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with our fellow-atom; and here we find, by some, winds, one against the other, causes them to asagency not yet understood, that we are travelling cend, and once more crossing the belt of calms, southwards in the upper regions of the atmo- they make their way still in their onward course; sphere, and not along the surface of the world, the northern particle, with which we will suppose until we reach about the parallel of thirty north ourselves still in company, taking an upper course, latitude, in the vicinity of the Canary islands. until, arrived at the zone of Capricorn, between Here we meet with a similar supposed particle, twenty and thirty degrees of south latitude, it entravelling also in the upper atmosphere the re-counters the southerly breezes, and this time deturn journey towards the pole. The two adverse scending, comes out at the lower surface on the particles press against each other with their en opposite side of the calın region, and makes its tire force, and, being of equal power, produce an way to the south pole as a surface wind. equilibrium or accumulation of dead air. This is ing the polar regions obliquely, it is pressed the calm belt of Cancer.
against by similar particles coming from every From under this belt or bank of calms, two meridian; and as it approaches the higher lati. surface currents of wind are ejected, one towards tudes, having less space to move in, it flies along the equator, and, from the cause already assigned, more rapidly and more obliquely, until it, with taking a south-westerly course as the north-east all the rest, is whirled about the pole in a conwind; the other towards the pole, as the south- tinued circular gale. At last, reaching the great west passage wind. These winds coming out, as polar vortex, pressed up on every side, it is carthey do, at the lower surface of this calm region, ried upwards to the regions of atmosphere above, must come from above by means of downward whence it commences again its circuit, and jourcurrents, just as we may suppose a vessel of water neys back to the north as an upper current, thus filled from the top by two streams flowing in from fulfilling its allotted task of turning about unto opposite directions, and flowing out from two the north. It now passes back over the same openings below in contrary channels. In support space; but this time its path is altered : where it of this downward theory of the air, we find the was before an upper current, it is now a surface testimony of Humboldt, who tells us, (as others wind, and vice versa. do,) that in this calm region the barometer stands
[Conclusion next week.] higher than it does to the north or south of it.
Not the least interesting feature of this journey of the winds, is the fact, that the currents of air thus forced out from the lower surface of this
MORTALITY. calm belt, are not those which were previously So the multitude goes-like the flower and the weed, travelling in the contrary direction: the wind That wither away to let others succeed; from the pole does not sink down and return So the multitude comes-even those we behold,
To repeat every tale that hath often been told. northwards as a surface wind; it has yet a long journey before it—a journey given it to perform We are the same things that our fathers have been, by infinite wisdom for wise and beneficent pur- We drink the same stream, and we feel the same sun,
We see the same sights that our fathers have seen; poses. It has yet to go towards the south before
And we run the same course that our fathers have it turneth about unto the north. The particle of air in company with which we have travelled thus far, makes its way by some mysterious agency
The thoughts we are thinking our fathers would think;
From the death we are shrinking from, they too believed to be electrical, and indeed all but
would shrink; proved to be so by Faraday's recent discoveries- To the life we are clinging to, they too would clingacross this calm zone, but at the same time down. But it speeds from the earth like a bird on the wing. wards, and appears on the surface going southerly as the North-east Trade Wind. It cannot pass
They loved--but their story we cannot unfold;
They scorned—but the heart of the haughty is cold; along in the upper air, for there is another simi- They grieved—but no wail from their slumbers may lar particle wending its way back to the pole, having performed the allotted circúit which this They joyed—but the voice of their gladness is dumb. one, fresh from the north, is about to make. As the North-east Trade, our particle journeys
They died--ay, they died ! and we things that are now,
Who walk on the turf that lies over their brow, until near the equator, where it encounters a simi- who walk in their dwellings, a transient abode, lar particle at the South-east Trade. Here, at this Meet the changes they met on their pilgrimage road. place of the equatorial meeting, there is another conflict
, and another calm region, as all those who Yea, hope and despondence, and pleasure and pain, have made a voyage to the south know full well. And the smile and the tear, and the song and the dirge,
Are mingled together like sunshine and rain; The consequence of this encounter of the two
Still follow each other like surge upon surge. typical particles is similar to that which took place in the calm belt of Cancer, but is brought about 'Tis the wink of an eye, 'tis the draught of a breath,
From the blossom of health to the paleness of death, The great heat of the sun near the equator,
From the gilded saloon to the bier and the shroud
Oh why should the spirit of mortals be proud ! presence of the two conflicting |
a different manner.
added to the
SUMMARY OF NEWS.
and cities, except Obispa, which wished him to be FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE.-The British mail
declared perpetual Diciator. steamship Asia, from Liverpool on the 3d inst., ar
The piratical expedition, which has been noticed rived at New York on the 151h.
as preparing in California, sailed thence in the
Caroline on the 17th of the 101h month, and proRUSSIA AND TURKEY.Omar Pasha, after leaving ceeded to La Paz, in Lower California. The town garrisons in the different fortresses on the right was captured, the Governor taken prisoner, the bank of the river, has marched the bulk of his Mexican flag in front of the Governor's house was troops back to the quarters which they occupied hauled down, and ihat of the marauders substituted. before crossing the Danube. The Turks had, how. They then proclaimed Lower California an indepen. ever, formed an intrenched camp for eight thousand dent Republic, and their leader, Capt. Walker, was men between Kalafat and Krajova.
chosen President. They afterwards proceeded to The continued heavy rains along the whole of Cape St. Lucas, and after remaining in that place the Lower Danube had rendered military operations one day, embarked for Magdalena Bay. Their on an extensive scale impossible, and no battle further proceedings are unknown. equal in importance to thai of Oltenitza, had since taken place. Skirmishes, however, continually Aspinwall, arrived at New York on the morning of
CALIFORNIA.-The steamship George Law, from took place between small parties, frequently at the 12th inst., bringing the California mail of the tended by much loss on both sides.
Hostilities have commenced on the Black Sea. 16th ult., 464 passengers and $887,666 in gold. The Russian frigate Waldimir has been captured by has been formed at San Francisco, for the establish
A private company, with a capital of $10,000,000, a Turkish steamer, and, on the other hand, an ment of steam communication with China. Egyptian steamer of ten guns has been taken, after a desperate resistance, by a Russian ship.
Mayor Garrison bas sent in a message to the The combined English and French fleels remained of San Francisco, which is but little short of
Common Council, on the funded and floating debt at their anchorage.
In Asia the Turks continued to be successful. $2,000,000. The estimated expenditures for the They have not only successfully defended the Fori coming year are $897,000. The city is to be lighted St. Nicholas, but have captured the important for
with gas on the 1st prox. tress of Usurghette and Soukumaleh.
Domestic. Congress.- In the Senate, on the The Russian reserve corps were moving from 131h, Serator Hunter reporied a bill providing, that Bessarabia to Wallachia.
hereafter all money appropriated for the pay and Much importance is attached to the position that mileage of Senators shall be drawn from the Treamay be assumed by Servia, where Russian intrigue sury by the Secretary of the Senate, and be by him is actively at work.
disbursed as directed by the Senate; the Secretary The French govornnuent is said to have received of the Senate hereafter to be considered a disbursing the answer of the Emperor of Russia to the last of officer of the Government, and to give an annual the pacific propositions made by Austria. The Czar bond of $20,000, and to receive for his services as declares that he cannot accept of any project of ar- such $1000 annually. The bill was considered and rangement that does not issue directly from Turkey, passed. and that henceforth the late of arms must decide the Senator Bright, from the Finance Committee, requestion.
ported a Bill prescribing the manner of the appointENGLAND.-- There was a heavy decline in the ment of the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, Liverpool Grain Market. Wheat had declined 3d to making the appointment by the President and se4d per quarter, and flour two shillings per barrel. nale. The bill was read a third time and passed.
A number of other bills were read and referred. The Cotton Market remained unchanged.
On the 14th Senator Dodge, of lowa, brought in FRANCE.-The Emperor of Russia has sold out a bill for the organization of the territory of Ne. his shares in the French funds.
braska ; which was read twice and referred. The Duchess of Orleans declares that she does Senator Sumner submitted a resolution, which not recognise the late fusion of the Bourbons, but was agreed to, instructing the Committee on the maintains her own and her son's claims to the Judiciary to consider the expediency of providing throne inviolate.
for the appointment of a Commissioner to revise and The cholera was making progress in Paris. simplify the Statutes of the United States.
Withia the last eight days, the price of grain, in On the 15th Senator Seward gave notice of a bill most of the departments, has experienced a decline for the early construction of the Pacific railroad, of 1f 50c per hectolitre.
The President's Message was divided and referred Italy.—At Milan, the most unheard of precau- to the appropriate committees. tions are taken by the Austrians lo guard against a In the House of Representatives, on the 14th, supposed conspiracy. Guards were doubled in most Boyce offered a resolution, that in view of the of the streets, and their posts are defended by large and increasing surplus in the Treasury, the stockades. The officers' box in the Theatre is fenced duties on imported goods shall be so reduced as to off from the others, and no one is admitted at the raise only so much revenue as may be necessary for door of the house without exhibiting a passport or the economical administration of ihe government. carta di securrezza. Every dwelling house must be closed at midnight, under penalty of arrest and fine retary of the Treasury to pay for codilying and re
The Senate's joint resolution, anthor zirg the Secof the inhabitants.
vising the revenue laws, was referred to ihe ComMexico.-Intelligence from Mexico has been re- mittee of the Whole on the state of the Union. ceived at New Orleans, informing ihat Santa Anna On the 15th, the Homestead bill was reported has been proclaimed Dictator for a period of ten back to the House from the Committee on Agriculyears, with the consent of all the principal Stars' ture.
F FRIENDS' REVIEW.
A RELIGIOUS, LITERARY AND MISCELLANEOUS JOURNAL.
PHILADELPHIA, TWELFTH MONTII 31, 1853.
EDITED BY ENOCH LEWIS.
which exist in the body of the people, and di
recting it to one object--the general good—that PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY SAMUEL RHOADS, nations become strong; and we are sure, with No. 50 North Fourth Street,
thy enlightened mind, it is not necessary for us PHILADELPHIA.
to dwell on the happy effects produced by a free Price two dollars per annum, PAYABLE IN ADVANCE, I tries in which it is enjoyed.”
toleration, in matters of religion, in those counor six copies for ten dollars.
Postage on this paper, when paid quarterly or yearly In the interview which they had with the in advance, 13 cents per annum in Pennsylvania and 26 king, on presenting the address from which the cents per annum in other States.
above is extracted, William Allen remarks, that
“The king told us a great deal about the state SOME ACCOUNT OF THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF of Norway, and what he had done for that counTHE SOCIETY OF FRIENDS IN NORWAY. try, regretting that there were some things in (Continued from page 227.7
their old constitution which were very hurtful ; Early in the year 1815, the meeting for suf- he said the peasants were not represented in ferings in London was seriously occupied with their government, &c. . . . . We spoke of the the consideration of how far it could beneficially Friends in Norway, and he told us that the afinterfere in bringing the suffering case of Friends fair of marriage had been before the council, and in Norway before their own government. It was it was concluded that, provided it was performed understood, that the propriety of granting a after the manner of Friends, and registered, it larger degree of toleration, was occupying the should be lawful, and that he would protect, not mind of the king of Sweden and Norway; and only the Friends there at present, but those who that of some other persons of influence in those might join them in future.” countries. The late king had been visited by “ He said, 'Your Friends cannot avenge themWilliam Allen and Stephen Grellett, in the year selves; all that their principles permit is, if 1818, when, in the address which they prepared possible to parry the blows which may be aimed and presented to him, they say, "We are deeply at them; but they cannot, otherwise, defend convinced that in proportion as the benign spirit themselves; they, therefore, have a double claim of the Gospel is submitted to, in the hearts of to protection ;' and this, he assured me, they men universally, it will lead to order, to subordi- should have." nation, and to peace in the earth; for, proceed- Entertaining a strong persuasion that the going from the source of infinite love, it produces vernment was very favorably disposed, and that nothing but good-will towards the whole human the subject of granting greater liberty to Dissentfamily; it teaches charity for those who differers was to be brought before the Storthing or from us; and, accordingly, the true church has Parliament which was to assemble at Christiania, been under persecution, at times, from the earli- in 1845, in the first month, the meeting for sufest ages, but has never persecuted.
ferings proceeded to prepare a full and strong, We have been particularly gratified in being but respectful memorial on behalf of the Friends informed of thy disposition to grant liberty of of Stavanger and other parts of Norway. The conscience and indulgence to religious scruples; points adverted to in it were, for as every man must give account of himself The free liberty of public worship, of marunto God; he is bound to perform worship in the riage, a reference to water baptism, exemption manner which he is convinced, in his own mind, froin oaths, and relief in the case of ecclesiastical is most acceptable in the Divine sight; and we demands. take the liberty to solicit thy kind protection of
of Friends in Norway, abiding faithful in their lives and conduct, give proof that their only ob- made willing to suffer for the testimonies given from the religion of the country, yet, by their allegiances to God and to this Christ, and" being towarl God and toward men. trating all the talent and all the good feeling' blessing, of obtaining greater liberty of conscience
It is by concen- ness and wisdom, was a means, under the Divine
for the people generally. The following resolu- | stated its birth-day, sex, and name, with the tion of the Storthing, held at Christiania, and names of its parents. Dissenters who belong to confirmed by the king, is a remarkable proof of a regular congregation, have, besides, within
three months, under the same penalty, to inform "Law relating to those who profess themselves of their own priest or elder, as well of births and
the Christian Religion, without being members deaths, as of marriages entered into. of the State Church.
"S. 6. Marriage between Dissenters becomes, “ Palace of Stockholm, 16th July, 1845.
by operation of the civil law alone, thus esta
blished : that an instrument (or document) be “We, Oscar, by the grace of God King of drawn out before a public notary, in the place Sweden and Norway, of the Goths and Venders. where the man or woman concerned resides,
"Make known, That the resolution of the wherein they declare themselves married people. Storthing, now regularly assembled, of the 4th Before such can be granted, the above-named of June of the present year, has been laid before officer has to demand the same legal proofs as us, of the following tenor:
those the priest requires in a contract of mar“S. 1. Dissenters, or such as profess themselves riage in the State church ; yet no publication of of the Christian religion, without being members bans is required, nor any proof of baptism, or of of the State Church, have free public exercise having received the Lord's Supper. The public of religion, within the bounds of law and pro- notary has, within eight days, to give notice of priety, and may form congregations under the the marriage entered into to the curate of the directions of their own priests or elders. place where the married couple take up their
“S. 2. The priests or elders, named in the abode. In accordance with the above cited regupreceding section, shall, before they are acknow-lation, no marriage, or any other act in use on ledged in such character, satisfy the civil magis- entering into marriage, is to be held or made, trate of the place that they are accepted for (or under pain of fine, before the marriage is conapproved of) by a certain community, and, be tracted in the before cited manner. sides, deliver in a written oath or affirmation to “S. 7. Marriage, between a Lutheran and the same magistrate, (see section 10,) to the ef- a Dissenter, is established by marrying in the fect that they, in their office, will act according State church; in which case, however, proof of to the laws of the State, and be faithful to truth the Dissenter's baptism, and his having received and duty; in which respect, they are subjected the Lord's Supper, is not required. to similar guarantees as the officers of the State. “S. 8. Children of married people, one of They have to keep the registers, which are pre-whom belongs to the State church, are considered scribed by the king, with exactness, and which as belonging to it, unless the parents make an are to be exhibited when called for, for the in- express declaration to the contrary. Children spection of the magistrates. At the expiration of married people, who are both Dissenters
, are of each year, they have to send to the magistrate regarded as not belonging to the State church, a list of the members of the congregation, and unless the parents make an express declaration the marriages, births and deaths, which have thereof. In the event of the parents living sepataken place in the course of the year. They are rate, or of their death, the person taking charge further obliged to give certificates, and commu- of the education of the children is to deliver a nicate to the magistrate explanations concerning valid declaration in this respect. their congregations, in like manner with the “S. 9. Children who are not to be educated priests of the State church.
in the Lutheran religion, may, if desired, be es"S. 3. Such as belong to Dissenting congre- empted from the instruction in it in the public gations (or churches) are exempted from other schools. But the director of the school, in taxes to the State church and its officers, than every case, is to see that the instruction of the tithes, and contributions or imposts attached to children, in regard to religion, is not neglected. the property whereof they may be in possession. “S. 10. They whose religious profession per
“S.-4. Before any building is used by a Dis- mits not of oaths, under any form, shall, in those senting congregation for Divine service, the civil cases where an oath is required, deliver a promise magistrate of the place must be informed. Di- or affirmation in the manner the king may detervine service may not be held with locked doors. mine, which shall be esteemed as valid as if an For transgression of any of the regulations, the oath were taken by them. They whose religious priest, the elder, or he who has spoken (or lec- profession does not admit of their taking an oath tured) in the meeting, is to be punished. in the form prescribed for members of the State
“5. 5. Dissenters, whether they belong to a church, shall take it in such form as the king regular congregation or not, have to announce may determine. the births and deaths to the curate of the place, “S. 11. Summonses or offices in the State within a month after they have happened, under church may not be given to dissenters. a fine of five specie dollars for every week that “S. 12. The taxes (or contributions) paid to the announcement afterwards may be delayed. the guardians of the poor, to schools, or other In the announcement of a child's birth, shall be public institutions, in connexion with certain ec
clesiastical acts, are to be participated in by Dis-, 15; the rescript of the 6th September, 1690, senters, in those cases where these ecclesiastical concerning professors of other religions; the reacts would have been performed for them, had script of the 7th of September, 1736; the rethey been members of the State church. If the scripts of 5th March and 2d April, 1745, rechurch or its officers receive any part in such lating to separatists; privileges of the 15th May, contributions, Dissenters are exempted from pay- 1747 ; ordinance of 19th September, 1766; proing this part.
clamation of 230 December, 1771; assent of 31st S. 13. The regulations of the State church, January, 1772, concerning marriages with those concerning rest and cessation from work on Sun- of the Reformed religion ; and royal resolution days and its holidays, are also binding for Dis- of 6th March, (circular of 27th March), 1813 ; senters.
also the regulations concerning professors of “S. 14. If the Dissenters do not use the other (or strange) religions, contained in the church-yards belonging to the State church, they church ritual of 25th July, 1085, chap, 9, is are, however, subject both to the orders of police abolished. (for salubrity) respecting burials, and the further “ Finally are abolished the Norwegian lawrs, determination of the chief magistrate, with re-6, 1, 1 to 6, and the order of police of October spect to the choice of the place of burial. 22, 1701; 2d post, cap. 1, so far as the therein
“S. 15. In general, no one is acknowledged contained resolutions are in opposition to this as having left the State church, before he, having law.
, attained the age of nineteen years, has personally
“ And we have accepted and affirmed, as we appeared before the priest concerned, and an- hereby do accept and affirm, this resolution as nounced his leaving it, for insertion in the minis- law. terial book. How far, in some cases, exception
“Given at the palace of Stockholm, the 16th as to age, or postponement of confirmation, may of July, 1845. Under our hand and the seal of take place, is to be decided by the king.
“Oscar.” “S. 16. When a Dissenter will go over to the
(To be continued.) State church, he must apply to a minister. If he be not baptized, he must go through the cere
THE ARTS BEFORE THE FLOOD. mony, according to the appointment of the ritual The period referred to in the heading of this for the baptism of adults. In the contrary case, paper is so remote in the historical existence of it is sufficient that the person concerned satisfy the globe, and the records that have descended the priest, in conjunction with two assistants of to this time are so scanty and so brief, that it the parish and another clergyman, that he has a would be unreasonable to expect that much could satisfactory knowledge of the doctrine of the be gathered now, relative to the arts before the State church; and that their witness hereof, as Flood. The early portion of the holy Scriptures well as the concerned party's declaration, that is the only trustworthy source of information he will go over to the State church, be entered open to us; all that tradition can legitimately do in the ministerial book.
is to corroborate. From that source we learn “S. 17. Every one who seeks by inducements that the antediluvians had not simply discovered opposed to general good order; by promises of useful inventions, but had even entered the dotemporal advantage; by fraudulent means; or main of the fine arts. While they cultivated the by threats, to bring over any one from one reli- soil for their support, and built cities for their gious profession to another, is, so far as the ac- accommodation and comfort, they had the sweet tion does not involve any higher punishment, to strains of music, instrumental as well as vocal, to be punished with fine; and in case of repetition, relieve their leisure, and cheer their solitary with imprisonment and fine.
hours. “S. 18. As far as no exception is made, either In preparing this article, we have drawn freely in the regulations of the fundamental law, or in on a work by Dr. Kitto—a gentleman whose the present law, the different Christian profes- name, as a writer on biblical themes, is celebrasions of faith involve no difference in duties or ted over the Christian world. The “Pictorial rights, whereof, for an example, it is a conse- Bible," a work published several years since, met quence, that, on the one side, no religious pro- with a very favorable reception, and commanded fession can exempt from military service; and an extensive sale. The “Cyclopedia of Biblical on the other hand, the regulations which 'make Literature,” (Adam and Charles Black, Edin
or any other rights depend- burgh,) an invaluable book to students, followed, ent upon baptism, shall not be to the prejudice and we believe was also successful. A couple of of those Dissenters, by whom the rite of baptism years ago Dr. Kitto projected a series of volumes, in general, and the Christening of children in several of which have been published by Messrs
. “S. 19. By the present law is abolished, that general character, but cast in a more popular
Oliphant & Son, Edinburgh, possessing the same of
on the free exercise of religion out of duction of his former works-it is entirely new, established worship; the same statutes
, 2, 18, and is a most valuable addition to our sacred lit
partieular, is not acknowledged.