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structions from London, Liverpool, Glasgow, 1 of the Saxon Switzerland; the book was opened, Dublin, Paris, Hamburg, Amsterdam, or any the story found, and the reply sent back. By other commercial place in Europe. Thus British ten o'clock the answer was at the gates of Vienna, enterprise has been and is leading onwards the the Croats gave up their spoil, and in less than majestic stream of civilization; and we may say an hour afterwards the tourist was enjoying & that, supported as it is by the European public, Viennese breakfast at the Herz-Erzhog Karl. it is the only successful and permanent conqueror In such anecdotes we see how science has tended of the world.”
to lengthen life by superseding the necessity for A paragraph in illustration of the uses of the intervals of waste, and assisted to disarm the Electric Telegraph is going the round of our con- despotisms of the world by atoning for accidents temporaries which recalls an incident of which and offering a ready means for innocence to vinwe heard not long ago. Each of the anecdotes dicate itself,—as it does, in other cases, for the shows, in its way, how science tends to remove circumventing and overtaking of guilt. - Athethe perils and suspend the romance of travel. næum. The newspaper paragraph relates, that a Liverpool citizen, touring in Holland, suddenly found
POSTAGE ACROSS THE ENGLISH CHANNEL. himself in want of 1001. ; instead of writing from Amsterdam to Liverpool and waiting the return Opinion seems to be awakening in France to of post, an operation of five or six days, he walks the evils of the present high rates of postage beinto the telegraph office and sends a few words tween the two countries. An argument to which by lightning to state his need. This was at we helped the Cheap Postage Association in fatwelve o'clock. A turn or two on the quays, vor of their reform as regards America—and round the square of the Palace, would bring him which, we are glad to see, they have used someto the hour of dinner. Six o'clock found him what liberally-applies in a more striking degree at his wine. A tap at the door, a stranger is to the case of France than even to that of introduced :-"Have I the honor address M. America. The fare of a man from London to
-?” “Yes." “Our London correspondent Paris and back by the express tidal train, say desires us to place in your hands a cheque for second class, is 31.: the man may be 200 lb. in 1001.” Our own anecdote has a different in- weight and his luggage may be 60 lb. more. He terest. The scene is the Prague railway station travels by the best train, he claims protection of in Vienna,—the time, six in the morning, on life and limb, he must have a comfortable carthe arrival of the great train from Dresden, riage on the rail and a snug place in the steamer ; Prague, and Brunn. An Englishman, who has he may get in and out of the train fifty times, lost his passport, is on his way to a guard-house, requiring service at every turn, and he has the conducted by a Croat soldier, on suspicion of be privilege of using the machinery of the company ing a refugee and a conspirator. He has about as it may suit his convenience for thirty days. him letters to various persons in Hungary and in Now, take the case of the same weight of letters. Italy, chiefly patriots, -and, knowing the Aus- They are put into a bag and sealed ; they are trians, he is altogether conscious that his case is stowed away in a baggage-van on the line, and bad. Arrived at the guard-house, he is asked lowered into the hold of the steamer. They take to tell the story of his life, those of the lives of up less room than the man and his baggage; his father, mother, friends, and acquaintances. they ask no service; they have no hunger to deHe is cross-questioned, doubted, threatened. Of tain the convoy, and no sea-sickness to alarm the course, he lets them know that he is a free-born crew. Yet, for taking 260 lb. weight of letters Briton, and he plainly hints that they had better from London to Paris, and bringing a similar mind what they are about. His words are dis- quantity from Paris to London, the charge-tabelieved, and put down as evidence against him. king the letter at its full weight of a quarter of He is without a passport, and every man without an ounce-is no less than 1,3861. 138. Ad. The a passport is a vagabond. A thought strikes “ peculiar conditions" cannot be very mysterious him :-when he entered Austria at Bodenbach, in the case of postage between London and Paris. he remembers that he was detained a couple of A penny, as is well known, is enough to cover hours while the police looked into his passport the inland cost on either side the Channel. As and copied it into their books. That entry must to rapidity and regularity, the argument is still be there. He appeals to it, and suggests an against the Post Ofice : for travellers go by the inquiry by telegraph if his story be not true. tidal trains-letters by Dover and Calais, the The Croats, with their long guns and baker-boy longer route. Even if there be some expenses faces, stare in bewilderment: they were proba- attending the transfer of letters that do not atbly thinking of the glacis and a short range. But tend the transfer of passengers and luggage the official could not refuse the appeal, especially which we are not aware of the difference beas the prisoner offered to pay the expenses of the tween 31. and 1,3861. has margin enough and to inquiry. Away flashed the lightning along the spare for all omissions. We would ask our plains of Moravia, by the Moldau and the Elbe, french readers to ask themselves, and to ask of through the mountains of Bohemia to the heart their neighbors, why 260 lb. of man and port
manteau may travel to and fro between London Of 858,330 natives, white and colored, over and Paris for 31., and 260 lb. of paper with writ- twenty years, who cannot read or write, the free ing on it should be charged by the Government States furnish 305,731 and the slave States 1, 861. 13s. 4d. In this way public opinion is created, and once created it will act of itself. 552,599, or something less than 3 to 5; while the Athenæum.
whole population of the former bears to the free
of the latter a ratio of more than 2 to 1. If the EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES. natives of the free States had furnished a number In the National Era for the 1st inst., we find of uneducated, bearing the same ratio to the a set of tables deduced from the late Census, whole as the slave States, their aggregate of that showing the absolute and the relative number, class would have been 1,169,000, or more than over twenty years of age, in the several States, three times their actual number. who cannot read or write. These tables, taken The following constitute the principal comin their extent, are too copious for the Review; ments of the Editor of the Era : yet a general summary, and a few of the infer
“A comparison between the free and slave ences, are too interesting to be omitted.
States shows, that while the proportion of perIt appears that of the white population of all sons over twenty who can neither read nor write, ages in the Union, consisting of 19,557,271, is as 1 to 30 of the entire white population in the there are 962,898, or 1 in 20.3, over twenty former, it is as 1 to 13 in the latter. But this years, who cannot read or write. But to give a
does not tell the truth fairly, or indeed half the fair representation of the relative numbers of the fifths of the foreign population, with its great
story against Slavery; for the proportion of foureducated and uneducated, the comparison ought mass of ignorance, lies in the free States, and is to be made between the number of twenty years, included in the comparison just made. To obwho cannot read or write, with the whole white tain a clear view of the ruinous influences of the
, population of the corresponding age. Now, not Slave System on the cause of Education, we must having the census of 1850 before me, I deduce slave States, over twenty, that can neither read
compare the native populations of the free and the number of white persons over twenty, in nor write, and then we find the proportion in 1850, from a comparison of the numbers in 1830 the free States as 1 to 60 of the entire native and 18-10, and hence conclude that the number free population, and in the slave States as 1 of whites over twenty years of age, in 1850, may be fairly estimated at 8,732,000. The conclu- New England is that of Vermont; in the Mid
“The most extensively educated population in sion would then be, that of the white persons in dle free States, that of New York; in the Westthe United States, over twenty years, 1 in 9.1 ern free States, that of Wisconsin; in the slave cannot read or write. The calculations in the States, that of Mississippi. The least extenNational Era, to which I have alluded, are, how- sively educated in New England is that of Rhode
Island; in the Middle free States, that of New ever, made on a comparison of the whole popula- Jersey; in the Western States, that of Indiana ; tion, of each description, with the number over in the slave States, that of North Carolina. And twenty who are quite uneducated.
in this connection we may remark, that the InTo estimate the relative state of education in dependent Democratic Party has cast a smaller the free and slave States, we find in the former, proportionate vote in Rhode Island, New Jersey, among the whites, computing on the whole pop-will be found, too, that Iowa, Illinois, and Indi
and Indiana, than in any other free State. It ulation, 1 in 29.6, and in the latter 1 in 12.1, ana, have had a larger proportionate amount of who cannot read or write; but computing on the immigrants from the slave States, than has been estimated number over twenty years of age, we
the case with the other Western free States. find in the former 1 in 13, and in the latter 1 in influences of Slavery on Education, and the ten
Thus, in every way, we trace the mischievous 5.1, unacquainted with reading or writing.
dency of Ignorance to check the growth of AntiComparing the condition of the free colored, Slavery Sentiment. in the free and slave States, and computing upon “ These tables should be held up constantly in the whole number, we find in the former 1 in 6, the face of the South, not with a view to its huand in the latter 1 in 4, who cannot read or write. miliation, but to demonstrate the abominable
workings of a system which has covered it with But confining our estimate to persons of twenty Egyptian darkness. It is not too much to asand upwards, we find in the former 1 in 2.7, and sume, that one in every six of the white adult in the latter 1 in 1.3.
population of the South can neither read nor
write * Are they deficient in natural capacity ? SUMMARY OF THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE. After Do they love ignorance? Nothing of the sort; some general observations, among which we find but Slavery denies them the blessings of a com- an allusion to the wisdom of religious toleration, mon school system-it makes such a system an and the importance of national integrity resting impossibility. The children of the wealthy
on the truths of Divine revelation, he proceeds to planter may be educated at the well-endowed academy, at college, or by the private tutor; but the foreign powers, involve questions of a disturb
remark that our diplomatic relations with some of the non-slaveholding masses in the slave States
, cannot afford, generally, the necessary expendi- ing character-among which the conflicting claims ture. They need the common school, but Slavery of our government and that of Great Britain, in rerequires large plantations, scatters the population, lation to the fisheries on the north-eastern coast, plants slaves where the free laborer ought to be, appear to hold a conspicuous place. Upon this and renders impossible that concentration of the subject a negotiation has been opened, with a fair masses necessary to sustain such a school.
prospect of a favorable result. A naval force, “We have no disposition to glorify the free however, has been stationed there during the fishStates, but we are devoted to Freedom, and Free ing season. Embarrassing questions between the Labor Institutions, and can neglect no opportu- same governments, have arisen in regard to Cennity of magnifying them and making them ho- tral America, which are referred for adjustment to norable.'
our Minister in London. The designation of the
boundaries between some parts of our domain and FRIENDS' REVIEW.
the British possessions, is recommended to the atPHILADELPHIA, TWELFTH MONTH 17, 1853.
tention of Congress.
The relations with France are stated to be quite The narrative published in the present number, friendly, and the removal of some existing reof the rescue of an Indian woman from the fate to strictions on their commerce is suggested. which she had been condemned by a Council of
The interference with our commerce, arising her own people, comes to the Editor authenticated from the jealousy of the Cuban authorities, is comby the signature of a near connection of the worthy plained of; and the Minister at Madrid has been Friend who was the happy instrument of saving instructed to press on the government of Spain a from savage execution, on the charge of an im- modification of the existing arrangement. possible crime, not merely the destined victim in The shameful demand of the Spanish governthis
case, but probably, as appears in the close of ment for compensation on account of the captives the narrative, of many others, whom jealousy or who liberated themselves in the schooner Amistad, antipathy might have exposed to a similar charge. is recommended to the favorable attention of Con.
As the pseudo-prophet was probably the sole gress. accuser of the poor woman, his retirement, in dis
The case of Martin Koszta, a native Hungarian,gust, from the Council, when he found the intend who had resided two years in the United States ed victim likely to escape, was very consistent and declared his intention of becoming a citizen, with the conduct of ignorant pretenders of all ages and was afterwards arrested by the Austrian auand descriptions. The pardon of the woman was thorities within the Turkish dominions, but finally no doubt regarded as a tacit admission of her inno- released in consequence of the interference of secence, and consequently an evidence that his veral American officers,-is brought into view with credit and influence were on the decline. False the declaration, that the conduct of those officers prophets have always been tenacious of their was fully approved. credit, from the son of Chenaanah, who smote
The commissioner to China, recently appointed, Micaiah on the cheek, to the brother of Tecumseh. has been instructed to avail himself of all occa
At page 612 of our 5th volume, a brief notice is sions to extend our commerce with that empire taken of Col. John Johnston, with a statement that and other Asiatic nations. he died on his farm, a few years ago, deservedly An expedition was sent last year to Japan, with lamented. This statement, it appears, was erro
a view of opening a commercial intercourse with neous, as we find by the appendix, that he was that country, but the result remains unknown. living two months ago. In what manner our cor
Some difficulties with the Mexican government respondent W. fell into this mistake, cannot now
in relation to boundary have arisen, which are be explained.
subjects of pending negociations.
Efforts are being made to prevail on the BraziThe white population of the slave States being lian government to relax its restrictive policy, so 6,122,515, the number over twenty years of age, esti- far as to open the navigation of the Amazon, and mated as in the text, may be taken as 2,733,000; while the number of uneducated whites within the same
thus facilitate our commerce with the nations oclimit of age, appears to be 194,000, or 1 to 5.5. cupying its numerous branches.
A serious collision is stated to have occurred , ety, and member of Ferrisburg Monthly Meeting. between our citizens engaged in the guano trade, Vermont, and possessing a good understanding,
He was one of the earliest settlers in that part of and the Peruvian authorities; for which redress with an affectionate disposition, enlarged and rewas demanded by our minister at Lima; and a fined by religious experience, he gained the rebelief is expressed that Peru is disposed to offer spect and attachment of those who knew him, and adequate indemnity to the parties aggrieved.
particularly of those among whom he resided. The opinion is expressed that the controversies sel, he was evidently prepared, when the mid
Being green in old age, and having oil in his veswhich have hitherto agitated the nation, are pass- night cry was suddenly pronounced, to enter into ing away, with the causes which produced them, the bridegroom's chamber. and allusion is made to the duty of respecting the retired to rest in an unusually comfortable condi
On the evening previous to his departure, he peace, the welfare, and the institutions of the tion, but after sleeping a short time, he was seized several states; an allusion which, though expressed with a spasm in the breast, which, for a time, proin general terms, is readily understood.
duced great physical suffering. This he was enaThe balance remaining in the treasury at the bled to bear not only with patience but cheerfulclose of the fiscal year, the middle of 1852, was
ness, remarking how good it was, at such a time,
to trust in the Lord. In about fourteen hours from $14,632,136. The public revenue for the year the commencement, he was granted a release ending at the same time in the year 1853, from his disease ; evincing in his life and his amounted to $58,931,865 from customs, and to death, that the work of righteousness is peace, $2,405,708 from public lands and miscellaneous
and the effect thereof quietness and assurance
forever. sources, making together $61,337,573. The public expenditures for the same period, exclusive of Notice of WILLIAM West, of Leeds, England, payments on account of public debt amounted to who died on the 10th of 9th month, 1851, aged $43,554,262, leaving a balance of receipts above expenditures of $17,783,311. The message calls The life of this dear friend is instructive, as it $32,425,447; but this includes, with an error in an illustration of the truth that, to the rightly the addition, the balance in the treasury, at the disposed mind, some particular sphere of usefulbeginning of the fiscal year.
ness is ever open. He was born at Wadsworth The public debt at the commencement of the in Surrey, in the year 1792, and was the eldest present administration, (3rd month 4th, 1853), is son of Samuel and Katharine West. From early stated to have been $69,190,037; on account of youth he was the subject of deep religious imwhich payments have been made amounting happiness which he had experienced in early
pression, and often spoke to his children of the to $12,703,329, leaving unpaid, but in a course
yielding to the convictions of duty. He took a of liquidation, $56,486,703. The reduction of the warm and active interest in the various philantariff, and the increase of the free list is recom- thropic societies of his own town and neighbormended.
hood, and in those for the encouragement of [Remainder next week.]
mental improvement; and whilst serving on com
mittees connected with the latter, was always MARRIED,—At Friends' Meeting, Bloomfield, anxious to carry out the guarded principles of Parke county, Indiana, on the 14th of Ninth our religious Society, with reference to the intromonth, John Folger, of Vermillion, Illinois, to duction into them of improper books, or subjects ELIZABETH A. REYNOLDS, of Bloomfield.
of a trivial or doubtful tendency. He believed At the same place, on the same day, Ben- that the holding of office in these societies, inJAMIN Cox, of Sand Creek, Indiana, to Maky volves great responsibility, and often felt called MORRIS, of Bloomfield.
upon to differ from those of his colleagues, who At the same place, on the same day, NA- considered themselves merely required to carry THAN Harvey to Sarah Reynolds, both of Bloom-out, not in any degree to lead, the tastes and tield.
pursuits of those who had elected them. At the same place, on the 16th of Eleventh It is pleasing to contemplate the life of those month, WILLIAM E. Branson, of Vermillion, Illi- who, having talents committed to their trust benois, to Mary Pickett, of Bloomfield.
yond those which distinguish many of their felAt the same place, on the same day, Exrm lows, yet retain that simplicity in religious things, Newlin to Ann Pickett, both of Bloomfield. which must ever attach to the disciples of Him
At Friends' Meeting, Poplar Grove, Parke who said, “Except ye receive the kingdom of county, Indiana, on the 17th of Eleventh month, Heaven as little children, ye cannot enter JOHN H. Newlin to SARAH J, Hobson, both mem- therein.” Our dear friend, we believe, was fabers of Bloomfield Monthly Meeting.
vored to retain to the last, clear views of the
spirituality of true religion. DIED, -At Montpelier, East Vermont, on the
Whilst actively engaged in an increasing busi20th of last month, in the 90th year of his age, ness, as well as in the more public duties already CLARK STEPHENS, valuable minister of our Soci-' referred to, and in contributing in various ways
For Friends' Review.
to several of the first societies in the kingdom for , rivers they shall not overflow thee ;” and althe encouragement of science, in the retirement though He may not always see meet to permit of his private study, a portion of each day was those glimpses of the eternal city which lead the set apart for the reading of the Sacred Volume, soul to exult in the foretaste, ere it has passed and for religious meditation ; and although little the bounds of time, a testimony to the truth was was said to his family, of these things, yet, whilst not needed from the dying bed ;-life with its commending the same rule to them, it was evi- endlessly varied pursuits furnished it,—and how dent, even had they not been otherwise aware of transcendently precious is that testimony !- Anit, that the advice came from one who had long nual Monitor. felt its value. The subject of this memoir was for many years engaged as a lecturer on Chemistry, to a class of medical students, and in his addresses to these young men, he endeavored to
A BRIEF NARRATIVE OF A REMARKABLE mingle with the regular instruction, hints for their social and moral improvement, which in Being one of those, probably numerous, readsome cases led to the happiest results on indi-ers of the Review, who have traced with much viduals, and so far from offending even those interest the detailed account of “the Six Nations," lightly disposed towards sacred things, eventually and the labors of some devoted Friends for the led to increased esteem on their part.
good of the poor Indians; and one who has had His professional engagements, more especially a particular acquaintance with many dear Friends those into which he was called, as scientific evi- who devoted much of their time and substance dence in legal cases, often led him into great to the cause of the Red man, within the last mental exercise. Holding, as he did, the in- thirty years,—I have thought it might be interviolable sacredness of human life,-in those esting to many, to relate a remarkable incident dreadful cases of poisoning, in which his evidence which, in connection with some of those labors, as to the fact might lead to the conviction, and occurred in the year 1820. consequent forfeiture of life of the suspected In the autumn of 1819, a certain superintendparty,—every experiment was tried and retriedent, who had been previously engaged by the under a solemn feeling, that nothing but the then “Acting Committee of Indian Affairs," of plainest proof could justify his testimony being Baltimore and Ohio Yearly Meetings, removed
given against the prisoner; and whilst we believe with a part of his family, and took charge of the 1 he never entered the witness-box without a se- mills which had been erected for the benefit
cret petition that truth alone might prevail, yet of the Shawanoese tribe of Indians near it was matter of rejoicing to him, when the evi- Wapaghkonetta, in the State of Ohio. Before dence of intention was so far doubtful, that the this time, however, he had, as a member of said prisoner escaped the extreme penalty of the law. committee, visited the place several times, and Whilst from the nature of his engagements he had been sent there by the committee to receive was brought into intercourse with many whose those mills from the contractor's hands; so that habits of life little accorded with that self-denial he had become well known to a number of the which is enjoined to the Christian, he was care-chiefs and other individuals of the Shawanoese ful to avoid the appearance of evil, in walk and Nation, as well as intimately acquainted with his conversation, and, as occasion offered, frequently valued friend, John Johnston, the then "Indian took a private opportunity, kindly to point out Agent for the North West.” what appeared improper : and such admonition, It was, I believe, in the following spring, that offered in humility and seeking for right direc-one of those Indians, whom the Friend believed tion, was, we believe, often favored to be a word to be a sober, well-inclined man, became very in season to those to whom it was addressed. much enfeebled and debilitated with what he
For some years prior to his last illness, our believed to be “pulmonary consumption.” The dear friend suffered much from bronchitis, in Friend often visited him, after he became conaddition to some decline of strength, the natural fined to his house, for the purpose of administerresult of a life so arduous as his had been. About ing medicine, or taking him nourishment. On ten days before the date of his decease, he was going to his house on one of those occasions, he seized with a severe attack of dysentery, which found the door shut and fastened, so that he made it too evident, to those who watched by could not enter; but after a time it was opened, his bedside, that life would not long be spared. and on going in he found the sick man lying on Although sensible almost throughout his illness, his face, his back being bare and badly cut in the exhaustion of strength, during the intervals several places; he had bled much and was nearly from severe suffering was too great to allow 'of exhausted. his saying much to those around of what passed There was with him in the house a noted Inwithin his own mind, but the promise is sure to dian, whose name I do not now remember, but those who seek the Lord, whilst life and strength whom the Friend knew personally. The Indians are their portion—"When thou passest through called him their “ Prophet,” and he claimed to the waters I will be with thee, and through the be twin brother to the celebrated Tecumseh.