, are exhibited in Mr. Beard's pill-boxes, and died when sinking a shaft into them, caves were dis- of sheer senility. Glorious to foxes were the corered, and the quantity of bones then brought good old times, and the poor little mice that to light excited as much surprise among the lived then, as we see by the contents of other learned as among the unlearned.
boxes, had their bones crunched.-llousehold The principal cavern is about thirty feet long, Words. and there is a branch leading out of it thirty feet further. Of course it is quite dark, and visitors
THE MEDITERRANEAN ELECTRIC TELEGRAPII. must carry candles. The visitor must take heed that he keeps bis candle alight; no easy matter,
The Mediterranean Electric Telegraph is, we for the water comes down pretty freely in large are told, in a fair way of execution.
Some conheavy drops from the stalactites above. By help tracts have just been entered into for the conof the light there are to be seen bones, bones; struction of the materials that are to become the everywhere bones.
vehicle of intercommunication between Europe They are piled up against the wall; they stick and Africa, and it is confidently believed that into the floor ; they fill up recesses, in the most before the end of next year the electric fluid will fantastic shapes. Here a candle is stuck in the be travelling to and fro, over land and under eyeless socket of a skull; there John Smith, water, in the service of commerce and civilization. London, has inscribed his name in letters of “ Vast,” says a correspondent, “as the importhyenas teeth. We are invited to rest halfway ance of the present line is, the magnitude of its upon a seat composed of horns and leg bones. usefulness will increase a hundred fold when its They may be handled by the most fastidious; contemplated continuation to India shall have haring lost all traces of corruption for some ages been carried out. Sis thousand miles of telepast. Yonder deer's bone was picked, perhaps, graph now under construction in India, convey. by the teeth in this huge hyena's skull; and as ing the thoughts and wants of 120,000,000 of for the hyena himself he died of a good age- fellow men, will be brought within a few hours that his teeth tell us. His tough body, after of our own door. The multifarious and complideath, may have been a dainty dinner to the bear cated relations of that immense empire with the whose monstrous skull is employed as the crown mother country will find a daily, nay, hourly, exand summit of the monument of old bones raised pression through the silent yet eloquent wires in the cave in honor of a learned bishop—the that will soon be established between Bombay Bishop of Bath and Wells. When the caves and the coast of Africa. Although the various were first discovered, in eighteen hundred and States through whose lands the line must pass, twenty-six, it was he who took every means in are willing to lend all facilities and supports to the most laudable manner to preserve them and the undertaking, yet the arrangements necessary their contents in tact. Mr. Beard was appointed to establish the concern on a sound and safe curator, and he has arranged in his own house a basis, in a commercial point of view, require time fine collection of all the best specimens that have and consideration. Independently of the vast been found below.
Indian connexion in prospect, the same company To Mr. Beard I went, and by him I was most has already rendered to the mercantile commuhospitably welcomed. His museum displays a nity in this country, and in France and Italy, a very fine collection of the remains of the ancient very considerable service by bringing the heart British Fauna. The bones of the bear claimed of the Mediterranean Sea within the electric first attention, and especially one large bone of circle. Henceforth navigators by sail or by steam the fore leg, which measured at the joint seven need no longer travel to a Continental port in inches round; being larger than the correspon- order to communicate with their friends or prinding bone in any known species of ox or horse. cipals in Burope; but passing by and stopping a It is quite evident that the inhabitants of the few hours at a port in the island of Sardinia, bone caves lived before the times of King Edgar' they can send their tidings and receive their in