« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
The Friend quickly enquired the reason of such stead, and the covering carefully spread, as a course of treatment towards the sick man, and though nothing but the beds were there. Here was informed by the “ Prophet” that the man they were to remain, and really did, through the was bewitched, and that he had made those in-| whole of the coming day.* I believe before the cisions for the purpose of extracting the com- middle of that day, the mills, the stable, the bustible matter that the witch had thrown into meat-house, the dwelling and even the chamber bim. On hearing this assertion, the Friend told where the poor creatures lay, were respectively him that there was no such thing as witch and and carefully searched by Indians, who, doubtwitchcraft; that he was wounding the poor man less, had been sent by the chiefs for that pursorely, and bade him begone. He commenced pose. dressing the wounds, and pretty soon the “ Pro- Towards the middle of the day-to that family phet" retired, apparently quite provoked. Late one of deep thoughtfulness and anxiety, and esin the night following, the Friend was aroused pecially so to the superintendent - came the by some one at his door wishing to get in, and chief, Wi-os-se-coh, (Capt. Wolf,) a noble-spirited at the same time exclaiming, in broken English, man, and, in many respects, an ornament to his “They killee me — they killee me!" The nation, and informed the Friend privately of Friend, on opening the door, found the appli- what had recently taken place among them, as cant to be an Indian woman with her little daugh-though he did not at all suspect that his friend ter, some ten years old; and on going with her knew anything about it. The Friend gladly emto the Government interpreter, who lived near, braced the opportunity of fully unfolding his she told him that a little messenger had come to mind to this chief, on the subject of witches and her house and informed her privately, that the witchcraft; and simplifying his language to the chiefs were then in council, and that she (the understanding of the man, he earnestly expostuIndian woman) was certainly condemned to die, lated with him on the cruelty and inhumanity of on the charge of having bewitched the sick man their practice of frequently putting their people above alluded and she had come to the Qua- to death, on a bare charge of this kind.
Wi-oske-lee for protection.
se-coh left him apparently somewhat confused, or The Friend not having full confidence in this disturbed, to find that he and his friend should interpreter, only remarked to the woman, “that entertain such conflicting views on what before if he attempted to protect her on such an occa- had seemed to him so important a matter. About sion, he thought it would be at the risk, not only an hour after this interview, he returned, and, in of his own life, but also that of his family.” He, private, expressed strong conviction that the
Hc however, quickly procured another interpreter, Friend' knew more of the facts in the case than the son of the Government blacksmith, a person he before was aware of, and questioned him so in whom, on such an occasion, he could confi- closely relative to the woman, that the Friend dently rely; and having another interview with doubtless manifested symptoms of fear of detecthe woman, she gave them the same relation in tion and a willingness to waive the subject; on regard to her situation, and promised very cheer- seeing which, the chief voluntarily told him he fully that, if the “Qua ke-lee” would undertake need not be afraid to tell him all he knew about to protect her, she would obey in all things of it, and labored to assure him that, so far from which they could give her an understanding, betraying, he would protect him to the utmost of During this short interval, it appeared the Friend his ability. As the Friend had long reposed had matured a plan of operation, which he now much confidence in this chief, he now felt the disclosed, and which was-that if they could conviction forcibly, that if he could only so work keep the woman and her child concealed through upon his feelings, as thereby to secure his influthe coming day, and he could procure the neces- ence and assistance, that this very trying affair sary reliable assistance, he would send them di- might yet be brought to a peaceful and satisfactorect to his neighborhood, over one hundred miles ry conclusion; though, under all the circumstandistant. To this proposition the poor woman ces of the case, it seemed almost like “hoping quickly assented, fully believing that if she could against hope."' He, however, ventured to say to be found she would be executed; and the black - Wi-os-se-coh, “that he believed the woman whom smith, promptly entering into his views, cheer- they had condemned to die, and for whom the fully proffered all the assistance in his power.
Indians had been making diligent search, was The subject of keeping her and her little out of their reach, and that he thought they daughter sufficiently concealed through the com- would never see her face again-unless they aling day, was now a question of the deepest inte together abandoned the idea of executing her; rest to every one present, or at all concerned in and, further, that he had thought, as soon as he so difficult a matter; and as the day was now could bring it about, he would take his family drawing, near, it became necessary that this and go home, and abandon the mission entirely. should be attended to quickly. They were, therefore, taken to the upper chamber of the
* A small dog, which had, during the night, kept dwelling, (which was only one and a half stories vered by the Indians, would betray then, was dis
close to her, and which the Friend believed, if disco. high,) and placed between two beds on the bed. patched by his own hands.
At this rather unlooked for disclosure, the her stead; that he was now there unarmed and Chief manifested some surprise, and for a time entirely at their mercy; and that he supposed seemed absorbed in thought; but after recover they would have to take him and do with him ing himself a little, he told the Friend that “the as they saw meet.” On hearing this last senChiefs were then in session on the occasion at tence, Captain Wolf, who all the time had been their counsel-house," and proposed “that if the standing near, now stepped close to the Friend, Friend would accompany him there, and then and took hold of his arm, expressing at the same promise the Chiefs that he would be answerable time, in language and tone, and with a countefor the woman, he believed he could influence nance not to be mistaken, “ Me Qua-ke-lee them to agree, that she should not be put to friend," and then called upon the Chiefs most death."
imperatively, not to suffer their friend the Quaker This was just what the Friend much desired, to be in the least harmed or molested; and that but to accomplish it he believed would indeed“ if they were still determined not to submit to prove the trial of his faith. On making his pros- the proposition, he was ready to offer his own life pects known to his family, some of whom now for that of his friend.” manifested the deepest interest for their welfare This unlooked for, yet spirited and courageous in general, and for him in particular, he calmly movement in their noble Chief, whose purpose expressed his belief " that, if he were faithful in could be no longer misunderstood nor easily the discharge of his whole duty on this trying thwarted; as well as the composure, resignation occasion, He, whose protecting care he had often and Christian firmness of the Friend, whose witnessed to be near, would not forsake him in compassionate eye had been overlooking them, the needful time.”
and whose feeling heart had yearned towards I believe it is not asserting too much, to say, them with all the affection and tenderness of a that some of the living members of that family, parent; seemed for a time to check every movenow after a lapse of more than thirty years, often, ment, and indeed to change the countenances of very often, remember the events of that day some of the most ferocious among
them. with feelings of humility and gratitude.
At this critical stage of the business, when The Friend then waited on the before men-wonder and amazement had taken hold on them, tioned blacksmith, informed him of what had and when probably no one present could foresee passed between himself and the Chief (Captain the result, the Chiefs, one by one, to the number Wolf), and requested the assistance of his youth- of six or eight, walked deliberately up to the ful son as interpreter. This man, knowing the Friend, and with countenances that bespoke the practice of the Indians on such an occasion, after purest friendship, each in his turn offered his expressing some doubts of success, remarked, hand, and such of them as could speak some that “ as he had resolved in the beginning to English, repeated at the same time, "me Quaassist in this difficult affair, he was willing to go ke-lee friend, me Qua-ke-lee friend.” with them."
The government blacksmith also embraced Accordingly those four individuals repaired to the opportunity of showing them that he too was the council-house one and a half miles distant, the Quaker's friend; so that the Friend was now where they met twenty or more of the Chiefs closely surrounded by a number, some of whom, and principal men of the nation. On entering but a little while before, were, apparently enemies the door Captain Wolf, in a commanding tone, in hostile attitude, but who now greeted him as bade them, “ be still and hear.” He then briefly their friend. told them the occasion of their sudden appearance As soon as these feelings, produced by the among them; and in a short speech he rehearsed impulse of the moment, had a little subsided, and to them the several interviews between him- some order was restored, Captain Wolf began to self and his friend, and finally told them the address his people in an eloquent and powerful proposition he had made to his friend the “ Qua- speech, in which he told them, that "the woman ke-lee;" on hearing which they began to move whom they had so cautiously condemned the around, and converse among themselves, and a evening before, by some means unknown to them number of them being painted, and having more all, had disappeared ; and though the most dilior less arms about them, they began indeed to gent search had been made, no trace of her could present a hostile and formidable appearance. yet be found ; that if his friend, the Quaker,
The Friend, who with the rest of his company had sent her to the white people for protection had been standing as silent spectators, now ad- and they, the Chiefs, did not pardon and recall dressed them through his interpreter, with a re- her, it would indeed be a lasting disgrace to their markably composed and dispassionate manner nation; and that if their friends the Quakers
, and countenance, informing them that he had should' for this reason finally break up the miscome with his friends Wi-os-se-coh and Sim-met- sion, that had been begun and thus far carried on ta, to intercede for the life of the woman whom entirely for their (the Indian’s) benefit, to whom
) they had condemned to die; but seeing they ap- then should they look for help?” peared determined to pursue their own course, This able and very excellent address, of which he felt resigned and prepared to offer himself in the above few sentences constitute but a small
part, delivered as it was, in feeling, affectionate again moved, with his family, to “Friends' Esand impressive language, truly wrought out a tablishment,” five miles south of Wapagh konetta, desirable and most satisfactory result ; so that for the purpose of resuming the school which had after a short discussion among themselves, those been previously dismissed by the Committee, counsellors, I believe to a man, (except the be- partly in consequence of the unsettled situation fore named “ Prophet,” who about this time, of the Indians. left them in disgust,) came forward and cheer- Soon after the school was put in operation, his fully offered their hands in token of friendship; old and tried friend, the Indian Agent, called to and then unitedly, as with the voice of one man, see him. They spent several hours very agreesolemnly promised, that if the Friend would re-ably together, freely conversing on various substore the woman to her people, she should be jects connected with Indian affairs. In the course protected by them; and then called on their old of this interesting interview, the Friend refriend the blacksmith, to witness the covenant marked, “ that he found many of the Indians they had made; and he assenting, told them, still in a very unsettled condition, and desirous " that he should not only stand as a witness to to sell their lands, and move over the Mississippi; this, but also as surety for the faithful perfor- that, in consequence of this, he had resumed the mance on the part of his friend the Quaker. The school and his labors among them, under much Friend and his companion, (Captain Wolf going discouragement; that it appeared to him while with them), now returned to his anxious family, they were in this situation little permanent good relieved indeed of a burden which, for near could be done them; and should they ere long twenty-four hours, had borne with impressive be removed to the far west, and located among weight upon him; but now bearing the glad ti- the wild tribes of the wilderness, it seemed to dings to them, that the woman was pardoned and him that the labors of Friends would soon be enhis own life spared. In company with the in- tirely lost." terpreter he soon repaired to the chamber where The writer of this article being then present, the woman still quietly lay, and briefly told her still vividly remembers the glow of countenance, what had been effected in her behalf; on hearing and animated language and manner, of that exwhich, she burst into tears, and exclaimed in cellent man, the agent, when he replied nearly as broken English, “they will kil-lee me, they follows: will kil-lee me."
“For your encouragement, Friend I feel After a suitable pause the Friend admitted bound to tell you the honest conviction of my own Captain Wolf to the chamber, who told her in a mind; that if the labors of the Friends have done pleasant and affable manner “to be no longer no other good, the simple fact, that by your indoubting, but to believe what had been told her.” dividual exertion and faithfulness in saving the He then in his own language and with his native life of Polly Butler,* you have so completely eloquence, narrated to her all that had transpired, broken up the heathenish practice that once exnot only in the councils of the Chiefs, but also isted, of frequently putting some of their people between himself and their mutual friend the to death on the charge of witchcraft, is sufficient
Quaker," and labored much to assure her of to reward for all the labor and money spent. the truth that she was pardoned.
For,” continued he, “I have never heard of an Notwithstanding all this, the poor woman re- instance of one of them being put to death on a mained in the family some time, and for several similar charge since that memorable time.” days was afraid to be seen by her people; but 6th month, 1852.
s. she afterwards returned to her own house, where
The foregoing narrative being submitted to J. she lived unmolested several years, and then, as was believed by her friends, died a natural death. Johnston, he returned the reply contained in the
APPENDIX. The warmest friendship, closest attachment and nearest intimacy, between the Friend and the Shawanoese nation, the principal subject in the
“Polly Butler, charged with being a witch, in this excellent Chief, Captain Wolf, subsisted for several years, or during the lifetime of the latter; preceding narrative, and who was saved from a
violent death by the timely, firm, and persevering he never permitted the Chiefs to decide upon any efforts of Isaac Harvey, then in charge of the important question without first consulting his Friends" Mission at Wapaghkonetta, Ohio, was
' friend, the Quaker.
The writer often heard the Friend speak with the daughter of General Richard Butler, by a manifest emotions of humility and gratitude, of the same union, and he became a distinguished
Shawanoese woman. A son also was the offspring testifying, “that if Divine power had not inter
and war among
the Shawanoese; did; and if the Everlasting Arm had not been being in authority during the whole of my agency underneath to support, he should certainly have over this nation, a period of almost thirty years.
General Butler was an Indian trader before the fallen by the way.
This little narrative be properly closed with the relation of a fact inti- Revolutionary war, spoke the language of the na
tives, and, as was customary
of those mately connected with it.
In the autumn of 1825, this devoted Friend The English name of the before-mentioned woman.
pursuits, took an Indian wife. His son and in them. Time has ever been considered as modaughter bore a striking resemblance to the ney; and surely this was never more truly the Butler family, many of whom I knew in early life. case than at the present moment, when electric
The General was second in command in the telegraphs, high-pressure locomotives, and imarmy of St. Clair, and was killed on the 4th of proved screws are doing all that electricity, steam, November, 1791, in battle with the combined and iron can do, to annihilate space and bring Indians of the North-west, on the ground on distant places together. In thus looking, howwhich Fort Recovery was afterwards built, dis- ever, to shortening the voyage to and from the tant from Greenville fourteen miles.
other side of the globe, no new and costly me. Witchcraft was universally believed in by all chanical appliances are needed; no novel power the Indian tribes.—The foregoing narrative is, is thought of; not a new rope is required; not an substantially true.
extra square yard of canvas is asked for; all that Formerly Agent for Indian Affairs in the is needed is a thorough knowledge of the winds
North-west, and U. S. Commissioner." at sea, so that the navigator may, by avoiding Dayton, Ohio, October 17, 1853.
such of them as are adverse to him, make use only of those which are in his favor.
In so far as this practical matter-of-fact end is
arrived at, the man of the world will, of course, In a former number of this work we gave a feel warmly interested in the inquiry. But the short account of the new science of Submarine sympathies of the student of science are not less Geography, by means of which it has been shown enlisted on the same side; for he will by such that the great undulatory beds of the oceans may means gather together many new and beautiful be as accurately mapped for all practical purposes facts, serving to illustrate the economy of nature of navigation, as are the mountains and valleys of in some of her grandest operations. Without a our own dry earth. In that paper we dwelt upon doubt it will be through a knowledge of the world the deep-sea soundings which had been carried of winds, that we shall arrive at an understandon by the Government of the United States, and ing of many
phenomena at present but guessed of some of the more immediate results of the at. The course and duration of the air-currents knowledge thus acquired.
will explain the fertility or sterility of many large Current-charts and maps of the hills and val-tracts of country. The direction of the winds will leys of Old Ocean formed but one portion of the go far to account for the luxuriant growth of parlabors of our persevering brethren across the At- ticular plants in particular localities. The winds lantic. A most important feature in their scien- will be found to be the great ministers of good tific proceedings was so to track the winds met throughout the surface of this globe, carrying on with in the navigation of the highways of the their invisible wings precious gifts yielded up by seas, as to be able to lay down with tolerable ac
ocean to fertilize and beautify the earth in far discuracy a complete chart of the various currents tant places; and by a still wider and higher inof the atmosphere in every part of the world, at fuence, so to equalize the ever-recurring disturball times of the year: in short, to construct a ances of temperature, moisture, and electricity, as huge Air Map.
to fit the world for the life and health of the many The proceedings of the American government species-animal and vegetable-which exist upon since that paper was printed, may be learned by its varied face. what transpired at a public meeting convened a “Fickle as the wind" is not an inapt adage short time ago, in the Merchants’ Room at Lloyd's, when applied to the local character of the winds. for the purpose of receiving a communication from But looking at the general course of the air-curLieutenant Maury, of the United States Navy, in rents over the ocean, if we follow the reference to the co-operation of British com- roads which stretch'across the deep, we shall see manders with those of America in carrying on a that, so far from possessing any features of instaseries of atmospheric observations.
bility, the circulation of the atmosphere about us Already a knowledge of the hitherto unnoticed is fully as regular and well-defined, as are the movariable winds has enabled navigators to shorten tions of the earth itself, and the other great their voyages to some parts of the world by fully bodies of our system. In fact, the winds are : one-third of the usual time, and in a few instances part of that wondrous and beautiful whole which to one-half. In speaking of the growing import- was called forth when “He measured the waters ance of our intercourse with the Australian colo- in the hollow of his hand, and comprehended the nies, Lieutenant Maury expressed his belief, that dust in a measure, and weighed the mountains in in a very few years the run to and from Austra- scales and the hills in a balance.” Long before lia from this country, would be accomplished by modern science had told us anything concerning ordinarily good sailing vessels in one hundred and atmospheric phenomena, an inspired writer proforty days, instead of, as at present, one hundred mulgated the whole system—"The wind goeth and eighty to two hundred days. It is not, there towards the south, and turneth about unto the fore, to be wondered at, that ship-owners, mer- north; it whirleth about continually, and the chants, and mariners should take a deep interest wind returneth again according to his circuits."
This passage really indicates what has been pass-minute particles of organic matter must have been ing in the world of winds since earth was created. lifted from the surface of the earth, not during a The aberrations of air currents upon land are but rainy season, but at a period when everything in the eddies and offsets of the great atmospheric the vegetable kingdom was parched and dry, and tides, caused by geological irregularities, just as consequently in a fit condition for being carried we find dead water and whirlpools amidst the aloft and whirled through the upper realms of air largest rivers.
on the wings of the wind.—Household Words. The winds must no longer be regarded as types
(To be continued.) of instability, but rather as ancient and faithful chroniclers; we have but to consult them intelli
THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. gently to gather from them great natural truths. The New York Evening Post contains some
In order to learn the course of ocean currents, interesting facts and figures in relation to the investigators have long been in the habit of cast- Sandwich Islands. They are situated between ing into the sea bottles, labelled and marked, so the 19th and 220 degrees of north latitude, on a that on these being found cast ashore at remote direct line from San Francisco to Hong Kong, places, their course might be made known to the being 2,260 miles from the former place, 5,000 world. What man does with the waters, nature from the latter. Their aggregate area is about accomplishes, unasked, with the air. She strangely 6,100 square miles, and their native population places tallies and marks upon the wings of the is thus estimated : wind in certain parts of the globe, by which the Hawaii, 20,000; Oahu, 18,000; Niani, philosophers in a distant country may recognize 18,000; Kania, 5,000; Molokai, 2,500 ; Nühau, the same wind, and so trace it in its path over 700; Lanai, 300. Total, 64,500. ocean and over land.
In 1819, it was estimated at 80,000; but it The sirocco, or African dust, which, in spring is rapidly decreasing, and will probably become and autumn, has long been observed falling in extinct. The majority of foreign residents in the the vicinity of the Cape de Verdes, Malta, Genoa, Islands are American, and the prevailing influLyons, and the Tyrol, was believed to have been ences are American. The Islands can be of little brought from the great sandy deserts of Africa importance to any other nation—they must beby the prevailing winds coming from that quar- come of great importance to the United States. ter, and the theory appeared plausible enough. From all accounts, the general opinion of their Men of science were, however, not content to take people is in favor of annexation, and the prethis supposition as it stood, and, thanks to recent sumption is, that nothing but the consent of our improvements in the construction of microscopes, Government is wanting to consummate the meaone persevering philosopher, Ehrenberg, has been sure. The Intelligencer and some other Con
. enabled to ascertain the precise nature, and, conservative prints are alarmed at the prospect, but sequently, the original source of this supposed we cannot see what there is in the measure at African dust. His examinations have demon- all mischievous. They wonder how they are to strated that this rain-dust does not belong to the be governed. Shall they be admitted as a Termineral, but to the vegetable kingdom : that it ritory, or a State, or a Colony? As a Territory, consists not of earthy particles finely divided, but doubtless, until their population and condition of minute infusoria and organisms whose habitat shall enable them to ask recognition as a State. is not Africa, but South America, and that, too, We have several smaller States than they would in the region of the south-west trade-winds. The constitute. For example, Rhode Island has an professor was not content with examining one area of only 1,120 square miles; Delaware, 2,200; specimen; he compared the rain-dust” gathered Connecticut, 4,829. Even Massachusetts conat the Cape de Verdes with that collected at Ge- tains but 8,500, and New Jersey only 7,490. noa, Lyons, and Malta; and so closely did the We do not see why a Territorial Government all resemble each other, that they might have would not work just as well in them as in Orebeen pronounced as taken from one spot. Nay, gon. One is about as accessible as the other. A more than this, one species of infusoria, the cuno- steamer would bring a Territorial delegate from tia amphyoris, has often been found in this dust the Islands to San Francisco about as soon as with its green ovaries, and therefore capable of from Oregon.--National Era. life. That this dust could not have come from Africa is evident from its hue, which is red, or cinnainon color, whereas the sands from the great The best start that can be given to a child, is African deserts are all white or grayish. to put bim in a way to earn his own living. Let
Carrying this inquiry still further we shall, by him have a faithful training at some good trade its means, arrive at a key to the entire system of or honest profession. Let him know how bread atmospheric currents. We have said that the tastes that has been earned by bis own sweat. rain-dust falls in the spring and autumn: the Such bread will taste sweet, and he will know its actual time has been at periods of thirty or forty value. Men should earn their living, and then days after the vernal and autumnal equinoxes. they should enjoy it. It is injustice to themIt requires no argument to demonstrate that these selves, when they have earned it, not to use all
THE HEIGHT OF FOLLY.